We investigated the effects of CO2 laser irradiation combined with acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) application on the demineralization of enamel. APF gel was applied to the buccal enamel of human premolars and CO2 laser was applied. After the specimens were immersed in demineralization solution for 72 h, they were subjected to depth-dependent micro-CT and nanoindentation analyses. Micro-X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were performed to analyze the surfaces. Some surface regions of the enamel in specimens that were laser-irradiated with low output and APF-treated showed significantly higher values of MD and hardness than specimens treated with APF alone. A higher fluoride concentration in the enamel surface was observed in specimens treated with CO2 laser irradiation plus APF gel application. In conclusion, CO2 laser irradiation with low output is preferable to improve acid resistance.
The study aimed to 1) evaluate the cytotoxicity of luting cements: Hoffmann’s Zinc Phosphate (Hoffmann’s ZP), GC Fuji Plus Resin Modified Glass Ionomer (Fuji Plus RMGI) and 3M ESPE RelyX Unicem Resin Cement (RelyX Unicem RC) and 2) test if pre-washing reduces the cements’ cytotoxicity. In vitro human gingival fibroblast (HGF) culture model was chosen. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT test, the cell viability —by staining the cells with AO/EB dye mixture. The means±SD of Cell Survival Ratio (CSR%) were compared among different cement types under two testing conditions, with or without cement pre-washing. The CSR%s were compared by ANOVA and linear multiple regression (LMR). Hoffmann’s ZPC was less cytotoxic, while Fuji Plus RMGIC and RelyX Unicem RC were more cytotoxic (ANOVA, p<0.001). The type of cement and cement pre-washing jointly explained 90% of cell survival (LMR, p<0.001, adjusted squared R=0.889). The commonly used luting cements such as Hoffmann’s ZP, Fuji Plus RMGI and RelyX Unicem RC may have a cytotoxic potential.
This study investigated the shear bond strength (SBS) between veneering porcelain and zirconia substructure using lithium disilicate glass-ceramic as a liner. The mineral phases and microstructures of lithium disilicate glass-ceramic at temperature range of 800–900°C were preliminarily investigated. SBSs of porcelain-veneered zirconia specimens with and without lithium disilicate glassceramic liner fired at the same temperature were determined. Results showed that SBSs of veneering porcelain and zirconia with lithium disilicate glass-ceramic liner was notably increased (p<0.05). Specimens from the group with the highest SBS (59.7 MPa) were subject to thermocycling up to 10,000 cycles and their post-thermocycling SBSs investigated. Though weakened by thermocycling, SBSs were above the clinically acceptable limit (25 MPa) of ISO 9693. Fractographic analysis revealed mixed cohesive and adhesive failures. It was concluded that lithium disilicate glass-ceramic is a potential liner which generated high SBS between veneering porcelain and zirconia.
Full-contour zirconia restorations are gaining in popularity. Highly translucent zirconia materials and multi-coloured zirconia blocks might help to overcome the aesthetic drawbacks of traditional zirconia. This study evaluated the transmittance of visible light (400–700 nm) through the four different layers (Enamel Layer EL, Transition Layer 1 TL1, Transition Layer 2 TL2, Body Layer BL) of a multi-coloured zirconia block (KATANA™ Zirconia Multi-Layered Disc (ML)) using a spectrophotometer. Forty specimens (thickness of 1±0.05 mm) from each layer were examined and statistically evaluated at a confidence-level of 5%. Light transmittance was expressed as a percentage of the through-passing light. The following mean values (SD) were found: EL 32.8% (1.5), TL1 31.2% (1.3), TL2 25.4% (1.3) and BL 21.7% (1.1). Significant differences were found between all groups (ANOVA, Student-Newman-Keuls). This multi-coloured zirconia block showed four layers with different light transmittance capabilities. It might therefore be useful for enhancing the aesthetic appearance of full-contour zirconia restorations made from this material.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of etching time on the surface properties of dental hard tissues including enamel and dentin. For this purpose, samples were prepared using extracted human teeth and treated with 37% phosphoric acid for various length of time using the set protocol. The effects of etching time on surface roughness were assessed using non-contact surface roughness profilometer and surface hardness was measured using nanoindentation technique. All results were analyzed statistically using SPSS computer software. Within the limitation of this study, it was concluded that etching time influences on the surface properties of dental hard tissues particularly the enamel. Enamel surface properties such as roughness and hardness can be altered remarkable as a matter of few seconds. Prolonged etching time than recommended is likely to increase the surface roughness and decrease surface hardness; compromising the bond strength of adhesive materials in clinical applications.
The aim of this study was to identify the best combination of chlorhexidine (CHX) with orthodontic elastomerics for prevention of oral disease in orthodontic patients. We used ethyl cellulose (EC) as the polymer, and experimental groups were divided into five groups according to differences in solvent (i.e., ethanol; EtOH, dichloromethane; DCM). CHX release from the coated elastomerics was evaluated with a UV spectrophotometer and observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The antimicrobial release increased over time for 48 h in Group 3 (CDA+EC+30% EtOH/70% DCM), exhibiting the longest sustained-release characteristics (p<0.001). It also showed the highest antimicrobial properties, which was confirmed by inhibition zone testing using S. mutans (p<0.05). All groups were not affected when tensile force was tested in the coated elastomerics. We conclude that the antibacterial effect of CHX can be adjusted according to combinations of polymers and solvents. Group 3 exhibited the best substantivity and antimicrobial properties.
Though zirconia has been used in dental implant fixtures, the biocompatibility of the zirconia surface is not optimal for the surrounding tissue, and many surface modifications have been attempted. We have developed a novel method for improving the biocompatibility of zirconia by incorporating Ca ions. Elemental analysis showed that calcium ions become thoroughly incorporated into the zirconia surface after firing with calcium acetate. Mechanical tests indicated that the Ca ions had little effect on the flexural strength and hardness. Moreover, incorporating Ca ions also dramatically improved the water wettability of specimens that had been soaked in a simulated body fluid. The surface of the Ca-modified zirconia demonstrated good initial cell attachment.
Cell sheet technology is a scaffold-free method for tissue reconstruction. A sheet-shaped scaffold would be suitable for the regeneration of periodontal membrane. We designed a stem cell sheet combining human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) and a 10-µm thick biological apatite (BAp) membrane fabricated with an ArF pulsed laser ablation for periodontal regeneration. X-ray diffraction showed that crystalline hydroxyapatite (HAp) was present in BAp and HAp membranes after post-annealing. Energy dispersive analysis of the BAp membrane revealed peaks of Na and Mg in addition to Ca and P. Approximately 3×104 hMSCs were cultured on BAp and HAP membranes for 7 and 14 days. From in vitro assays, hMSCs grew faster and had higher osteoblast differentiation when cultured on the BAp membrane than did the cell culture on the HAp membrane. Stem cell sheets combined with a BAp membrane may have potential applications in guided bone regeneration and osteoconductive scaffolds.
There is limited knowledge about the effects of ultrashort pulsed laser on zirconia ceramic surfaces. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ytterbium (Yb)-doped fiber laser and other surface treatment methods —namely, sandblasting with 110 µm aluminum oxide or 30 µm silica-coated alumina on shear bond strength (SBS) of zirconia to tooth surface. A total of 128 zirconium oxide disks were made by using CAD-CAM technology. Disk surfaces were sandblasted with Al2O3 particles or silica-coated alumina or irradiated with Yb-doped fiber based nanosecond pulsed laser at 85W output power at 25 kHz. Disks were luted to dentin using two different resin cement. SBS of each specimen was measured. Results were statistically analyzed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Bonferroni and Dunnett tests (p<0.005). Highest bond strength was obtained when zirconia surface was pretreated with Yb-doped fiber-based nanosecond pulsed laser regardless of the resin cement used.
This study compared the cyclic fatigue resistance of OneShape (OS) instrument which used continuous rotation with WaveOne (WO) instrument which used reciprocating motion. OS size 25, 0.06 taper and WO primary size 25, 0.08 taper were used in simulated canals with 45°, 60°, and 90° angles of curvature until fracture. The number of cycles to fracture (NCF) was recorded to evaluate cyclic fatigue resistance. Data were statistically analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and Tukey’s HSD test. Weibull analysis was performed on NCF data. WO had a significantly higher NCF than OS for all angles of curvature (p<0.05). According to Weibull distribution, WO instrument was predicted to have a higher number of cycles to survive than OS instrument. WO instrument which used the reciprocating motion had a greater resistance to cyclic fatigue than OS which used continuous rotation movement.
The fixation strengths between conventional/modified magnetic assemblies and denture base resins were evaluated using six alternative resins. Magnetic assemblies with three different undercut wings were prepared. Soft lining materials with added PMMA resin polymer, two photopolymerization denture relining resins, an experimental resin, and a temporary filling resin were used to fix the magnetic assemblies to the denture bases. As a control, a commercially available magnetic assembly without undercut wings and a conventional autopolymerized resin were also prepared. After surface treatments, the magnetic assemblies were fixed using fixation resins, and tensile strengths and attractive forces were measured using an autography. The experimental resin and the temporary filling resin showed retentive forces comparable to those of conventional autopolymerized resins. Although the experimental resin demonstrated satisfactory fixation strengths, it should be necessary to improve its mechanical strength. The temporary filling resin could be used as a permanent fixation material.
The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between CT depth, indentation depth determined by a new hardness tester (Cariotester), and the transverse microradiography (TMR) parameters, i.e., lesion depth and mineral loss. For that purpose, this study evaluated the feasibility of using Cariotester as a root caries diagnostic system and capability of Cariotester to detect effect of fluoride application on inhibiting dentin demineralization. Fluorides were applied to bovine root dentin specimens, which were subsequently demineralized for 1–21 days and then CT depth and TMR parameters were assessed. There were significant correlations between CT depth and TMR parameters in fluoride and non-fluoride groups. There were significant differences between fluoride and non-fluoride groups for CT depth and TMR parameters respectively. Current results suggested that Cariotester may be capable of providing an objective evaluation of root caries progression and the fluoride effect on inhibiting dentin demineralization.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanical properties of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) after coating with different ceromers. For transverse strength and modulus of elasticity tests, specimens of 65×10×2.5 mm dimensions were prepared (5 groups, n=10). For impact strength test, specimens of 60×7.5×4 mm dimensions were prepared (5 groups, n=10). Test group specimens were coated with one of four different types of ceromers, and specimens in the control group were not coated. After specimens were tested for transverse and impact strengths, the data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis and Conover post hoc tests (p<0.05). GLYMOTEOS-TiO2 and A174-TEOS significantly increased the transverse strength of PMMA. All ceromers caused a statistically significant increase in the elastic modulus of PMMA. While GLYMO-TEOS-ZrO2 significantly decreased the impact strength, the other ceromers did not cause any statistically significant difference in impact strength. Coating with ceromers substantially improved the mechanical properties of PMMA.
The present study investigated the influence of archwire size and ligation method on the force magnitude delivered by nickel-titanium alloy archwires to 4 incisor brackets (42, 41, 31, and 32) in a simulation of mandibular right lateral incisor linguoversion. The force delivered by 0.014 and 0.016 inch nickel-titanium alloy archwires was measured using a newly developed multi-sensor measuring system and the mean force magnitudes were compared between different archwire sizes when using conventional ligation (CL) with elastic modules or self-ligating (SL) brackets by three-way ANOVA and post-hoc Bonferroni’s tests. The mean force magnitudes for the brackets were significantly decreased in the order of 42, 41, 31, and 32 (p<0.01). The force magnitude was significantly larger in CL than SL at 42, 31, and 32 (p<0.05). In conclusion, the ligation method affected the force magnitude at 4 incisor brackets. Despite the ligation method, archwire size affected the force magnitude from 42 to 31.
The objective of this study was to fabricate a type of bone cement that could fully transform to carbonate apatite (CO3Ap) in physiological conditions. A combination of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and dicalcium phosphate anhydrous was chosen as the powder phase and mixed with one of three kinds of sodium phosphate solutions: NaH2PO4, Na2HPO4, or Na3PO4. The cement that fully transformed to CO3Ap was fabricated using vaterite, instead of calcite, as a CaCO3 source. Their stability in aqueous solutions was different, regardless of the type of sodium phosphate solution. Rate of transformation to CO3Ap in descending order was Na3PO4>Na2HPO4>NaH2PO4. Transformation rate could be affected by the pH of solution. Results of this study showed that it was advantageous to use vaterite to fabricate CO3Ap-forming cement.
To evaluate the effects of various surface preparations on shear bond strength of a gingiva-colored indirect composite material and zirconia framework. Zirconia disks were prepared with one of nine surface treatments: hydrofluoric acid etching (HF), heating at 1,000°C for 10 min (HT), wet-grinding with 600- and 1500-grit SiC paper (SiC 600 and 1500), alumina-blasting at 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 MPa (AB 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6), and no treatment (NT). An indirect composite material was bonded to zirconia. Shear bond strengths were measured. Bond strength was significantly higher in AB 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 groups than in other groups at 0 and 20,000 thermocycles. Post-thermocycling bond strength was lower in NT, HF, and HT groups than in other groups. Alumina-blasting with 0.2 MPa or higher yielded sufficient durable bond strength between gingiva-colored indirect composite and zirconia frameworks. Hydrofluoric acid etching and heat treatment did not achieve durable bond strengths.