Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a rare variety of head and neck cancers. The risk factors include three major causes: genetic factors, viral infection, and environmental and dietary factors. The types of NPC show strong ethnic and geographic variations. The keratinizing and non-keratinizing types are prevalent in the lower incidence regions like North America and Europe; whereas the undifferentiated type is mostly found in the regions with higher incidences like China, North Africa, Arctic, and Nagaland of North-East India. These suggest a possible major role of the internal genetic factors for generation and promotion of this disease. Viral infections might accelerate the process of carcinogenesis by helping in cellular proliferation and loss of apoptosis. Diet and other environmental factors promote these neoplastic processes and further progression of the disease occurs.
Clove oil ethanolic solution (CL-EtOH) have always been used for fish anesthesia. However, ethanol causes major side effect of fish hypersensivity. In this study, clove oil loaded nanoemulsion (CLN) was developed in order to enhance water miscibility of clove oil without using ethanol in the preparations. The obtained CLN was characterized in terms of droplet size, size distribution expressed as polydispersity index (PDI), and zeta potential. The anesthetic effect of CLN in comparison with CL-EtOH on Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia) was investigated. The results showed that the best CLN was composed of 20% w/w clove oil and 15% w/w polysorbate 20. This CLN has internal droplet size of 63.2 ± 1.0 nm, PDI of 0.31 ± 0.04, and zeta potential of – 30.3 ± 8.1 mV. GC-MS analysis indicated that eugenol was the main compound in clove oil. It was found that the induction time to anesthesia for Nile tilapia that received this CLN was shorter than that received CL-EtOH at the same eugenol concentration. The results of this study showed the potential of nanoemulsion on water miscible and efficacy enhancing of clove oil without using ethanol. The obtained CLN from this study is a promising formulation for fish aquaculture where fish sedation is required.
Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia) is one widely cultured fish in Thailand. Handling processes and transportation causes high stress in Nile tilapia. This study explores anesthetic effect and stress reduction of Alpinia galanga oil (AGO) on Nile tilapia. The anesthetic activity was evaluated by the time for fish induction to anesthesia and full recovery. It was found that the suitable dose of AGO that caused desirable anesthesia of Nile tilapia was 700 mg/L. This dose gave induction and recovery times of approximately 257 and 438 sec, respectively. Blood glucose and plasma cortisol of the fish anesthetized with AGO showed nearly normal levels indicating that the fish stress during handling was not increased. Study on loading densities of fish mimicked general fish transportation and showed that loading density of fish was a crucial factor on fish stress. The highest water quality was found in the lowest loading density of fish. Water containing AGO at a concentration of 150 mg/L showed significantly higher potential for reducing fish activity and water improvement than without AGO. Therefore, AGO is a promising natural edible plant oil for anesthesia in Nile tilapia.
This study investigated the role of the T-786C polymorphism (SNP) in the 5'-flanking sequence of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (eNOS) on its expression level in vascular endothelium with the ultimate goal of shedding more light on the mechanisms by which genetic variations of eNOS might affect the vascular level of nitric oxide (NO). Sequences in the 5'-flanking region of eNOS gene were PCR-amplified using genomic DNA templates isolated from blood samples collected from cardiovascular disease (CVD) patients. Two sequence-versions carrying the same SNP site were used; a short (345 bp) and an extended one (1,594 bp), numbered relative to the translational start site. All sequences were cloned into a promoter-less vector (pGL3-basic), which carries the firefly luciferase gene as a reporter. Genotyping of the T-786C polymorphism was performed using Sanger sequencing of the insert region. Luminescence levels were then recorded 24-48 h after transfecting human endothelial cell line (EA.hy926). Three genotypes were identified in the subject samples; TT, TC, or CC. The highest expression levels associated with the TT genotype, followed by the TC genotype, then the CC genotype. The extended sequence version produced higher expression levels compared to the shorter version. Our results provide evidence that the T allele at the T-786C SNP site of the eNOS gene results in increased expression of the enzyme, and consequently might provide a protective mechanism from CVD. The extended promoter sequence of eNOS resulted in higher expression of the gene, suggesting the presence of some essential binding sites for transcription enhancing proteins.
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a life-threatening disease. Warfarin and acenocoumarol are anticoagulants used to treat DVT and vary among individuals in terms of treatment response/toxicity. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CYP2C9 and VKORC1 play a role in the pharmacokinetics and dynamics of warfarin and acenocoumarol and they determine the efficacy of treatment by controlling drug clearance in treated individuals. The aim of the current study was to genotype the critical SNPs of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genes in a south Indian population in order to understand the metabolizer phenotype of patients with DVT. CYP2C9 (rs1799853, rs1057910, rs1057909, rs28371686) and VKORC1 (rs9923231) SNPs were genotyped in 124 cases of DVT. Genomic regions of these SNPs from genomic DNA were amplified with PCR and directly sequenced using Sanger sequencing except for the SNP rs1799853, which was detected using Sau96I restriction endonuclease-based digestion of variant alleles. Among south Indian patients with DVT, 6.5% (8/124) had the rs1799853 SNP of CYP2C9 and 11% (14/124) had the rs1057910 SNP while 16% (20/124) had the rs9923231 SNP of VKORC1 which were associated with the response to warfarin treatment. None of the patients tested positive for poor drug metabolizing genotypes of the CYP2C9 gene and only 1.6% of the south Indian population was sensitive to warfarin treatment. Genotyping results suggest that a relatively greater amount of the therapeutic drug is required to achieve/maintain the international normalized ratio (INR) in south Indian patients with DVT.
We have reported that 3a,4,5,9b-tetrahydro-4-(1-naphthalenyl)-3H-cyclopentan[c]quinoline-8-sulfonamide (TQS), α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) positive allosteric modulator (PAM) reduces lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hyperalgesia and allodynia in mice. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of TQS on LPS-induced activation of hippocampal inhibitor of κB (IκB) and cluster of differentiation 11b (CD11b) gene expression involving hyperalgesia and allodynia in mice. We also examined the effects of TQS on microglial phenotype following LPS administration. Pretreatment of TQS (4 mg/kg) reduced the expressions of IκB and CD11b mRNA. Pretreatment of methyllycaconitine (3 mg/kg), an α7 nAChR antagonist, reversed TQS-induced decrease in IκB and CD11b mRNA expressions in the hippocampus indicating the involvement of α7 nAChR. In addition, TQS (4 mg/kg) reversed the LPS-induced microglial morphological changes. These results suggest that TQS reduces LPS-induced IκB and CD11b gene expression and microglial activation associated with hyperalgesia and allodynia by targeting microglial α7 nAChR in the hippocampus.
Sushi repeat-containing protein X-linked 2 (SRPX2) is a newly identified chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan that is markedly elevated in multiple solid tumors. It is also suggested that SRPX2 is associated with angiogenesis. A conditioned medium of SRPX2 overexpressing colorectal cancer (CRC) cells and SRPX2 recombinant protein was used to evaluate the effect of secretory SRPX2 on the angiogenesis ability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the involved molecular mechanisms. It was revealed that the activity of SRPX2 is dependent on the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor and cooperation of the integrin αvβ3 co-receptor. Subsequent studies showed that both PI3K/Akt and Ras/MAPK pathways and phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase is involved in the intracellular signaling pathway of SRPX2/uPAR. This study suggests that SRPX2 promotes angiogenesis of HUVECs through the cooperation of the uPAR and integrin/FAK pathway.
Macrolides have anti-inflammatory effects and have been used to treat diffuse panbronchiolitis, bronchiectasis, and cystic fibrosis. Lately, several cases of cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) and radiotherapy-related organizing pneumonia (OP) that were successfully treated with macrolides considering their anti-inflammatory effects were reported. We report three cases of OP associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) successfully treated with clarithromycin (CAM) and prednisolone (PSL). Case 1: A 70-year-old woman suffering from RA was admitted with cough and severe dyspnea. She was diagnosed with OP associated with RA on the basis of computed tomography (CT) findings and transbronchial lung biopsy results. She was successfully treated with PSL and cyclosporine A. At the exacerbation of OP, she was successfully treated with CAM and PSL. Case 2: A 74-year-old man suffering from COP visited our department with arthralgia and articular swellings. He was diagnosed with RA, which was thought to be associated with OP. He was successfully treated with CAM and PSL. Case 3: A 54-year-old man suffering from RA presented with an exacerbation of arthralgia and articular swellings and cough. He was diagnosed with OP associated with RA on the basis of CT findings. He was successfully treated with CAM and PSL. The present cases suggest that CAM and PSL treatment may be effective in some cases of OP associated with RA.
Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is an inflammatory rheumatic disease in the elderly. Glucocorticoids (GCs) remain the mainstay of treatment. GC therapy usually dramatically improves the clinical picture, but approximately one-third of patients experience disease recurrence when the dose is reduced. Moreover, long-term use of GCs causes adverse reactions. Macrolide antibiotics have anti-inflammatory action. Several recent studies have reported the successful treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and PMR treated using clarithromycin (CAM), a macrolide, because of its anti-inflammatory action. Tacrolimus (TAC) has been indicated as a treatment for RA in patients who failed to respond to methotrexate. Recently, a case of RA was successfully treated using CAM and TAC according to one report. Reported here are two cases of PMR treated using CAM and/or TAC. Case 1: A 73-year-old man suffering from PMR was successfully treated with prednisolone (PSL) and CAM. Because his muscle pain disappeared, CAM was discontinued. However, the pain returned after that discontinuation, so CAM was successfully administered again. Case 2: An 83-year-old man suffering from PMR was successfully treated with PSL and CAM. Because muscle pain disappeared, the CAM dosage was halved. The pain returned after the dosage was reduced, so the CAM dosage was successfully resumed and the PSL dosage was reduced. When the PSL dosage was reduced, muscle pain recurred. Because the PSL and CAM dosages were not successfully increased, TAC was also administered and was found to be effective at treating muscle pain. These two cases suggest that CAM and/or TAC are effective at treating PMR.
Non-arteritic posterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NA-PION) is a disorder of reduced blood flow to the retrobulbar optic nerve. There is usually an acute loss of visual acuity and field. Previous studies have noted an improvement in visual acuity and in ocular and retrobulbar blood flow with the use of a potent vasodilator of the microcirculation, prostaglandin E1 (PGE1), and steroids. The current report describes immediate improvement in the visual fields and visual acuity in a patient with NA-PION treated with intravenous PGE1 and steroids 66 hours after onset. An 89-year-old white female was first seen in December 2016 with a sudden loss of vision in the right eye. After a complete eye exam and visual fields, the patient was diagnosed with NA-PION. Treatment was immediately started with steroids and intravenous PGE1. This was repeated once again the next morning. Visual acuity in the right eye improved from 1/10 + 1 to 7/10 + 3 at 5 days. The mean deviation of the visual field improved from – 7.10 decibels (dB) with a central scotoma of – 22 dB to – 2.97 dB with a central scotoma of – 19 dB. After 2 weeks, her visual acuity was 7/10 + 1 and visual field testing of the right eye revealed a mean deviation of – 2.54 dB with a central scotoma of – 9 dB. The left eye was unchanged. In cases of NA-PION, PGE1 and steroids should be considered to immediately restore blood flow to help improve visual acuity and visual fields.