There are trillions of microorganisms in the human intestine. They can react to the intestinal microenvironment by metabolizing food or producing small molecular compounds to affect the host's digestive ability and resist the risk of infection and autoimmune diseases. Many studies have revealed that intestinal flora and its metabolites play an important role in human physiology and the development of diseases. Urolithins are kind of intestinal microbiota metabolites of ellagitannins (ETs) and ellagic acid (EA) with potent biological activity in vivo. However, different individuals have different intestinal flora. According to the different metabolites from ETs and EA, it is divided into three metabo-types including UM-A, UM-B and UM-0. This paper reviews the origin of urolithins, the urolithin producing microorganisms and the effects of urolithins on regulating intestinal diseases. This review will provide a theoretical basis for the regulation of urolithins in the homeostasis of intestinal flora and a reference for the scientific utilization of urolithins and foods rich in ETs and EA.
Various herbal medicines with hemostatic properties have been applied for centuries to accelerate hemostasis and control bleeding. However, the mechanisms of action and active constituents remain unknown. This report provides an overview of current clinical hemostatic agents and their disadvantages, then focuses on the clinical value of Chinese herbal medicines with unique hemostatic features that modern medicines lack. A comprehensive review of hemostatic agents derived from Chinese herbal medicines and their potential medical applications is also presented.
This study examined college students' perceptions of the association between smoking and novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), changes in smoking behavior, and interest in quitting categorized by smoking device, to identify public health challenges. A questionnaire survey was conducted among 8,547 students in a Japanese university in March and April 2021. In response to "Awareness of the increased risk of COVID-19 infection due to smoking and the tendency to develop severe disease", current smokers (70.2%) were more aware of the risk than non-smokers (49.8%) (p < 0.001), with no significant difference according to smoking device (p = 0.213). "Interest in quitting smoking" (p = 0.323), and "Changes in smoking behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic" (p = 0.146) did not differ by smoking device. However, approximately 50% of the respondents answered that they were not interested in quitting smoking, while two-thirds reported that the number of cigarettes they smoked did not change during the pandemic. During the COVID-19 pandemic, college students were found to be less interested in quitting and not likely to change their smoking behavior, despite the knowledge of the increased risk of COVID-19 transmission and severity of disease from smoking, regardless of smoking device.
Although sotrovimab, one of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) neutralizing antibodies has been shown to be effective in patients with mild-to-moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with risk factors, their efficacy in mRNA COVID-19 vaccinated patients in omicron era is unknown. To evaluate the effectiveness of sotrovimab clinical data from both COVID-19 vaccinated and unvaccinated patients who were hospitalized and receiving sotrovimab at the Japanese Red Cross Medical Center were compared. The efficacy and adverse events were evaluated. Of the total 60 patients enrolled in this study, 45 had received the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine and 15 were unvaccinated. The clinical progression with low nasal cannula or face mask was not significantly different between groups (occurring in one patient in each group; p = 0.44), with no further progression in both groups. The duration of hospitalization was eight days for both groups (p = 0.90). Two patients in each group experienced adverse events (7%, p = 0.26). The results suggested that the efficacy and safety of sotrovimab against mild-to-moderate COVID-19 with risk factors in the omicron era might not be different regardless of the vaccination status. The results of the present study are encouraging; however, further randomized clinical studies are needed.
Despite the widespread use of peripheral intravenous catheters, unscheduled catheter failure before completion of treatment occurs frequently. If a large vein is selected, catheter failures may be prevented despite administering a highly irritant drug. In this study, we attempted to use a catheter that can be placed in a large upper arm vein. The new catheter was 88 mm long but had no guidewire to reduce contamination risk. This study aimed to evaluate the safety of the first-in-human trial for the new catheter with the administration of highly irritant drugs. This study was conducted at a university hospital in Tokyo, Japan. Eight Japanese adults were hospitalized adults with planned administration of non-cancer drugs with high irritant potential using a peripheral catheter. A trained nurse catheterized with the new catheter in the upper arm using ultrasonography. The catheterization site was monitored by staff and a research nurse once every 24 hours for up to 7 days. No adverse events or catheter failure occurred and the catheter placement success rate was 100%. In two patients, a temporary occlusion alarm of the infusion pump occurred, possibly due to the flexion of the catheter base. The new peripheral intravenous catheter did not interrupt medical treatments as is common after placement, but safety administered the irritant drugs. However, because this catheter may be easily affected by the contraction of the muscle at the fixation position, the position and method of catheter fixation in the upper arm need to be carefully considered.
The general anticoagulant evaluation requires high expense equipment, reagents, and space. Therefore, not all laboratories can perform research related to anticoagulant. In this study, we propose a novel simple method "in vitro thrombus-growth model" that can evaluate anticoagulant ability by measuring weight. The in vitro thrombus-growth model is prepared by creating a "growth-clot" with citrate plasma, calcium chloride, and thrombin, and then pouring new citrate plasma onto it. The prepared growth-clots were increased in volume in citrated human plasma, including surpluses calcium chloride, which was released slowly, leading to clot coagulation around the plasma. As a result of evaluating the anticoagulant ability of direct thrombin inhibitor using this in vitro thrombus-growth model, it was confirmed that clot growth was suppressed in a concentration-dependent manner. Therefore, this thrombus-growth model is useful as a primary anticoagulant test that can to discover compounds with anticoagulant activity perform in any laboratory.
The Omicron variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has a high rate of transmission and it exhibits immune escape characteristics. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) is a precursor of reduced glutathione (GSH), which can enter cells to play an antioxidant role, so it is better than glutathione. Patients tolerate NAC well, and adverse reactions are rare and mild, so this type of drug with multiple actions is considered to be a mucolytic agent as well as a drug for the prevention/treatment of various diseases, including COVID-19. Previous studies indicated that the clinical effectiveness of NAC is dose-dependent. Low-dose NAC (0.2 g tid for adults) is a mucolytic expectorant, high-dose NAC (0.6 g bid or tid) has expectorant action as well as antioxidant action, and extreme-dose NAC (300 mg/kg.d) is used for detoxification in cases of an acetaminophen overdose. Presumably, orally administered high-dose NAC (0.6 g tid for adults and 10 mg/kg tid for children) could be used as an adjuvant to treat an Omicron infection. It should reduce the time to negative conversion and prevent severe COVID-19, reducing the duration of hospitalization and increasing the bed turnover rate.
We investigated adverse events in patients with prosthetic joint infections receiving combination therapy with linezolid, rifampicin, and clindamycin for ≥ 7 days. Twenty-two patients were evaluated. The combination therapy was administered for 15.5 (7–29) days at dosages of 1200, 450, and 450–1200 mg/day for linezolid, rifampicin, and clindamycin, respectively. Adverse events (gastrointestinal, eye, and skin disorders; liver damage; myelosuppression; hyponatremia, and others) were recorded. The incidence rates of leukopenia, neutropenia, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and hyponatremia were 36.4%, 31.8%, 40.9%, 18.2%, and 18.2%, respectively. Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 5.0 Grade 3 neutropenia, anemia, and hyponatremia were observed. The incidence rate of myelosuppression was higher following combination therapy compared with that previously reported following single-drug administration. All patients were discharged after the infection was under control. It is important to monitor these adverse events during combination therapy with the aforementioned agents; these conditions may be relieved by discontinuing linezolid.
Osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) and neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) lead to severe neurological sequalae. Though currently thought to be different syndromes, literature suggests a relation between the two. We present the case of a 45-year-old male who was found to have chronic severe hyponatremia and underwent rapid correction of sodium and developed parkinsonism features. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed extrapontine myelinolysis (a type of ODS). The patient received haloperidol for agitated behavior and developed new features of rigidity, fever, tachycardia and elevated creatine phosphokinase (CPK) levels and thus neuroleptic malignant syndrome was suspected to overlap with ODS. We report this case highlighting the difficulty in differentiating the between ODS and NMS and their relationship.