Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Online ISSN : 1881-784X
Print ISSN : 1881-7831
Volume 7 , Issue 5
Showing 1-7 articles out of 7 articles from the selected issue
Reviews
Brief Report
  • Guishi Zhao, Shanren Li, Yuanyuan Wang, Huilin Hao, Yuemao Shen, Chunh ...
    2013 Volume 7 Issue 5 Pages 185-188
    Published: October 31, 2013
    Released: June 13, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Genome sequence analysis of Streptomyces sp. LZ35 has revealed a large number of secondary metabolite pathways, including a complete gene cluster for the biosynthesis of cyclooctatin. This cluster contains four genes, cotB1–4, located in a 5-kb region. Optimization of fermentation medium for LZ35Δheng (SR107) led to the identification of cyclooctatin (1) and 16,17-dihydroxycyclooctatin (2), a new diterpene. The structures of these substances were elucidated on the basis of 1D-, 2D-NMR, and HRESIMS data. Cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-231 and A549 cell lines was also evaluated. Results demonstrated that gene cluster and pathway analysis are key to guided isolation of new natural products.
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Original Articles
  • Juliann Nzembi Makau, Ken Watanabe, Nobuyuki Kobayashi
    2013 Volume 7 Issue 5 Pages 189-195
    Published: October 31, 2013
    Released: June 13, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Influenza virus infection is a major public health problem that leads to significant morbidity and mortality. The emergence of resistance to the currently available anti-influenza agents has necessitated the development of new drugs with novel targets. Studying known ethno-medicinal plants is a promising approach for the discovery of new antiviral compounds. Alchemilla mollis is used in traditional medicine in Europe for different indications, including minimizing the symptoms of a sore throat. In this study, we found that A. mollis extract has anti-influenza activity, and investigated the mechanism underlying its inhibition of influenza virus replication. Plaque assays demonstrated that treatment of cells with A. mollis extract prior to infection did not inhibit influenza virus infection. However, plaque formation was markedly reduced when infected cells were overlaid with an agarose gel containing A. mollis extract. In addition, exposure of the virus to A. mollis extract prior to infection and treatment of cells during virus infection significantly suppressed plaque formation. Influenza virus-induced hemagglutination of chicken red blood cells was inhibited by A. mollis extract treatment. The inhibitory effect was observed against influenza A virus subtypes H1N1, H3N2, and H5N2. These findings suggest that A. mollis extract has virucidal or neutralizing activity against influenza virus particles. Furthermore, inhibitory effect of zanamivir synergistically increased after combination with A. mollis extract. Our results suggest that A. mollis extract has the potential to be developed as an anti-influenza agent.
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  • Catanzaro R., Zerbinati N., Solimene U., Celep G., Marotta F., Kushugu ...
    2013 Volume 7 Issue 5 Pages 196-200
    Published: October 31, 2013
    Released: June 13, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The aim of this study was to test for a potential anticarcinogenic effect of Celergen, a marine derivative devoid of traceable amounts of inorganic arsenic, on cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and apoptosis in the HepG2 human liver cancer cell line. Celergen significantly inhibited the proliferation of cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner while limiting the cell cycle progression at the G1 phase and significantly inducing apoptosis. Further examination showed that Celergen enhanced expression of the p21CIPl1WAF1, GADD153 genes and downregulated the c-myc gene. These results suggest that Celergen exerts promising chemopreventive properties to be further investigated.
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  • Toshiya Yamaguchi, Naoko Nakajima, Iwao Nakamura, Hiroko Mashiba, Taka ...
    2013 Volume 7 Issue 5 Pages 201-208
    Published: October 31, 2013
    Released: June 13, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We conducted an in vivo study to evaluate the anticancer effect and toxicity of finepowder cisplatin suspended in lipiodol (fCDDP/LPD suspension) after a single administration of three different doses to rats via the intrahepatic artery after transplantation of rat ascites hepatoma cells. The toxicity of the fCDDP/LPD suspension was also assessed in the same protocol in noncancer-bearing rats and the observed toxicologic changes were compared among groups administered saline (Sal), an aqueous solution of fCDDP (fCDDP/Sal solution), and LPD alone. In parallel with the toxicity test, plasma CDDP concentrations were compared between the fCDDP/LPD suspension and fCDDP/Sal solution. The mean weight of the tumors in the fCDDP/LPD suspension groups was significantly less than in the LPD-alone group. The pathologic changes in the liver observed in the fCDDP/LPD suspension group increased with dose, were more marked compared with those in the fCDDP/Sal solution and LPD-alone groups, and were reversible. No other toxicologic effects were observed. The concentration of CDDP in the plasma in the fCDDP/LPD suspension group was slightly lower than that in the fCDDP/Sal solution group. In conclusion, the results indicate that the fCDDP/LPD suspension has sufficient anticancer efficacy and tolerability for use in the clinical treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.
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Commentary
  • Lin Mei, Lingzhong Xu
    2013 Volume 7 Issue 5 Pages 209-211
    Published: October 31, 2013
    Released: June 13, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A doctor was murdered at Wenling First People's Hospital in Zhejiang, China on October 25, 2013. During the incident, a patient assaulted three doctors, resulting in the death of one of the doctors. This incident has led to a heated discussion about the unhealthy doctor-patient relationship in China. There are complex reasons for the strained doctor-patient relationship in China, but one aspect that helped lead to this situation is the opacity of medical treatment. Research has shown that implementation of clinical pathways reduces the variability of clinical practice and improves outcomes. Standardized clinical pathways can provide a standard for evaluation of the rationality of treatment and also suggest a recommended treatment, potentially reducing the opacity of medical treatment in China. However, the standardized clinical pathways that are currently in use in China still need to be improved. The implementation of clinical pathways needs to be increased, those pathways need to be formulated in detail, a supervisory body needs to be established, and the public needs to be better informed. These aspects should be studied further.
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