We aimed to investigate the association between anaphylaxis and anti-influenza drug use using the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report (JADER) database, a national spontaneous reporting database in Japan. We surveyed registered cases from the JADER database between April 2004 and November 2019. The target drugs were five anti-influenza drugs, namely oseltamivir, zanamivir, peramivir, laninamivir, and baloxavir. Adverse events associated with anaphylaxis, "anaphylactic reaction," "anaphylactic shock," "anaphylactoid reaction," and "anaphylactoid shock," were evaluated. The association between anaphylaxis and anti-influenza drug use was assessed by calculating the reporting odds ratio (ROR) and information component (IC) as a measure of disproportionality. Signals were considered positive if the lower limit of the 95% confidence interval (CI) of ROR was > 1, and that of IC was > 0. The number of anaphylaxis cases associated with anti-influenza drug use was 199 (0.9%). Signals were detected for inhaled laninamivir (ROR: 4.24 [95% CI: 3.06-5.88], IC: 1.83 [1.35-2.30]), intravenous peramivir (ROR: 2.97 [2.11-4.17], IC: 1.40 [0.90-1.89]), and oral baloxavir (ROR: 3.05 [2.22-4.18], IC: 1.44 [0.98-1.90]). Conversely, signals were not detected for oral oseltamivir or inhaled zanamivir. Although zanamivir and laninamivir were used as dry powder inhalers containing lactose as an additive, they differed in terms of signal detection. Our analysis indicated that the signal of anaphylaxis may varies based on the main component or dosage form of each anti-influenza drug. Appropriate use of these drugs is essential to prevent anaphylaxis and improve health status.
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