Bioactive-glass (B-G) is a material known for its favorable biological response when in contact with surrounding fibro-osseous tissues, due not only to an osteoconductive property, but also to an osteostimulatory capacity, and superior biocompatibility for use in human body. The objectives of this paper are to review recent studies on B-G in periodontal and implant therapy, describing its basic properties and mechanism of activity as well as discoursing about state of art and future perspective of utilization. From a demonstrated clinical benefit as bone graft for the elimination of osseous defects due to periodontal disease (intrabony/furcation defects) and surgeries (alveolar ridge preservation, maxillary sinus augmentation), to a potential use for manufacturing bioactive dental implants, possibly allowing wider case selection criteria together with improved integration rates even in the more challenging osteoporotic and medically compromised patients, this biomaterial represents an important field of study with high academic, clinical and industrial importance.
Among other factors, the precision of dental impressions is an important and determining factor for the fit of dental restorations. The aim of this study was to examine the three-dimensional (3D) precision of gypsum dies made using a range of impression techniques and materials. Ten impressions of a steel canine were fabricated for each of the 24 material-method-combinations and poured with type 4 die stone. The dies were optically digitized, aligned to the CAD model of the steel canine, and 3D differences were calculated. The results were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. Depending on material and impression technique, the mean values had a range between +10.9/−10.0 µm (SD 2.8/2.3) and +16.5/−23.5 µm (SD 11.8/18.8). Qualitative analysis using colorcoded graphs showed a characteristic location of deviations for different impression techniques. Three-dimensional analysis provided a comprehensive picture of the achievable precision. Processing aspects and impression technique were of significant influence.
Staphylococci species have been isolated from removable orthodontic retainers. The aims of this study were to determine the most suitable device to analyze surface roughness of autopolymerized acrylic and thermoplastic materials and whether the surface dynamics of these materials influences the attachment of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Clinically simulated samples of autopolymerized acrylic and thermoplastic material were first evaluated using laser non-contact, stylus mechanical profilometries and atomic force microscopy (AFM) followed by contact angle measurement to characterize their surface dynamics. Finally, an in vitro biofilm assay was carried out using a constant depth film fermentor to assess biofilm attachment. The results showed a significant difference between the roughness values obtained from the tested profilometers with the AFM exhibiting the most consistent roughness values. MRSA tended to accumulate initially within the microscopic irregularities of autopolymerized acrylic samples whereas acid-base and electron donor interactions influenced the bacterial attachment onto the thermoplastic samples.
This study investigated the influence of different surface treatments on fracture load (FL) of canine crowns fabricated from two different pressable lithium-disilicate ceramics: A (HS10PC, estetic ceram, n=180) and B (IPS e.max Press, IvoclarVivadent, n=120). The standardized specimens were divided into groups of six different surface treatments and two glazing temperatures. A-group specimens were additionally assigned two glazing pastes with various thermal expansion coefficients (TEC). FL was measured and TECs were determined. Data were analyzed using three/one-way ANOVA followed by post-hoc Scheffe’s test. B showed comparable or higher FL than A (B: 503–876 N; A: 375–734 N). Lithium-disilicate crowns show higher FL when not grinded but only polished or glazed. Glazing pastes affected FL depending on their TECs, firing temperature and crown treatment. TEC of A and B was 10 ppm/K, glazing pastes for A presented TECs of 7.5 ppm/K and 10 ppm/K and for B of 9 ppm/K.
The effect of staining and vacuum sintering on optical properties and the bi-axial flexural strength of partially and fully stabilized monolithic zirconia (PSZ, FSZ) were evaluated. Disc-shaped specimens divided into three subgroups (n=15): non-stained, stained and non-stained with vacuum sintering. After staining and sintering, optical properties were evaluated using a reflection spectrophotometer and bi-axial flexural strength was tested using the piston-on-three balls technique. Statistical analysis was performed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) followed by post-hoc Tukey’s tests (p<0.05). Staining decreased translucency parameter (TP) values of FSZ (p<0.05). Sintering under vacuum enhanced TP values for PSZ (p<0.05). Staining enhanced surface gloss for both types of zirconia (p<0.05). Staining increased bi-axial flexural strength of FSZ (p<0.05), while it decreased the strength of PSZ (p<0.05). Sintering under vacuum provided minimal benefits with either type of zirconia.
In this study, we investigated the influence of light intensity on the surface-free energy and dentin bond strength of single-step selfetch adhesives. The adhesives were applied to the dentin surfaces of bovine mandibular incisors and cured with light intensities of 0 (no irradiation), 200, 400, and 600 mW/cm2. Surface-free energies were determined by measuring the contact angles of three test liquids placed on the cured adhesives. Dentin bond strengths of the specimens were also measured. Polymerization with a higher light intensity resulted in a lower surface-free energy of the cured adhesives. The greatest bond strength was achieved when a light intensity of 400 mW/cm2 or greater was used. Our data suggest that the surface-free energy and dentin bond strength of single-step self-etch adhesives are affected by light intensity of the curing unit.
The aim was to evaluate the effects of fiber-reinforced composite restorations and a bulk-fill resin composite on the fracture strength of mandibular premolars treated endodontically. Standard mesio-occluso-distal (MOD) cavities were prepared in 48 mandibular premolars. Following root canal treatment, teeth were assigned to four groups: Group 1, nano-hybrid resin composite; Group 2, polyethylene woven fiber plus nano-hybrid resin composite; Group 3, short fiber-reinforced resin composite plus nano-hybrid resin composite; and Group 4, bulk-fill resin composite plus nano-hybrid resin composite. Then, the teeth were subjected to the fracture toughness test. The data were analyzed statistically using one-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey’s post-hoc test. The fiber-reinforced groups had better results than the nano-hybrid and bulk-fill composites (p<0.05), while the bulk-fill and nano-hybrid composite restorations gave similar results (p>0.05). Fiber-reinforcement improved the fracture strength of teeth with large MOD cavities treated endodontically. Bulk-fill composites can be used reliably as well as nano-hybrid composites.
The effect of polymerization cycles on flexural properties of conventional (Vipi Cril®-VC) or microwave-processed (Vipi Wave®-VW) denture base acrylic resins was evaluated. Specimens (n=10) were submitted to the cycles: WB=65ºC for 1 h+1 h boiling water (VC cycle); M630/25=10 min at 270 W+5 min at 0 W+10 min at 360 W (VW cycle); M650/5=5 min at 650 W; M700/4=4 min at 700 W; and M550/3=3 min at 550 W. Specimens were submitted to a three-point bending test at 5 mm/min until fracture. Flexural strength (MPa) and elastic modulus (GPa) data were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA/Tukey HSD (α=0.05). Overall, VC showed higher values than VW. The results obtained with microwave polymerization did not differ from those obtained with water-bath for both acrylic resins. The results observed when polymerization cycles using medium power and shorter time were used did not differ from those when manufacturer’s recommended microwave cycle was applied. Conventional VC might be microwave-processed without compromising its flexural properties.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different finishing-polishing techniques on the color stability and surface roughness of various anterior restorative materials after staining. A composite, a compomer, and a resin-modified glass ionomer were used to prepare 120 specimens. Specimens were divided into subgroups: polishing discs, liquid polishing material, aluminium oxidebonded discs, and control. The specimens were stained in a coffee solution. Color parameters (L*a*b*) and surface roughness before and after staining were measured. The color was affected by the material type (p<0.05) and finishing-polishing systems (p<0.05). The composite showed the highest color stability; however, the color differences of all groups were visible even to the nonskilled operator. The Ra values did not significantly change after staining for any of the restorative groups (p>0.05). The finishing-polishing systems had an effect on color after storing in staining solution.
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of zirconia core thickness on the biaxial flexural strength values of zirconia-porcelain bilayered discs. A total of 60 discs with 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 mm thickness were obtained from a fully sintered zirconia block. A 1.5-mm thick layer of veneer porcelain was fired on the zirconia specimens and biaxial flexural strength tests were performed on the bilayered discs. In each group, the loading surface was the veneer porcelain in half of the specimens (core in tension) and the zirconia core surface in the other half (core in compression). The zirconia core thickness had no effect on the biaxial flexural strength of zirconiaporcelain bilayered discs when the core was in tension (p>0.05). Whereas, when the core was in compression, an increase in the zirconia core thickness resulted in an increase in the biaxial flexural strength (p<0.05).
The aim of this study was to determine the static and kinetic friction forces of the contact bracket-archwire with different dental material compositions in order to select those materials with lower resistance to sliding. We carried out sliding friction tests by means of a universal testing machine following an experimental procedure as described in ASTM D1894 standard. We determined the static and kinetic friction forces under dry and lubricating conditions using an artificial saliva solution at 36.5ºC. The bracket-archwire pairs studied were: stainless steel-stainless steel; stainless steel-glass fiber composite; stainless steel-Nitinol 60; sapphire-stainless steel; sapphire-glass fiber composite; and sapphire-Nitinol 60. The best performance is obtained for Nitinol 60 archwire sliding against a stainless steel bracket, both under dry and lubricated conditions. These results are in agreement with the low surface roughness of Nitinol 60 with respect to the glass fiber composite archwire. The results described here contribute to establishing selection criteria for materials for dental archwire-brackets.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the capability and characteristics of different nanoleakage observation methods, including light microscope (LM), field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). Dentin specimens were bonded with either an etch-and-rinse adhesive (SBMP) or a self-etch adhesive (GB), and prepared for nanoleakge evaluation according to different observation methods. LM, FESEM and CLSM results demonstrated that the SBMP group showed more interfacial nanoleakage than the GB group (p<0.05); by contrast, no significant difference was found in TEM results (p>0.05), however, TEM illustrated concrete nanoleakage forms or patterns. The results suggested that different observation methods might exhibit distinct images and a certain degree of variations in nanoleakage statistical results. Researchers should carefully design and calculate the optimum assembly in combination with qualitative and quantitative approaches to obtain objective and accurate nanoleakage evaluation.
This study evaluated the effect of adding silane coupling agent on initial and long-term bond strengths of one-step self-etch adhesives to enamel-dentin-composite in combined situation. Cervical cavities were prepared on extracted molars and filled with Clearfil AP-X. After water-storage for one-week, the filled teeth were sectioned in halves to expose enamel, dentin and composite surfaces and then enamel-dentin-composite surface was totally applied with one of adhesive treatments (Clearfil SE One, Clearfil SE One with Clearfil Porcelain Bond Activator, Beautibond Multi, Beautibond Multi with Beautibond Multi PR Plus and Scotchbond Universal). After designed period, micro-shear bond strengths (µSBSs) to each substrate were determined. For each period of water-storage, additive silane treatments significantly increased µSBS to composite (p<0.001). On the other hand, they significantly decreased µSBS to dentin (p<0.001), although did not have adverse effect on µSBS to enamel (p>0.05). Moreover, the stability of µSBS was depended on materials and substrates used.
This study investigated the surface characteristics and antibacterial ability capacity of surface-improved dental glass-ceramics by an electrical polarization process. Commercially available dental glass-ceramic materials were electrically polarized to induce surface charges in a direct current field by heating. The surface morphology, chemical composition, crystal structure, and surface free energy (SFE) were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and water droplet methods, respectively. The antibacterial capacity was assessed by a bacterial adhesion test using Streptococcus mutans. Although the surface morphology, chemical composition, and crystal structure were not affected by electrical polarization, the polar component and total SFE were enhanced. After 24 h incubation at 37ºC, bacterial adhesion to the polarized samples was inhibited. The electrical polarization method may confer antibacterial properties on prosthetic devices, such as porcelain fused to metal crowns or all ceramic restorations, without any additional bactericidal agents.
Titanium is difficult to machine because of its intrinsic properties. In a previous study, the machinability of titanium was improved by alloying with silver. This study aimed to evaluate the durability of tungsten carbide burs after the fabrication of frameworks using a Ti-20%Ag alloy and titanium with a computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing system. There was a significant difference in attrition area ratio between the two metals. Compared with titanium, the ratio of the area of attrition of machining burs was significantly lower for the experimental Ti-20%Ag alloy. The difference in the area of attrition for titanium and Ti-20%Ag became remarkable with increasing number of machining operations. The results show that the same burs can be used for a longer time with Ti-20%Ag than with pure titanium. Therefore, in terms of tool life, the machinability of the Ti-20%Ag alloy is superior to that of titanium.
In this study, we evaluated the repeatability of scans of stone models and impressions of abutment teeth using a blue LED scanner and compared the findings between different abutment teeth types. For the stone models as well as impression of the canines, premolars, and molars, we generated 10 color-difference-maps and reports for each tooth type (n=10 per tooth type). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and independent t-tests were performed to evaluate the repeatability of scans of the stone models and impressions obtained from a blue LED scanner. Our results indicate a high repeatability of scans of stone models and impressions of abutment teeth using the blue LED scanner and suggest a possible clinical advantage for scanning impressions of different abutment teeth types.
The aim of this study was to assess hard and soft tissue responses using three dental implants made of different materials. Implants made of titanium (Ti), yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (Y-TZP) and ceria partially stabilized zirconia/alumina nanocomposite (Ce-TZP/Al2O3) were used in a dog model. Five male beagles were sacrificed at three months after implantation, and harvested mandible were observed and analyzed. Histological observations were similar in all groups. There were no significant differences in any histomorphometric parameters. Our results suggested the possibility of Ce-TZP/Al2O3 as a dental implant material, similar to Ti and Y-TZP.
Preheating of dental composites improves their flowability, facilitating successful restorations. However, the flowability of dental composites is affected not only by temperature but also by the deformation conditions. In the present work, the effects of various deformation conditions upon the viscoelastic properties of a preheated dental composite were studied. The rheological properties of Z350 dental composites at 25, 45, and 60°C were measured by a strain-controlled rheometer. When a low strain (0.03%) was applied, the preheated composite exhibited greater shear storage modulus (G′) and complex viscosity (η*) than a room-temperature composite. Oppositely, when a high strain (50%) was applied, G′ and η* of a preheated composite were lower than those of a room-temperature composite. Preheating of dental composites might be helpful in clinical practice both to increase the slumping resistance when minimal manipulation is used (e.g., during the build-up of a missing cusp tip) and to increase flowability when manipulation entailing high shear strain is applied (e.g., when uncured composite resin is spread on a dentin surface).
Cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloys are used in clinical practice for the hard tissue reconstruction because of their favorable biocompatibility and mechanical properties. However, their applications have been limited because of their poor bioactivity, making them poor at bone-bonding. In this study, the bioactivity of a Co-Cr alloy was evaluated following the immobilization of cross-linked poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) onto its surface via the formation of 11-aminoundecylphosphonic acid self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). Results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the presence of a new P2p peak, which confirms SAMs formation. Furthermore, the surface became highly hydrophobic following the immobilization with γ-PGA. Subsequent treatment with CaCl2 at 0.5 M or more and soaking in a simulated body fluid led to the formation of a low crystalline apatite. The present results show that chemical modification can be used to induce the formation of an apatite layer on the surface of a Co-Cr alloy in simulated body fluid.
To confirm similarity of hard tissue compatibility between titanium and zirconium, calcification of MC3T3-E1 cells on titanium and zirconium was evaluated in this study. Mirror-polished titanium (Ti) and zirconium (Zr) disks and zirconium-sputter deposited titanium (Zr/Ti) were employed in this study. The surface of specimens were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Then, the cellular proliferation, differentiation and calcification of MC3T3-E1 cells on specimens were investigated. The surface of Zr/Ti was much smoother and cleaner than those of Ti and Zr. The proliferation of the cell was the same among three specimens, while the differentiation and calcification on Zr/Ti were faster than those on Ti and Zr. Therefore, Ti and Zr showed the identical hard tissue compatibility according to the evaluation with MC3T3-E1 cells. Sputter deposition may improve cytocompatibility.