Unsuccessfully sealed screw access channels of prosthetic implant abutments may lead to malodor or peri-implant diseases in gingival tissues adjacent to implant-supported restorations. Therefore, 72 sets of screw channel analogs with six different materials incorporated (Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), wax, gutta-percha, cavit, endofrost-pellets and cotton pellets) were exposed (2.5 h, 37°C) to Streptococcus mutans, oralis and Candida albicans suspensions. Bacterial adherence was quantified by using the fluorescence dye, Alamar Blue/resazurin, and an automated multifunctional reader. For quantification of fungal adherence the ATP-based bioluminescence approach was used. High relative fluorescence and luminescence intensities (>10,000), indicating high adhesion of streptococci and fungi were found for cotton and endofrost-pellets and low intensities (<5,000) for wax, gutta-percha, cavit and PTFE. The quantity of bacterial and fungal adhesion differed significantly between the assessed various sealing materials. In conclusion and within the limitations of this study, wax, gutta-percha, cavit and PTFE should be preferred as sealing materials.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different chemical intra-oral prosthesis cleansers on the surface properties of Parylene-C coated and non-coated polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). A total of 120 PMMA samples were prepared. Half of the samples were coated with 10 µm of Parylene-C. Samples were exposed to either air (control) or one of two types of denture cleansers, an alkaline peroxide cleanser (Steradent) or a neutral peroxide cleanser with enzyme (Poligrip). Surface roughness (Ra) and surface free energy (SFE) values were measured and compared between groups. Scanning electron microscopy was used for visual analysis. The samples coated with Parylene exhibited significantly lower mean Ra values compared to the non-coated samples (p<0.001). Immersion in Steradent increased the roughness of non-coated PMMA, but its effect was minimized on the coated surfaces. SFE increased for the samples exposed to air and Poligrip, but decreased for the samples exposed to Steradent.
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate and compare the fracture strength and failure modes of endocrowns, zirconia post, and fiber post supported restorations and predict the clinical outcomes of six different prostheses used for endodontically treated teeth. Sixty (n=10) maxillary central incisors were restored with zirconia post/resin-nano-ceramic crown (ZrRNC), fiber post/resinnano-ceramic crown (FbRNC), zirconia post/lithium disilicate ceramic crown (ZrLDS), fiber post/lithium disilicate ceramic crown (FbLDS), resin-nano-ceramic endocrown (EndoRNC), and lithium disilicate ceramic endocrown (EndoLDS). Fracture strength test was performed. Fracture loads and modes were determined. The EndoLDS group had the highest fracture strength, followed by ZrRNC and EndoRNC group. However the results were not significantly different among groups (p>0.05). The failure modes of the restorations changed according to the restorative materials. Endodontically treated anterior teeth might be restored with endocrowns as well as other post-core restorations, however tooth fracture failures should be considered that affect reliability of endocrowns.
This study examined the effect of ice-quenching after degassing on the change in hardness of a Pd-Au-Zn alloy during porcelain firing simulations. By ice-quenching after degassing, the specimens were softened due to homogenization without the need for an additional softening heat treatment. The lowered hardness by ice-quenching after degassing was recovered greatly from the first stage of porcelain firing process by controlling the cooling rate. The increase in hardness during cooling after porcelain firing was attributed to the precipitation of the f.c.t. PdZn phase containing Au, which caused severe lattice strain in the interphase boundary between the precipitates and matrix of the f.c.c. structure. The final hardness was slightly higher in the ice-quenched specimen than in the specimen cooled at stage 0 (the most effective cooling rate for alloy hardening) after degassing. This was attributed to the more active grain interior precipitation during cooling in the ice-quenched specimen after degassing.
Aim was to determine effect of pH, fluoride (F−) and hydrofluoric acid concentration (HF) on dynamic of nickel (Ni2+) and titanium (Ti4+) ions release. Nickel-titanium wires with untreated surface (NiTi), rhodium (RhNiTi) and nitride (NNiTi) coating were immersed once a week for five min in remineralizing agents, followed by immersion to artificial saliva. Ion release was recorded after 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Pearson correlations and linear regression were used for statistical analysis. Release of Ni2+ from NiTi and NNiTi wires correlated highly linearly positively with HF (r=0.948 and 0.940, respectively); for RhNiTi the correlation was lower and negative (r=−0.605; p<0.05). The prediction of Ti4+ release was significant for NiTi (r=0.797) and NNiTi (r=0.788; p<0.05) wire. Association with F− was lower; for pH it was not significant. HF predicts the release of ions from the NiTi wires better than the pH and F− of the prophylactic agents.
This study investigated the combining effect of cold plasma and bioglass-phosphoric acid paste on demineralized enamel. Fifty bovine incisors’ enamel specimens were challenged by a demineralization solution of pH 4.47 for 72 h. Specimens were divided into five groups: (I) Control, demineralized enamel (C); (II) Demineralized enamel treated with fluoride varnish (F); (III) Cold plasma application to demineralized enamel (P); (IV) Demineralized enamel treated with bioglass paste (B); (V) Application of bioglass paste to cold plasma-treated demineralized enamel (PB). Specimens were then immersed in remineralizing solution for 24 h, before being examined with micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and cross-sectional micro-hardness measurement. The results showed that; treating demineralized enamel with cold plasmas before bioglass application ensued a significant high mineral volume recovery and micro-hardness of demineralized region. It can be concluded that cold plasmas may improve the remineralization of bioglass on demineralized enamel.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different polymerization cycles on the flexural strengths and microhardness of two denture base materials (Meliodent and Paladent). Heat-polymerized acrylic resin specimens (65.0 mm long×10.0 mm wide×2.5 mm in height) were prepared using different short and long polymerization cycles. After the specimens had been polymerized, they were stored in distilled water at 37±1°C for 24 h. Flexural strength test was performed at a cross-head speed of 5 mm/min and Vickers microhardness was measured. Data were analyzed with a 1-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey test, and Student t-test (α=0.05). The flexural strengths and microhardness were significantly different between Meliodent and Paladent (p<0.05). Significant differences were found among the polymerization cycles in terms of flexural strengths and microhardness (p<0.05). Polymerization with G cycle may be suggested for Meliodent and H cycle may be suggested for Paladent.
This study aimed to investigate self-etching bonding systems penetrating in sub-surface dentin layer after Er:YAG laser irradiation and micro-shear bonding durability over a period of 1 year. Dentin slices obtained from extracted human third molars were prepared. Two self-etching adhesive systems were evaluated: Clearfil SE Bond and Clearfil Tri-S Bond. Specimens were tested for micro-shear bond strength with one of the following treatments: Er:YAG laser irradiation and 600-grit silicon paper polishing at 24 h, 7 days, 6 months and 1 year. The adhesive interfaces between bonding agents and lased cervical dentin were studied. No hybrid layer could be observed for lased dentin. The slim resin tags could be seen penetrating through the lased subsurface layer. Bond strength to lased dentin after 6 months and 1 year were significantly decreased (p<0.05).
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of surface sealant application and 10,000 thermocycles on the surface roughness and microhardness of different resin composite systems. A micro-hybrid (G Aenial Posterior), a nano-hybrid (Clearfil Majesty Posterior), a nano-fill (Filtek Ultimate Universal Restorative, Enamel Shade), and a bulk-fill resin composite (Filtek Bulk Fill Posterior Restorative) were used for the study. Specimens were evaluated at 24 h, after application of the surface sealant Fortify Plus, and after thermocycling. Data were analyzed using two-way repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a posthoc Bonferroni test (p<0.05). Surface roughness values of G Aenial Posterior and Filtek Ultimate Universal Restorative increased significantly after surface sealant application. However, neither surface sealant application nor thermocycling had a significant effect on composite microhardness values except Filtek Ultimate Universal Restorative (p>0.05).
This study aimed to evaluate the bond strength of a resin cement to yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (Y-TZPs) treated with three different phosphate functional monomers containing primers by measuring the water contact angle. Seventy Y-TZP discs were divided into seven experimental groups (n=10), including an untreated (control) group. Specimens were treated with one of the following monomers: MDP (MD), GPDM (GP), and Phenyl-P (PP). After primer application and air drying, half the treated specimens were ultrasonically cleaned in ethanol for 2 min (MD-e, GP-e, and PP-e), and contact angles were measured. The tensile bond strength test was performed after storage for 24 h in 37°C water. The contact angle on the MD-e surface (64°) was significantly higher than that on the Con, GP-e, and PP-e surfaces (51°–52°). The application of the MDP-containing primer resulted in significantly higher bond strength between Y-TZP ceramics and a resin cement.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of resin infiltration on root caries induced by Streptococcus mutans biofilms. Human premolar specimens were divided to 5 groups: negative control (NC), Clearfil SE Bond (SEB), Icon-etch120s+Icon-infiltrant (HA120), Icon-etch10s+Icon-infiltrant (HA10) and K-etchant10s+Icon-infiltrant (PA10). The resin penetration was observed by fluorescent microscope. Biofilm-induced demineralization was conducted again and observed by swept-source optical coherence tomography and confocal laser scanning microscope. The maximum resin penetration depth (PDmax), lesion depth increase (∆LD), frequency of cervical enamel loss and dentinoenamel junction separation length were measured and statistically analyzed. HA120 showed 138.00±49.25 µm PDmax that was significantly larger than PA10 and SEB (p<0.05). SEB created 136.58±64.73 µm coating layers. HA120 and SEB showed significantly lower ∆LD than NC (p<0.05). Resin infiltration with 120s-HCl pretreatment has got a good penetration ability and preventive effect on root caries, however, an additional risk factor of cervical enamel loss was identified.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the depth of cure, flexural properties and volumetric shrinkage of low and high viscosity bulk-fill giomers and resin composites. Depth of cure and flexural properties were determined according to ISO 4049, and volumetric shrinkage was measured using a dilatometer. The depths of cure of giomers were significantly lower than those of resin composites, regardless of photo polymerization times. No difference in flexural strength and modulus was found among either high or low viscosity bulk fill materials. Volumetric shrinkage of low and high viscosity bulk-fill resin composites was significantly less than low and high viscosity giomers. Depth of cure of both low and high viscosity bulk-fill materials is time dependent. Flexural strength and modulus of high viscosity or low viscosity bulk-fill giomer or resin composite materials are not different for their respective category. Resin composites exhibited less polymerization shrinkage than giomers.
The bioactive effects of strontium released from surface pre-reacted glass-ionomer (S-PRG) fillers may aid in caries prevention. In this study, the local structure of strontium taken up by teeth was estimated by extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis. Immersing teeth into S-PRG filler eluate increased the strontium content in enamel and dentin by more than 100 times. The local structure of strontium in enamel and dentin stored in distilled water was the same as that in synthetic strontium-containing hydroxyapatite (SrHAP). Moreover, the local structure of strontium in enamel and dentin after immersion in the S-PRG filler eluate was also similar to that of SrHAP. After immersion in the S-PRG filler eluate, strontium was suggested to be incorporated into the hydroxyapatite (HAP) of enamel and dentin at the calcium site in HAP.
The in vivo bioactivity of porous polyetheretherketone (PEEK) with a foamed surface was evaluated using rabbit femoral bone. Cylindrical porous PEEK scaffolds, with pore diameter of 550 μm and porosity of 70%, were first prepared and immersed in 98% sulfuric acid, and then washed and immersed in 3 M potassium carbonate solution used as a foaming reagent. Numerous open pores of various sizes, as well as new functional groups, were visualized on the treated PEEK surface by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. Micro computed tomography (micro-CT) showed that the volumetric density of treated PEEK was higher than that of bare PEEK at 8 weeks after surgery (p<0.05). Additionally, von Kossa staining indicated ingrowth of mature new bone tissue at 4 weeks relative to the bare PEEK group. Our data indicate that surface-treated PEEK exhibited improved bioactivity in vivo.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the taper and space setting of using Ce-TZP/A on retentive force and secondary crown settling. The taper were 2°, 4°, and 6°, and the space settings were 0 and 10 μm. The applied loads were 50 and 100 N. The taper had a significant effect on retentive force and settling at both loads (p<0.05). The space settings did not have a significant effect on retentive force or settling at either load (p<0.05). The taper of the telescopic crowns and the load affected the retentive force and the settling.
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