This review intended to provide an overview of the effects of dental materials, used in dentin-pulp complex and dental pulp regeneration, on angiogenesis processes during regenerative endodontic procedures. An electronic search was performed in PubMed and MEDLINE databases via OVID using the keywords mentioned in the PubMed and MeSH headings for English language published articles from January 2005–April 2014 that evaluated the angiogenic properties of different dental materials used in regenerative endodontic procedures. Of the articles identified in an initial search, only 40 articles met the inclusion criteria set for this review. Vital pulp therapy materials might have positive effects on angiogenesis events, while most of the canal irrigating solutions and antibiotic pastes have anti-angiogenic activity except for EDTA. Future clinical studies will be helpful in defining the mechanisms of action for dental materials that promote or inhibit angiogenesis events at applied areas.
Bioactive glass nanoparticles (BGNs) have been used over a range of dental tissue engineering. One main reason is possibly that BGNs strongly interact with hard tissues, while forming a stable interface after implantation. Recently, BGNs have been further diversified and ameliorated by incorporating bio-functional ions into BGNs or by functionally modifying the surface of BGNs. A comprehensive overview of the processes and applications of BGNs and their derivatives for the use in dentistry is thus necessary for their stepforward. Therefore, this review focuses on a variety of processes and practical applications of BGNs and their derivatives, which is expected to aid readerships with understanding and employing BGNs and their derivatives for personalized dental treatments.
This study aimed to determine the antimicrobial efficacy of NaOCl, cetrimide, and Glycyrrhiza glabra L. extract against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms on dentine discs. Broth microdilution method was used to determine minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of the agents. A biofilm susceptibility assay was performed using E. faecalis biofilms grown on dentine discs. Minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of NaOCl (0.5%), cetrimide (0.015%), and G. glabra L. extract (0.25%) were applied for 1, 3, and 5 min, and the mean viable cell counts were recorded and statistically analyzed. There was no significant difference between cetrimide and NaOCl at 1 min (p>0.05). NaOCl was the most effective agent at 3 and 5 min (p<0.05) while G. glabra L. extract was the least (p<0.05). The MBCs of NaOCl, cetrimide, and G. glabra that eliminated the planktonic E. faecalis did not eradicate the biofilms grown on dentin discs.
The aim was to investigate dentin bond strength of two resin-ceramic materials and five cements after 24 h and six months storage. Cylinders (n=15/group) of Lava Ultimate (3M ESPE) and VITA ENAMIC (VITA Zahnfabrik) were cemented to mid-coronal dentin of 300 extracted human molars with RelyX Ultimate (3M ESPE), PANAVIA F2.0 (Kuraray), Variolink II (Ivoclar Vivadent), els cem (Saremco Dental), or Ketac Cem Plus (3M ESPE). Shear bond strength (SBS) was measured after 24 h or six months storage (37°C, 100% humidity) and statistically analyzed (significance level: α=0.05). SBS varied markedly between Lava Ultimate and VITA ENAMIC, between the five cements, and between storage of either 24 h or six months. After six months, SBS was highest when Lava Ultimate was cemented with RelyX Ultimate and when VITA ENAMIC was cemented with RelyX Ultimate or with Variolink II. Lava Ultimate was somewhat more sensitive to storage than was VITA ENAMIC.
The aim of the present study was to compare the antimicrobial effect of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 2% chlorhexidine (CHX), a CHX/cetrimide solution (CHX+CTR), octenidine hydrochloride (OCT) and Salvia officinalis plant extract against Enterococcus faecalis. Seventy decoronated single-rooted human teeth were infected and divided into 6 test (n=10) and 2 control groups (n=5) (negative, sterile samples and positive, infected samples). Following irrigants were then applied to test groups: 2.5% NaOCl, 5.25% NaOCl, CHX, CHX+CTR, S. officinalis extract and OCT. The dentin chips were obtained from inner root canal walls and analyzed by counting the number of colony forming units (CFU). The 2.5% NaOCl, 5.25% NaOCl, CHX and OCT groups presented no bacterial growth (CFU=0). S. officinalis and CHX+CTR groups reduced the number of E. faecalis cells but could not eliminate all. OCT may have potential as an endodontic irrigant in treatment of infected root canals.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of ultrasonic and manual placement techniques on the push-out bond strength of Biodentine and MTA with and without calcium chloride. One hundred and twenty mid-root slices from forty freshly extracted single-rooted human mandibular premolar teeth were instrumented and randomly divided into six groups (n=20) according to the filling material and placement technique applied, as follows: G1: MTA-manual compaction, G2: Biodentine-manual compaction, G3: MTA+5% CaCl2-manual compaction, G4: MTA-ultrasonic activation, G5: Biodentine-ultrasonic activation, G6: MTA+5% CaCl2-ultrasonic activation. The push-out bond strengths were measured using an Instron testing machine. Data were analyzed using twoway analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Bonferroni correction. The ultrasonic activation significantly enhanced the bond strength values of the materials. Biodentine presented higher bond strength values than that of MTA groups. The addition of CaCl2 to MTA did not improve the bond strength of the material.
This study aims to investigate the mechanical properties, composition and surface preparation for adhesive bonding of the recently introduced zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate (ZLS) glass-ceramic. One single block of ZLS was used to prepare the specimens (n=14). The fracture toughness (Ft) and the Vickers hardness (HV) were measured on specimens partially crystallized (PCs) (n=4) and fully crystallized (FCs) at 840°C for 8 min (n=4). The surface treatment was done using hydrofluoric-acid gel (HF) at different concentrations and times of action on FCs specimens (n=4). SEM-EDX was used to test elemental composition and crystalline phases (n=2). The new ZLS glass-ceramic showed significantly higher values of HV and Ft for FCs, PCs showed a brittle behavior. The surface etching should be made using HF at 4.9% for 20 s.
To assess the effect of resin infiltration vs. fluoride varnish in enhancing enamel surface conditions after interproximal reduction (IPR). After IPR procedures, 84 human enamel specimens were divided into three groups, group A/ group B was treated by fluoride varnish/resin infiltration according to the manufacturers’ instructions, group C were treated with nothing. All the specimens were pH-cycled twice daily in 37°C bath for 30 days. Surface micro-hardness, density and mineral loss were measured before and after the pH cycling. The data were analyzed and compared using ANOVA. Both treatments A and B increased the surface microhardness of enamel after IPR (p<0.05). Both before and after pH cycling, the surface microhardness of A was significantly harder than B. The density of A was higher than B before pH cycling (p<0.05). Fluoride varnish and resin infiltration may provide an enamel protection from acid challenge.
This study assessed the cell viability of the inoculation vehicle of BACCOR (a combination of sulfate-reducing bacteria plus a culture media for bacteria), a biopharmaceutical product under development for dental use as aid in fractured endodontic file removal from the root canal. Different culture media for bacteria were evaluated: modified Postgate E (MCP-E mod), Modified Postgate E without Agar-agar (MCP-E w/Ag), Postgate C with Agar-agar (MCP-C Ag) and Postgate C without Agar-agar (MCP-C w/Ag). Cytotoxicity was quantified by the MTT test, exposing L929 and Vero cell lines to the vehicles over 24 h. The exposure of L929 cell line to MCP-E w/Ag resulted in biocompatibility (52% cell viability), while the exposure of the Vero kidney line revealed only MCP-E mod as cytotoxic. When diluted, all the vehicles showed biocompatibility with both cell lines. MCP-E w/Ag was the vehicle chosen for BACCOR, because of its biocompatibility with the cells used.
Root caries is developed because of demineralization followed by enzymatic collagen degradation. This in vitro study aimed to examine the inhibitory efficacy of ZnF2 on dentin demineralization and collagen degradation. Bovine dentin specimens were treated either with ZnF2 or HCl-acidified ZnF2 (ZnF2/HCl) and then demineralized. Anti-demineralization efficacy was assessed by TMR as mineral loss (ΔZ). The efficacy was compared with silver diammine fluoride (SDF), KF, and acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF). For evaluating anti-collagen degradation, EDTA-demineralized dentin specimens were treated by one of four fluoride agents [SDF, APF, ZnF2/HCl, NaF] followed by collagenase challenge. The eroded depth of collagen layer in the lesion was assessed using optical microscope. ΔZ of SDF, KF, ZnF2/HCl, and APF were significantly lower compared with ZnF2 and Control (no treatment). Regarding anti-collagen degradation, SDF and ZnF2/HCl demonstrated a significant difference in the eroded depth compared with Control. Although SDF possessed higher efficacy, ZnF2/HCl might be beneficial as a staining-free agent.
The aim of study was to evaluate the effects of multiple firings on the microstructures of zirconia and two ceramics. Vita VM9 (VMZ) and Cerabien ZR (C-Z) ceramics on a zirconia framework and zirconia without veneering ceramic (WO-Z) were evaluated. Firing methods included firing two, five, and ten times (n=10). The effects of multiple firings on the surface hardness of the materials were evaluated using a Vickers hardness (HV) tester. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (α=0.05). After firing five and ten times, the hardness of VM-Z and C-Z increased significantly (p<0.001). The HVs of the Cerabien ZR and Vita VM9 veneering ceramics were similar (p>0.05). In the XRD analysis, zirconia had similar tetragonal (t)–monoclinic (m) phase transformations of Y-TZP after the different firing times. Clinically, multiple firings did not affect the microstructure of zirconia, but the structures of the two ceramics were affected.
This in vitro investigation compared the shear bond strength (SBS) of four dentin substitute/replacement materials to caries-affected dentin of primary teeth. Dentin surfaces were randomly divided into four groups of 12 each according to the material used as follows: SDR/Smart Dentin Replacement, Biodentine, Multicore Flow, and Fuji II LC. The SBS was measured and failure modes were determined. There was a statistically significant difference in the mean values of SBS among the four materials (F=741.523, p<0.0001). The mean values of SBS of SDR were statistically significantly higher followed by Multicore Flow compared to the other groups. The mean values of the four materials were significantly different from each other in all combinations of pairs of four materials. The SBS between the four dentin substitute/replacement materials to dentin of primary teeth was significantly different. The highest SBS was for SDR followed by Multicore Flow then Fuji II LC and the lowest was for Biodentine.
To investigate the effects of bleaching agent on microhardness, color and light transmission of different restorative materials. Specimens (n=20) of Tetric EvoCeram (TEC), Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill (TECBF) and Equia Fill (EQUIA) were treated with either 40% hydrogen peroxide Opalesence Boost or destilled water for 45 min. Specimens were stained in tea solution or stored in deionized water for one and two weeks. Color, microhardness and light transmission were monitored at the baseline, after the bleaching and after the tea immersion or storage in deionized water. After the bleaching a significant reduction in surface microhardness (p<0.001) was recorded for all materials. Clinically visible color change (ΔE>3) was observed after the bleaching and after treatment in tea solution, but only in EQUIA samples. The absorption coefficient was the largest for the samples stained in tea solution. Bleaching can affect the microhardness and color of fillings; therefore, they should be sometimes replaced.
Aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of adhesive bonding to the polymer-infiltrated ceramic VITA Enamic [VE]. Shear bond strength was measured with three resin composite cements: RelyX Unicem 2 Automix, Clearfil SA and Variolink II on polished surfaces of VE and its components silicate ceramic [SC] and polymer [PM] (n=12). Further, the effect of etching VE with 5% HF for 15–240 s and the application of silane coupling agents was analyzed in a screening test (n=6). Shear bond strength measurements were performed after 24 h of water storage at 37°C. Significant bonding to polished substrates could only be achieved on VE and SC when silane coupling agents were used. Etching of VE with 5% HF increased shear bond strength. Following silanization of etched VE, a further increase in shear bond strength could be established. Etching for more than 30 s did not improve shear bond strength.
This study investigated the exposed coronal superficial dentin of 28 human molars were immersed in strongly acidic electrolyzed water (AW group), neutral electrolyzed water (NW group), 5% sodium hypochlorite (negative control, NL group), or deionized water (positive control, DW group). Microhardness was determined at 5-min intervals for 60 min. Surface roughness, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy analyses were performed after 5 and 60 min. Reductions in microhardness were observed in the AW, NW and NL groups, with further decreases as immersion time increased. Surface roughness was also markedly greater, and the Ca/P ratio markedly decreased, in the AW group. Prolonged immersion of dentin in strongly acidic electrolyzed water markedly decreased the microhardness and Ca/P ratio and markedly increased surface roughness. Prolonged immersion can lead to greater softening effect in dentin depending on the acidity of the electrolyzed water used.
This study investigated the effect of denture cleansers on the surface roughness and Candida albicans adherence of surface sealant agent coupled denture base resins. One hundred and twenty specimens were fabricated from 2 polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) (Meliodent; Acron MC) and 1 polyamide (Deflex) denture base materials, coated with a sealant agent (Palaseal) and divided into 4 groups (n=10) according to overnight cleaning procedures: distilled water (control), 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and two different sodium perborate (Corega; Rapident). The surface roughness values were measured with a profilometer before (Ra0) and after 90 days immersion in denture cleaners (Ra1). Specimens were incubated with Candida albicans suspension and Candida colony- forming units (CFU) (Cfu/mm) were counted. Significant differences were found, between the Ra0and Ra1 values of 5% NaOCl applied Acron MC, Deflex and also Rapident applied Deflex groups (p<0.05). Denture cleaning procedures had no significant effects on the quantitiy of Candida albicans.
Present study evaluated effects of addition of Nanoparticles fluorapatite (Nano-FA) on microhardness and fluoride release of a Glass Ionomer Cement (GIC, Fuji IX GP Fast). Forty-eight specimens prepared, divided equally into 4 groups (2 with Nano-FA); after 24 h and one week Vickers microhardness (HV) was measured. Nano-FA specimens were made from addition of nano-FA to Fuji IX powder (glass powder/Nano-FA ratio=20:1 wt/wt, 3.6:1 P/L ratio). At 24 h, mean (95% CI) HV for GIC and Nano-FA GIC were 40.59 (39.51–41.66) and 46.89 (45.95–47.82) kg/mm2, and at one week 44.98 (44.23–45.72), 53.29 (52.58–53.99) kg/mm2, respectively. Findings indicated higher HV in Nano-FA specimens (F=221.088, p<0.001). Twenty-eight days weekly cumulative fluoride release in both groups was not different (p>0.05). MTT assay exhibited no inhibition of cell proliferation or reduction in metabolic activity in experimental [84.0 (3.3)] or control groups [85.1 (4.7)] with no difference between groups (p>0.05). New nano-FA GIC was biocompatible and showed improved surface hardness. Future clinical trials can verify the usefulness of Nano-FA GIC.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the sterilization effects of a newly developed low temperature multi gas plasma jet on oral pathogenic microorganisms (Streptococcus mutans [S. mutans], Lactobacillus fermentum [L. fermentum], Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans [A. actinomycetemcomitans]). Plasma gas which generated from O2, N2, Ar and 50% (O2+N2) was irradiated to the microbes. Effect of O2 plasma irradiation on S. mutans under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was also observed. O2 plasma was directly applied to dental plaque on human extracted tooth. Then, the depth of enamel resorption area was noted by nanoscale hybrid microscope. O2 had the best sterilizing effect for all microbes. The potent bactericidal effect of plasma irradiation was also observed by SEM. Decalcification of enamel was noted significantly lower in plasma irradiated tooth surface compared to no plasma exposure group. These findings revealed that multi gas plasma jet has great potential to be used for dental treatment.
October 24, 2016 Due to the maintenance of online payment system, article purchase with credit card will be unavailable as following schedule. If you may encounter the maintenance difficulties, please try again after the maintenance is completed. Thanks for your kind cooperation. Details
May 18, 2016 We have released “J-STAGE BETA site”.
May 01, 2015 Please note the "spoofing mail" that pretends to be J-STAGE.