This systematic review investigates the effectiveness of calcium and phosphate ions release on the bioactivity and remineralization potential of glass ionomer cement (GIC). Electronic databases, including PubMed-MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science, were systematically searched according to PRISMA guidelines. This review was registered in the PROSPERO database. Five eligible studies on modifying GIC with calcium and phosphate ions were included. The risk of bias was assessed using the RoBDEMAT tool. The incorporation of these ions into GIC enhanced its bioactivity and remineralization properties. It promoted hydroxyapatite formation, which is crucial for remineralization, increased pH and inhibited cariogenic bacteria growth. This finding has implications for the development of more effective dental materials. This can contribute to improved oral health outcomes and the management of dental caries, addressing a prevalent and costly oral health issue. Nevertheless, comprehensive longitudinal investigations are needed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of this GIC’s modification.
Functional nano-fillers are commonly used to reduce bacterial colonization in dentistry. This study aimed to synthesize, characterize, and evaluate the biological effects of magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles (NP) obtained by mechanosynthesis. XRD, TEM, FT-IR, and UV-Vis were used to characterize MgO-NP which were subsequently tested for their activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli (E. coli). The effects of MgO-NP on osteoblast cells were also analyzed. Three variables were studied: microbial inhibition by optical density (OD; 570-nm), viability estimated by colony-forming-units, and cell proliferation. The characterization of NP is consistent with nanostructures, minimum inhibitory concentration between 1.5–5 mg/mL, and microbial inhibition at 9.75 ug/mL concentration for E. coli were determined. There were different concentration-dependent effects on cell proliferation. Results were observed with 0.156 mg/mL MgO-NP, which increased cell proliferation at 24 and 48 h. The results suggest the antibacterial suitability of MgO-NP, with tolerable viability of mammalian cells for dental applications.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have great potential as cell sources for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This study aimed to investigate whether iPS cells can be differentiated into MSCs using MSCGM, a commercially available MSC culture system. The cells were characterized by flow cytometry, immunostaining, and gene expression analyses. We also examined their potential to differentiate into osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Our results showed that iPS cells cultured in MSCGM (iPS-MSCGM) exhibited a fibroblast-like morphology and expressed CD73 and CD90 genes, as well as positive markers for CD73, CD90, and CD105. Moreover, iPS-MSCGM cells demonstrated the ability to differentiate into osteoblasts and chondrocytes in vitro. This study demonstrates a new and simple method for inducing the differentiation of iPS cells to MSCs using MSCGM.
This study aimed to clarify aspects of the color and translucency of 3D printed dental material with CAD/CAM blocks. Three different ceramic-containing, resin-based CAD/CAM blocks and a 3D printable resin were evaluated after thermocycled and assessed for their degree of discoloration based on colorant types and storage times. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance followed by Tukey’s post-hoc test. All materials in red wine had ∆E00 values higher than the clinically accepted threshold value. At 1 week and 1 month, the 3D material was statistically significantly more discolored than the other 3 materials (p<0.05). None of the materials exceeded the acceptable threshold value at any time point. The color changes increased over time in resin-based CAD/CAM blocks and 3D printable dental materials. After 1 week and 1 month, there was a statistically significant difference in the color change between the 3D printed material and the CAD/CAM blocks.
This study aimed to evaluate the influence of surface pretreatment on the shear bond strength of resin luting cement to saliva-contaminated resin core foundation. The surface free energy (γS) of the adherent surfaces was examined. The two-way analysis of variance revealed that the surface pretreatment and storage conditions had a significant effect on the strength of the bond to resin core foundation. The γS values of the saliva-contaminated group were significantly lower than those of the other groups, and they tended to improve after surface pretreatment. The tendency of improvement in γS values differed depending on the type of pretreatment agents. Surface treatment with solutions containing functional monomers is effective in removing saliva contaminants from the resin core foundation surfaces and in creating an effective bonding surface for the resin luting cement.
Using finite-element analysis, we aimed to determine the center of resistance (CRes) of the maxillary canine for setting orthodontic forces. The inclination of the canine was measured by first loading from the mesial to the distal side of the mesial root surface, then the position and direction of the load that minimized the inclination were investigated. The CRes was defined as the set of midpoints of the minimum distances between two inclination lines. Twenty-one CRes values were calculated from a set of seven lines. These CRes data were then aggregated as a 95% confidence ellipsoid of width 0.170×0.016×0.009 mm with center points 4.269, 0.224, and 4.315 mm in the apical, mesial, and lingual directions from the origin, respectively. Further studies are required to effectively apply the CRes identified in this study to clinical applications.
This study investigated the degree of phase transformation, surface roughness, and bond strength of zirconia immersed for various times in a 40% hydrofluoric acid (HF) solution. Non-etched sintered zirconia specimens were used as the control, while experimental groups were etched with a 40% HF solution for 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, 160 and 320 min. In each of the control and experimental groups, five specimens for X-ray diffraction analysis, four for surface morphology and surface roughness analysis, and ten for bonding strength measurement were used. As a result, the surface roughness of zirconia increased as the application time increased during the 40% HF etching, but the bond strength between zirconia and resin cement did not increase proportionally. The phase transformation from tetragonal to monoclinic also gradually increased with application time.
Dental bases require low thermal conductivity and good mechanical properties, such as bonding with composite resins. This study aims to elucidate the physicochemical properties of premixed mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) for its suitability as a dental base and to explore the optimal adhesive strategy with composite resin. The thermal conductivity and compressive strength of this premixed MTA are 0.12 W/(m•K) and 93.76 MPa, respectively, Which are deemed adequate for its application as dental base. When bonded to composite resin, the use of 37% phosphoric acid etching before applying the Clearfil SE bond significantly reduced the bonding strength between composite resin and premixed MTA. This was because the compressive strength and Vickers hardness of premixed MTA decreased, and tricalcium silicate was dissolved from the surface during acid etching. Therefore, it is recommended to avoid using 37% phosphoric acid etching when bonding premixed MTA and composite resin as a dental base.
Monetite granules were reported to be able to balance osteoclastic resorption and new bone formation. However, to date, the dehydration of preset brushite has been the well-known method for preparing monetite granules. In the present study, for the first time, monetite granules could be prepared from the phase transformation of calcium sulfate dihydrate (CSD) granules through immersion in NaH2PO4 solution under hydrothermal conditions. CSD granules could be fully transformed into monetite granules at a reaction temperature of 125°C for 24 h. The obtained monetite granules were eight times more soluble in acetate buffer than in Tris-HCl buffer. Furthermore, monetite granules were two times more soluble in acetate buffer but comparable in Tris-HCl buffer compared to xenograft HA. The initial cytotoxicity test indicated that the novel monetite granules were nontoxic. In short, novel monetite granules were successfully prepared, exhibited better solubility in osteoclastic simulation than xenograft HA and were nontoxic.
The aim of this study was to demonstrate the vertical and volumetric wear characteristics of CAD/CAM materials. The microhardness and color stability were evaluated. A polymer infiltrated ceramic network CAD/CAM block, resin nanoceramic CAD/CAM blocks, a resin composite, and enamel tissue were investigated. Samples were loaded in a chewing simulator. Other samples were aged and immersed in coffee. Color change was evaluated using the digital image analysis and a spectrophotometer. The data were analyzed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Kruskal Wallis, Mann Whitney U, Friedman, Spearman’s rho tests (p<0.05). The lowest level of wear was obtained in enamel tissue group 0.20 (Q1:0.14; Q3:0.27μm). Resin composite group 2.48 (Q1:2.12; Q3:2.92) showed lower level of discoloration. No agreement was obtained between the digital image analysis and spectrophotometer data (Spearman’s rho −0.314, p=0.014). Similar wear rate to the natural enamel tissue was obtained for Vita Enamic. Digital image analysis was considered a promising technique for monitoring the color change.
The objective of this study is to compare the shear bond strength (SBS) and the morphological characteristics and chemical compositions of the base surface of newly bonded and rebonded ceramic brackets with different mechanical retention bases. Sixty extracted human premolars were divided into the newly bonded and rebonded groups. Ceramic brackets with patterned, laser-etched, and particle-coated patterned bases were randomly bonded to the tooth samples in each group (n=10 per base type). The rebonded brackets exhibited significantly lower SBS than the newly bonded brackets (p<0.05). The main chemical composition of the brackets in both groups was aluminum on the energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy imaging showed the presence of regular-shaped undercuts or irregular micro-undercuts on the bracket bases which mostly remained intact even after debonding and sandblasting, while coated particles disappeared. The rebonded ceramic brackets with mechanical retention bases exhibited clinically acceptable bond strength regardless of retentive forms.
This study aimed to evaluate the thermocycling effect on the retentive force of 3 different retentive inserts in 3 denture attachments (Blue, Pink, Clear retentive inserts in LOCATOR; Blue, Pink, Clear retentive inserts in LOCATOR R-Tx; and White, Yellow, Green retentive inserts in Novaloc) (n=10). Maximum retentive force of each retentive insert was evaluated at baseline, 7-day water storage, and after 5,000-, and 10,000- cycle thermocycling. The water absorption percentage of the retentive inserts was also determined. Comparing between baseline and 7-day water storage, the retentive forces of the LOCATOR and LOCATOR R-Tx groups were significantly reduced (p<0.05), while the retentive force of the Novaloc group was significantly increased (p<0.05). Comparing between 7-day water storage and 10,000-cycle thermocycling, the retentive force of most retentive inserts remained unchanged (p>0.05). The water absorption percentage of the LOCATOR and LOCATOR R-Tx groups was significantly greater than that of the Novaloc group (p<0.05).
This study aimed to apply finite element analysis to evaluate the effects of pile materials with different elastic moduli and cement materials on the stress distribution between the remaining tooth tissue and cryptic fracture defects. A three-dimensional finite element model was established for 20 maxillary first molars with hidden fissures and mesial tongue-tip defects. Two levels of hidden cracks and three types of pile and adhesive materials were used in the design. The stress distribution and maximum stress peak in the remaining tooth tissue and crack defects were determined by simulating the normal bite, maximum bite, and lateral movement forces. When titanium posts, zinc phosphate binders, and porcelain crowns were used to repair the two types of deep cracked teeth, the maximum principal stress at the crack and dentin was the smallest. As the crack depth increased, the maximum principal stress of the residual dentin and crack defects increased.
Cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) exhibit excellent mechanical properties and are used to reinforce various composites. The effects of incorporating CNFs into commercial mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) cements (NEX MTA (NEX) and ProRoot® MTA (PR)) on the underwater setting properties, compressive strength, and flowability were estimated in this study. NEX mixed without CNFs disintegrated after water immersion. NEX mixed with CNF-suspended solutions showed good setting properties under water immersion and a similar compressive strength, which was kept in air (100% relative humidity). PR did not degrade after water immersion, regardless of the presence of CNFs, and no significant difference in the compressive strength caused by CNFs incorporation was detected. The relative flowability of the NEX mixture decreased with increasing CNFs content up to 1.0 w/v%. The application of CNF-incorporated MTA in various dental cases is promising because CNFs prevent the water-immersion-dependent collapse of some MTA cements immediately after mixing.
This study evaluated the influence of different translucent resins (Z350 and Opallis) for customizing fiber posts and light-curing the cementation system using different LED equipment (V, Valo or R, Radii-Cal) on the bond strength and adhesive failure pattern at 24 h and 6 months. Eighty roots were prepared and divided into 4 groups (n=20): ZV (Z350 resin and LED Valo), ZR (Z350 resin and LED Radii-Cal), OV (Opallis resin and LED Valo), OR (Opallis resin and LED Radii-Cal). After post space preparation, the fiber post was customized and cemented with self-adhesive cement and light-curing using V or R LED equipment. Bond strength values were submitted to 2-way ANOVA test. ZV and ZR showed higher bond strength values than the other groups at 6 months of evaluation (p<0.05). The Z350 resin has a favorable influence on the bond strength of self-adhesive cement to root dentin, regardless of the LED polymerization equipment used.
Transparency to UV-Vis light and radiopacity of dental resin composites containing zirconia (ZrO2) fillers were investigated. The transparency of the resin composite containing porous ZrO2 spheres was much higher than that containing irregularly shaped ZrO2 particles. Calcination of the porous ZrO2 spheres at high temperatures led to dramatically reduced specific surface areas and pore volumes. The transparency of the resin composite containing the calcined porous ZrO2 spheres drastically decreased as the calcination temperature increased. Then, the enhanced UV-Vis transmittance of the resin composite containing porous ZrO2 spheres is attributed to the concentration and physical characteristics of the pores. The radiopacity of the resin composites containing porous ZrO2 spheres increased slightly with increasing calcination temperature. This study revealed that the internal structure of the ZrO2 fillers mainly influenced in the UV-Vis light transmittance of the resin composites.
The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of dentin deproteinization protocols for post space using different formulations containing sodium hypochlorite before fiber post cementation with self-adhesive resinous cement. The groups were divided according to the irrigation protocol (DWC, SHS, SHT and SHG). The residue cleanliness, bond strength, adhesive failure pattern, and tag formation at the adhesive interface between the self-adhesive cement and the dentin were evaluated. For this, analysis in scanning electron microscope, push-out test and confocal laser scanning microscopy were performed. The SHT protocol showed the highest residue cleanliness on the dentin surface of the post space (p<0.05). In addition, SHT protocol showed highest bond strength and tag formation in the cervical and middle thirds (p<0.05). Dentin deproteinization with sodium hypochlorite with surfactant provided the best dentin cleaning of residues, bond strength and tag formation after cementation of the fiber post with self-adhesive cement.