This study investigated the fracture resistance of composite resins using a three-point bending test and acoustic emission (AE) analysis. Three groups of specimens (n=15) were prepared: non-reinforced BelleGlass HP composite (NRC), unidirectional (UFRC) and multidirectional (MFRC) fiber-reinforced groups which respectively incorporated unidirectional Stick and multidirectional StickNet fibers. Specimens were loaded to failure in a universal testing machine while an AE system was used to detect audible signals. Initial fracture strengths and AE amplitudes were significantly lower than those at final fracture in all groups (p<0.05). Initial fracture strength of UFRC (170.0 MPa) was significantly higher than MFRC (124.6 MPa) and NRC (87.9 MPa). Final fracture strength of UFRC (198.1 MPa) was also significantly higher than MFRC (151.0 MPa) and NRC (109.2 MPa). Initial and final fracture strengths were significantly correlated (r=0.971). It was concluded that fiber reinforcement improved the fracture resistance of composite resin materials and the monitoring of acoustic signals revealed significant information regarding the fracture process.
The aim of this study was to compare the coronal sealing ability of six different dental materials: Three MTA-based cements and three established restorative materials by in vitro dye penetration method. For in vitro infiltration experiments, seventy extracted single-rooted human teeth were used. After crowns of teeth were reduced, root canals were prepared, and filled with gutta-percha cone. Teeth were randomly divided into 6 groups with 10 teeth per group. The orifice of each tooth was prepared to 3 mm depth and filled with the following materials: (I) ProRoot WMTA; (II) EndoCem Zr; (III) Angelus White; (IV) LuxaCore; (V) Fuji II LC; and (VI) Elite. After 5,000 cycles of thermocycling between 5°C and 55°C, dye penetration of each specimen was measured. The order of less dye infiltration of coronal filling materials was: ProRoot WMTA<LuxaCore, Angelus White<EndoCem Zr<Fuji II LC<Elite (p<0.05).
A fast-setting calcium-silicate cement (Endocem) was introduced in the field of dentistry for use in vital pulp therapy. Similar to mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), it contains bismuth oxide to provide radiopacity. Recently, another product, EndocemZr, which contains zirconium oxide (ZrO2) as a radiopacifier, was developed by the same company. In this study, the biological/odontogenic effects of EndocemZr were investigated in human primary dental pulp cells (hpDPCs) in vitro and on capped rat teeth in vivo. The biocompatibility of EndocemZr was similar to that of ProRoot and Endocem on the basis of cell viability tests and cell morphological analysis. The mineralization nodule formation, expression of odontogenic-related markers, and reparative dentin formation of EndocemZr group was similar to those of other material groups. Our results suggest that EndocemZr has the potential to be used as an effective material for vital pulp therapy, similar to ProRoot and Endocem.
This in vitro study evaluated the effects of simplified ethanol-wet bonding technique on dentin bonding durability of two etchand-rinse adhesives to bovine dentin. Sixteen freshly extracted bovine incisors were divided into four groups according to bonding technique (water-wet or ethanol-wet bonding) and adhesive (Single Bond 2 or Prime & Bond NT). After etching and rinsing, dentin surfaces were left either water-moist or immersed in ethanol. Following adhesive application and composite build-up, bonded teeth were sectioned into sticks for microtensile bond strength (µTBS) testing conducted after 24-h and 12-month water storage. There were no significant differences in bond strength among the groups at 24 h. At 12 months, the bond strengths of adhesives to dentin were significantly decreased (p<0.05). Simplified ethanol-wet bonding did not improve the resin-dentin bonding durability of tested etch-and-rinse adhesives.
The aim of the study is to determine the influence of the type of bracket, on bond strength, microhardness and conversion degree (CD) of four resin orthodontic cements. Micro-tensile bond strength (µTBS) test between the bracket base and the cement was carried out on glass-hour-shaped specimens (n=20). Vickers Hardness Number (VHN) and micro-Raman spectra were recorded in situ under the bracket base. Weibull distribution, ANOVA and non-parametric test were applied for data analysis (p<0.05). The highest values of ή as well as the β Weibull parameter were obtained for metallic brackets with Transbond™ plastic brackets with the self-curing cement showing the worst performance. The CD was from 80% to 62.5%.
‘Tooth-coloured’ ProRoot MTA is an endodontic cement comprising an 80:20 wt% mixture of white Portland cement (WPC) and bismuth oxide. The setting reactions within this cement system are not currently well understood. Accordingly, this research monitors the early hydration chemistry of ProRoot MTA by X-ray diffraction, solid state nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies, and isothermal calorimetry. The initial rate of hydration is rapid with 40% having reacted within the first 24 h; it then slows considerably such that within 3 days the hydration reactions are 58% complete and only increase by a further 1% within one week. The relatively fast reaction of alite to form C-S-H gel and portlandite, and the development of the calcium aluminosulphate phases, are as would be anticipated for the hydration of pure WPC. These findings confirm that bismuth oxide is an inert additive which does not participate in the hydration reactions.
The objective of this study was to investigate the odontoblastic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) by biodegradable hydrogels incorporating simvastatin micelles, both in vitro and in vivo. Simvastatin (ST) was incorporated into the micelles of gelatin grafted with L-lactic acid oligomers (LAo) to allow water-solubilization. The simvastatin-LAo-grafted gelatin (LAo-g-gelatin) micelles were mixed with gelatin, followed by chemical crosslinking to form gelatin hydrogels (ST Mi/GH). The ST Mi were released from the gelatin hydrogel granules (GH) through enzymatic degradation. The ST Mi enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity, calcium deposition, and bone morphogenic protein-2 secretion of DPSC. When implanted subcutaneously into mice, the ST Mi/GH treated group exhibited increased dentin sialoprotein and calcium deposition, compared with those treated with GH plus free ST. It is possible to achieve odontoblastic differentiation of DPSC through the controlled release of ST from GH.
The objective of this study was to discuss the construction method, characterization, and biocompatibility of three-dimensional silk fibroin-chitosan (SF-CS) scaffolds which met the requirements of bone tissue engineering scaffolds. Silk fibroin (SF) and chitosan (CS) were mixed at different ratios —3 to 7, 5 to 5, and 7 to 3— to fabricate the composite materials. To find out the optimum mixing ratio of SF and CS, parameters such as pore size, porosity, water absorption, and the mechanical properties were evaluated. Osteoblast cells hFOB1.19 were seeded on SF-CS scaffolds and pure CS scaffolds for the first time. Cell adhesion rate, cell proliferation, and cell activity were evaluated, and cell growth and formation of mineralized nodules were observed. Results showed that SF-CS scaffolds are a suitable candidate for bone tissue engineering.
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different repair resins and surface treatments on the repair strength of a polyamide denture base material. Polyamide resin specimens were prepared and divided into nine groups according to the surface treatments and repair materials. The flexural strengths were measured with a 3-point bending test. Data were analyzed with a 2-way analysis of variance, and the post-hoc Tukey test (α=0.05). The effects of the surface treatments on the surface of the polyamide resin were examined using scanning electron microscopy. The repair resins and surface treatments significantly affected the repair strength of the polyamide denture base material (p<0.05); however, no significant differences were observed interaction between the factors (p>0.05). The flexural strength of the specimens repaired with the polyamide resin was significantly higher than that of those repaired with the heat-polymerized and autopolymerizing acrylic resins.
This study evaluated the push-out bond strength of 0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0% and 3.0% (w/w) casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP)-modified calcium silicate-based cements (CSCs). The push-out bond strength of a trial MTA was also compared with two CSCs (Biodentine™ and Angelus® MTA). Three hundred 1 mm thick horizontal root sections were prepared from 60 singlerooted human teeth. The canal space of each section was enlarged and filled with the cements. The sections were stored in a phosphate buffer solution. After incubation for 2 months, the push-out bond strength was measured and the data were analyzed using one way analysis of variance followed by Tukey’s test. The addition of CPP-ACP to the test cements increased the push-out bond strength (p<0.05). The push-out bond strength of Biodentine™ was higher than the other cements (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between Angelus® MTA and the trial MTA with most of CPP-ACP concentrations.
The aim of the study was to investigate two- and three-body wear of CAD/CAM blocks. Four composite resins, one hybrid ceramic and one feldspar ceramic block material were examined. Six specimens each were tested in a ball-on-disc wear device fitted with a zirconia ball (50 N load, 1.2 Hz, 50 k cycles) in water for two-body and in poppy seed slurry for three-body wear evaluation. Volume loss after each 10 k cycle was quantified using a digital CCD microscope. Statistical analysis: ANOVA and Tukey’s multiple comparisons (α=0.05). Two-body wear for composite resin blocks was small, hybrid ceramic and ceramic blocks showed larger volume loss. Threebody wear was very low for all materials. All CAD/CAM block materials investigated displayed low wear compared to previous data for direct posterior composites carrying out the same wear test. The block materials are considered suitable for fabrication of single full crown restorations on premolar teeth.
The mechanical properties —tensile strength, yield strength, elongation after fracture, Vickers hardness, and Young’s modulus—and the phases of Ti-Ag alloys were investigated, as prepared with 22.5, 25, 27.5, and 30 mass% Ag. The tensile strength, yield strength, hardness, and Young’s modulus of the alloys increase with their Ag content up to 25 mass%, but their breaking elongation decreases. These changes in the mechanical properties are attributed to solid-solution strengthening of the α-titanium phase, to Ti2Ag precipitation, and to the formation of eutectic structures composed of α+Ti2Ag. The addition of Ag, at 25 mass% in particular, improves the mechanical properties of these alloys, making them suitable for high strength dental prostheses, such as implantretained superstructures and narrow-diameter implants.
The aim of this study was to compare osseointegration and surface characteristics of zirconia implants made by the powder injection molding (PIM) technique against those made by the conventional milling procedure in rabbit tibiae. Surface characteristics of 2 types of implants were evaluated. Sixteen rabbits received 2 types of external hex implants with similar geometry, either machined zirconia implants or PIM zirconia implants, in the tibiae. Removal torque tests and histomorphometric analyses were performed. The roughness of the PIM zirconia implants was higher than that of machined zirconia implants. The PIM zirconia implants exhibited significantly higher bone-implant contact and removal torque values than the machined zirconia implants (p<0.001). The osseointegration of the PIM zirconia implant is promising, and PIM, using the roughened mold etching technique, can produce substantially rougher surfaces on zirconia implants.
This study evaluated and compared the sealer thickness and interfacial adaptation of bioceramic sealers (Sankin Apatite III, MTA Fillapex®, EndoSequence® BC) to root dentin against AH Plus® sealer. Sixty extracted single-root premolars were prepared and equally divided into four groups. Sealers were labeled with 0.1% Rhodamine B fluorescent dye. Roots were dissected along the transverse plane at 1 mm (apical), 3 mm (middle), and 6 mm (coronal) levels. Sealer-to-whole canal area ratio was evaluated. Percentage of gap-containing region to canal circumference was calculated using a confocal laser microscope. Sealer thickness was significantly higher at apical and middle levels than at coronal level. EndoSequence BC had the significantly highest thickness compared with MTA Fillapex and AH Plus. The coronal level had significantly less interfacial gaps compared with apical and middle levels. Bioceramic sealers showed more gaps compared with AH Plus, with no significant differences among them.
This in vitro study aimed to evaluate setting time and compressive strength of gypsum-based chitosan biomaterials and its effect on proliferation of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Pure-GYP was mixed with water (2.5 g: 1.9 mL); Gyp-CHT was prepared with gypsum, chitosan, and water (2.5 g: 0.285 g: 1.9 mL). Cell viability and ALP activity were assessed at different periods. Data were analyzed using SPSS (p<0.05). The setting times were 2.7 min and 2.8 min for pure-GYP and Gyp-CHT, respectively. Significantly higher compressive strength was observed with Gyp-CHT. SHED treatments with both materials were not cytotoxic. ALP was consistently higher in the treated groups compared with the control. Cellular attachments were evident with SEM. Excellent cellular viability with pure-GYP and Gyp-CHT, as well as increased ALP activities, suggested the possibility of tertiary dentin formation. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the biomaterials for its pulp protective potentialities.
Atmospheric-pressure cold plasma was applied to process the surface of heat-polymerized acrylic resin. Changes to the physical properties and early adherence of Candida albicans were investigated. Alternating current cold plasma with Ar/O2 as working gas was used. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were employed to study the possible mechanism. Experimental results showed that after plasma treatment, the contact angle of acrylic resin significantly decreased. There were no significant differences in roughness, flexural strength and elasticity modulus, but microhardness was significant improved in the treated group. More importantly, the early adherence of Candida albicans on the surface was reduced after plasma treatment. Cold plasma seemed to be a promising and convenient strategy of preventing the early adherence of Candida albicans on acrylic resins, which would greatly benefit potential dental applications.
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of NaOCl pretreatment on the biomechanical fixation of implant at the early healing stage of a rat model. Polished titanium cylindrical implants and disks were prepared, and one-half of these samples were dual acidetched. Then, one-half of both surfaces were chemically-cleaned by pretreatment with 5% NaOCl solution for 24 h. Morphological analyses showed that there was no significant difference between before and after NaOCl treatment. The wettability measurement demonstrated that NaOCl treatment secondarily converted both titanium surfaces from hydrophobic to superhydrophilic, accompanied by the removal of hydrocarbons from the titanium surfaces. Biomechanical push-in test indicated that the bone-titanium integration strength of the NaOCl-treated implants were significantly greater than that of the untreated implants (p<0.05). These results showed that NaOCl pretreatment enhanced the osseointegration capability of titanium, indicating its potential for a simple chemical chair-side pretreatment method.
This study aimed to assess swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) for in vitro and in vivo detection of enamel white spot lesion (WSL). WSLs without surface breakdown on 33 extracted human posterior teeth were non-invasively scanned using SSOCT. The teeth were then cross-sectioned and imaged under confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and light microscopy (LM). SS-OCT cross-sectional images were compared with CLSM and LM. WSL shapes in SS-OCT images closely corresponded to those of LM. There were significant correlations (p<0.001) in WSLs depth between SS-OCT and LM (r=0.92), SS-OCT and CLSM (r=0.80) and CLSM and LM (r=0.85). Six WSLs were also evaluated clinically using SS-OCT; clear in-depth images of these natural WSLs were obtained in vivo. SS-OCT appears to be an effective tool for observation of the internal structure of WSLs, enabling quantitative assessment of WSL depth. Such data can be considered in the clinical management of WSLs.