Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies
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D: Logistics and Freight Transportation
  • Thanat RUNGWANICHSUKANON, Manoj LOHATEPANONT
    Volume 11 (2015) Pages 788-798
    Released: December 26, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper presents a methodology for a more efficient way of freight transportation planning through the use of a multimodal network. The freight forwarder can use combinations of non-scheduled truck and scheduled air transportation. This problem attempts to combine the flexible-time service of truck transportation with the scheduled-time service of air transport through Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) that is formulated as a Multi-Commodity Flow Problem. This paper uses the data from an express delivery service network with multiple objective decisions, which are to minimize total transportation cost and transportation time for each commodity. The method used in the research aims to consolidate the freight commodities to minimize the overall transportation costs and to meet time constrained demands.
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  • Kumiko NAKAMICHI, Shinya HANAOKA, Shinsuke MOGI, Thaned SATIENNAM
    Volume 11 (2015) Pages 799-818
    Released: December 26, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The growth of manufacturing industry and freight transport demand is expected to raise energy consumption and CO2 emissions due to the increase of truck use as a trip end mode of interregional freight transport in hub cities of highways or the economic corridors. This study aims 1) to investigate the distribution of urban freight transport by interview survey and estimate CO2 emissions in Khon Kaen and 2) to find the better solution to reduce CO2 emissions considering land use, traffic control and dissemination of energy technology. Since Khon Kaen is located on the crossing point of East West Corridor and Central Corridor in Greater Mekong Subregion, it is expected to increase urban freight transport demand as the hub city. The results showed that TOD including aggregation of offices and plants around BRT stations and the dissemination of Electric Vehicle as freight use could reduce vehicle kilometers travelled and CO2 emissions.
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  • Ching-Jung TING, Kuo-Rui LU, Kun-Chih WU
    Volume 11 (2015) Pages 819-833
    Released: December 26, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this paper we consider a capacitated single allocation p-hub median problem (CSApHMP) which is to determine the location of p hubs, the allocation of non-hub nodes to hubs in the logistics network. This problem is formulated as an integer programming model with the objective of minimizing the sum of total transportation cost and fixed cost of the selected p hubs. Since the CSApHMP is NP-hard, it is difficult to obtain optimal solution within a reasonable computational time with exact solution approach. We only solve the CSApHMP using Gurobi optimizer for the small sized problems. A reactive greedy randomized adaptive search procedure (GRASP) is proposed to solve the problem. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed reactive GRASP algorithm, a comparative study from the benchmark instances is also presented. The experimental results show that the proposed GRASP heuristic can be an effective solution method for the capacitated hub location problem.
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E: Regional Planning and Environment
  • Amila Jayasinghe, Kazushi SANO, Hiroaki NISHIUCHI
    Volume 11 (2015) Pages 834-853
    Released: December 26, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper presents a robust, dynamic and simplified method to predict vehicular traffic volume in urban and regional geographies based on Network Centrality Assessment (NCA). The case study was conducted in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Study employed three types of graphs and three kinds of analysis methods to compute network centrality referring to four centrality parameters; for identifying the predictability of vehicular traffic volume. Findings stress that, the road segments graph based on geo-metric analysis method and the natural roads graph based on topological analysis method is far better in predicting the vehicular traffic volume and it is more appropriate to consider the multiple influence from multiple centrality parameters predicting vehicle volumes rather than strict being into the single best parameter. Hence, study concludes that it is more appropriate to employ NCA considering the multiple influence from multiple centrality parameters based on geo-metric and topological analysis methods in predicting vehicle volumes.
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  • Hiromichi YAMAMOTO, Jumpei SANO, Kiyoshi YAMASAKI, Kazuki YANAGISAWA, ...
    Volume 11 (2015) Pages 854-873
    Released: December 26, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In the Asia and ASEAN countries, there are a lot of urban development plans based on the concept of Transit Oriented Development (TOD). CUE model, which enables to evaluate urban development and transportation development simultaneously, is one of the major approaches to estimate the effects on a development plan based on the TOD. However, it has been difficult to evaluate it especially in Asia and ASEAN countries except Japan, due to lack of the public data on the geographic land use by small zone units. We have created a new methodology of estimating the land use area by using satellite images. It enables the land use classification on a scale, which fits the evaluation of the TOD. This paper describes evaluation results of the development plan of Taoyuan City in Taiwan by building the detailed spatial scale CUE model using our new methodology, using data.
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  • Atsushi SUZUKI, Hiroyuki SUZUKI
    Volume 11 (2015) Pages 874-889
    Released: December 26, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study focuses on the accessibility to urban facilities to provide to consider effective urban and transportation policy for inducing better urban structure. The location based accessibility to urban facilities was measured in Seto City using micro-geo data to assess efficiency of existing spatial distribution of population. The main result of the accessibility analysis is that central area where population density is not so high has high accessibility scores for every type of facilities but education and medical & welfare as well as zones with higher population density does not have high accessibility to facilities, especially by walking. Based on the results, one of likely causes of this spatial discrepancy is discussed and directions of countermeasures for inducing urban structure to the better form are proposed in terms of accessibility to urban facilities.
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  • Chu Tien DUNG, Tomio MIWA, Hitomi SATO, Takayuki MORIKAWA
    Volume 11 (2015) Pages 890-905
    Released: December 26, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Transportation fleets and on-road driving characteristics have known as significant factors on traffic emissions, additionally important parameters in International Vehicle Emission (IVE) model for emission inventories. Using data collected in Ho Chi Minh City, this paper analyzes characteristics of these parameters and it mainly focuses on passenger car (PC) and motorcycle (MC). It is revealed that the fleets are characterized by young PCs and MCs with medium engine volume and low usage. The video analysis shows that the on-road traffic is composed of 89% MCs, 6% PCs and 5% for other modes. Vehicle specific power (VSP) and engine stress were adopted for driving condition analysis. The VSP of positive power and engine stress at medium/high levels, indicating stable driving conditions are commonly found on highway but not on arterial and residential streets. It is found that the start-up with long engine soak usually happens during peak hours (6:00~8:00 and 16:00~18:00).
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  • Weiliang ZENG, Tomio MIWA, Takayuki MORIKAWA
    Volume 11 (2015) Pages 906-921
    Released: December 26, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study aims to explore the trip fuel consumption from a large-scale dataset. To better understand how the multiple variables (e.g., average travel speed, trip distance) influence the trip fuel consumption, we propose the support vector machine (SVM) to learn the relationship between the trip fuel consumption and the corresponding factors. A large-scale GPS and CAN (Controller Area Network) bus data provided by 153 probe vehicles during one month are used. Elasticity analysis indicates that trip distance and coefficient of variance of link speed have relatively great importance on the SVM model. To demonstrate the performance of the proposed method, three other regression methods, i.e., the multiple linear regression model, artificial neural network (ANN), and the link fuel summation SVM model (LSSVM) are also adopted for performance comparisons. The results show that SVM model is much closer to the target than the other three models.
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  • JongJin YOON, Takanori SUNAGAWA, Hiroaki TAKEBAYASHI, Masahiro EMORI
    Volume 11 (2015) Pages 922-938
    Released: December 26, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In order to respond to social changes in road utilization, the reallocation of existing road space has been attracting attention. However, the specific criteria for reallocating road space that considers a variety of stakeholders have not been determined, and many problems need to be considered. In this study, we evaluated road space usage and problems, and incorporated the needs and opinions of those using the roads to provide a safe and comfortable road environment for all road users, including pedestrians, bicyclists, and vehicles. We found that the need for improving the quality of local roads and for road space is large. In the future, in order to improve the quality of road space based on the road users' needs, it is necessary to avoid policies that favor the major roads and vehicle use, and implement road space reallocation considering the needs of the residents and the various stakeholders.
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  • Napon SRISAKDA, Tetsuhiro ISHIZAKA, Atsushi FUKUDA, Sathita MALAITHAM
    Volume 11 (2015) Pages 939-953
    Released: December 26, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The main objective of this study is to estimate the impacts of introducing hybrid vehicles on fuel consumption reduction in central area of Bangkok by using a model for fuel consumption estimation of vehicles based on time sharing by four driving regimes from probe data. First, time sharing by driving regimes obtained by probe data was analyzed and its reliability was tested with observed data. Second, relationship between fuel consumption and time sharing by four driving regimes with hybrid vehicles (HVs) was determined based upon data from field test. Assuming all probe vehicles will be replaced with HV, reduction of fuel consumption was estimated by applying this relationship. Finally, influence of time sharing and average speed on fuel consumption were discussed. As a result, it was found that time sharing based on probe data was reliable. Fuel consumption reduction was significant in cruising regime, and average speed affected fuel consumption.
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  • Toshiaki AOKI
    Volume 11 (2015) Pages 954-966
    Released: December 26, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study analyzes both the strategies residents implement, and the factors they consider when planning residential choice. In addition, it aims to suggest how policy can improve the social capital of communities through residential derivation or relocation of public facilities. The data for this analysis was collected via a questionnaire, targeting apartment dwellers in the inner-city areas of Sendai, Japan. The questionnaire was distributed by hand, and collected by mail. The respondents were classified into two groups based on Planned Residential Duration (PRD): the Long PRD group and the Short PRD group. After examining the data, statistical analyses revealed the following findings: 1) that the importance of factors for residential choice could vary depending on planned residential duration, 2) and that decision making strategy could also vary contingent on planned residential duration. Finally, some implications for the formation of wealthy communities and the distribution of educational facilities were discussed.
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  • Pradono PRADONO, Iwan P. KUSUMANTORO, Argasadha RETAPRADANA
    Volume 11 (2015) Pages 967-978
    Released: December 26, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Automobile dependency is one of the main issues in transport planning in urban developing countries. High use of unloaded private vehicle produces highest carbon dioxide emission which is the main source of air pollution in urban area. Government of Surabaya plans to improve public transport infrastructure by reactivate tram transit system to solve congestion problem and is also believed to be a step for climate change mitigation. This paper assesses the role of tram transit in order to reduce carbon dioxide emission in Surabaya central business district. Tram transit development in Surabaya could potentially reduce private vehicle usage and minimize carbon dioxide emission produced by private vehicle. Using electricity as power, modern tram produce low carbon dioxide emission and the least compared to other transport modes. Tram investment in Surabaya will potentially be one of the most suitable transits due to low investment cost and its impact to environment.
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  • Tetsunobu YOSHITAKE, Kenichi TERAMACHI, Chikashi DEGUCHI
    Volume 11 (2015) Pages 979-996
    Released: December 26, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Today Japanese cities are suffering numerous development problems, including deteriorated city centers and expanding suburban areas. Further, Japan today faces a shrinking and aging population. Thus these cities should seek better balance between proper land use and economic vitalization. This paper examines the long-term development trend for 1985-2011 in Miyakonojo City and evaluates that city's latest land use guidelines to offer the following conclusions: 1) During 1995-2011, the number of building applications transitioned between 600 and 800. Half were in the un-zoned area where suburbanization is being caused mainly by housing; 2) The collective housing is increasing in these un-zoned area as well as in the zoned areas; 3) Concentrations of development are emerging in the un-zoned areas. 4) The Land Use Control Guideline shows the direction of future land use management. Although the guideline will manage suburbanization, housing development remains stake.
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  • Surya Raj ACHARYA
    Volume 11 (2015) Pages 997-1011
    Released: December 26, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Simplistic treatment of infrastructure during regional modeling often produces erroneous results and potentially wrong policy prescriptions. This paper attempts to address this issue and proposes a non-linear formulation for a productivity index in which infrastructure and economic mass (to reflect degree of agglomeration economies) of a region enter as interacting variables. The formulation is numerically tested to examine the effect of infrastructure investment at different level of agglomeration. Finally, the productivity index is used as a part of Constant Elasticity of Substitution (CES) production function, and the model is validated through estimation and calibration techniques using time-series data of Japan's regions. The validated formulation for productivity index, which realistically encompass the role of infrastructure, can potentially be utilized to assess the dynamic impacts of infrastructure in a multiregional context. The result is theoretically robust and practically useful for policy making particularly in developing Asian countries.
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  • Jinn-Tsai WONG, Chun-Yen CHENG
    Volume 11 (2015) Pages 1012-1028
    Released: December 26, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper presents the insights of imbalanced public bicycle distributions, i.e. unable to pick up/return bikes due to empty/full stations through the analysis of spatio-temporal activity patterns of bike stations. YouBike, the public bikesharing system of Taipei City was examined. Taking advantage of Open Data policy, the changes of the number of available bikes across all stations were collected to identify station activity patterns. The relationship between spatial characteristics and station activity patterns were explored. The clustering results indicate that station activity patterns could be categorised into three groups and each reveals different activity patterns throughout the day. The visualisation of average temporal activity patterns and clustered groups are illustrated as well. Such results could provide better understanding of bikesharing usage and the underlying temporal and spatial dynamics of a city.
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  • Sungmin HONG, Toru HAGIWARA, Shouichi TAKEUCHI, Birei LU
    Volume 11 (2015) Pages 1029-1046
    Released: December 26, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The road capacity in winter in Sapporo is decreased as a result of certain snow removal operations and increased as a result of other operations, and the average travel speed in winter is slower than in autumn. Cyber-physical systems allow us to collect valuable data, such as traffic and weather data, from advanced sensors. Many researchers have used these data in their studies. This study estimates travel speed toward forecasting winter traffic congestion in Sapporo. Four steps are performed to estimate the travel speed, considering the relationships among traffic, weather and snow removal factors. The first step is to collect data and to set up the dataset. The second is to develop multiple linear regression models, and the next is to predict residuals between observed and estimated travel speed by MLR model, using SARIMA. Finally, the estimated travel speed is presented as the results of MLR model and SARIMA.
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  • Kazuki NAKAMURA, Vasinee WASUNTARASOOK, Fumei GU, Varameth VICHIENSAN, ...
    Volume 11 (2015) Pages 1047-1063
    Released: December 26, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To decouple global economic growth with emission growth, a necessary local challenge is to develop attractive low-carbon transport systems in developing cities. Whether mass-transit development can be low-carbon against conventional road development in Asian developing megacities depends on how attractive they can be for local residents. This paper is aimed at evaluating the estimated long-term effects of rail-oriented development on transport-related CO2 mitigation and Quality of Life (QOL) improvement in Bangkok. It develops a land-use transport model integrated with QOL indexes to estimate changes in travel demand up to 2050, considering the quality of transport modes and residential locations. Then, the model is applied to evaluating future scenarios of land-use transport development with different types of transport modes and station areas. The result showed that rail-oriented development can be more low-carbon than road-oriented development and can improve QOL, if planning is introduced to quality station-area development.
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F: Public and Non-motorized Transportation
  • Tri Basuki JOEWONO, Djoen San SANTOSO
    Volume 11 (2015) Pages 1064-1081
    Released: December 26, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Many developing cities are trying to improve their public transportation systems. Thus, study into the characteristics of each city's public transport services is needed. The motive of this study is to elaborate the specific characteristics of service quality in public transport for three Indonesian cities, i.e. Jakarta, Bandung, and Yogyakarta. The objective is to compare the importance of service quality attributes in these three cities. Study results show that each attribute is perceived as having a different level of importance. Comparisons among cities for each attribute show that six out of 15 attributes are significantly perceived as different. Further analysis shows that these cities have similarities as well as differences. Each city's users are unique, implying that the existing generalized approach for all cities in a big country like Indonesia is doubtful. A unique approach which accounts for each city's specific characteristics seems more rational.
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  • Huey-Kuo CHEN
    Volume 11 (2015) Pages 1082-1096
    Released: December 26, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper studies travel time prediction for time-table-based vehicles traveling on known routes using both the current and historical travel time information. In our experiment, the historical travel times stored in the database can be further dichotomized into uncongested (i.e., normal) and congested (i.e., abnormal) classes. With this fine-structured data of travel times, the method that embeds the empirical mode decomposition and grey theory (Chen and Wu, 2012) can be adopted to improve short-term travel time prediction. To demonstrate, using a real traffic data under abnormal traffic condition, this proposed method has been compared with the other four travel time prediction methods. The results show that our method is superior in terms of the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) and hence more suitable to be applied in the real world.
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  • Muhammad Ashraf JAVID, Toshiyuki OKAMURA, Fumihiko NAKAMURA
    Volume 11 (2015) Pages 1097-1108
    Released: December 26, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Currently, public transportation in Lahore is underdeveloped, and mismanaged due to financial, institutional and operational issues. It is extremely important to explore level of existing public transportation in order to anticipate mandatory improvements. This study aims to explore the public satisfaction with Daewoo urban bus service, and suggest potential improvements in Daewoo Bus service and for whole public transportation system. A questionnaire survey was conducted in Lahore and 631 usable samples were obtained. The analysis results revealed that symbolic, functional, cost and time factors are important determinants of commuter's satisfaction with service quality of a public transportation mode. This study implicates that there is need to improve level of symbolic and functional attributes in order to enhance public satisfaction, but keeping travel cost factors on lower side. The findings would be helpful in taking mandatory steps to improve service quality of Daewoo bus service and other public transportation modes.
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  • Masanobu KII, Jun-ichi TERAO, Kazuki NAKAMURA
    Volume 11 (2015) Pages 1109-1121
    Released: December 26, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    An efficient public transport network is indispensable for urban sustainability. This study examines the possibility of more efficient public transport network, using smart card data in the case of Takamatsu city, Japan. We developed a simulation system that estimates passenger flows on a public transport network and public transport fares iteratively under the condition of link-level fiscal neutrality of public transport operation. As a result, the public transport network can be more efficient by aggregating some bus routes. Sensitivity analysis indicates that improvement of public transport frequency reduces a total generalized user cost because it encourages route transfer that induces route aggregation. The reduction of transfer resistance at stations or bus stops is found not to affect the passenger flow solely but to be effective in combination with the frequency increase.
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  • Paramet LUATHEP, Suppakorn SUTTIPAN, Sittha JAENSIRISAK
    Volume 11 (2015) Pages 1122-1139
    Released: December 26, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Daily trips in many Asian developing cities mainly rely on private vehicles. This paper presents a challenge of public transport planning in private vehicle dominated community. The case study was at Prince of Songkla University, in the southern Thailand. Electric bus service has been provided for internal trips within the campus. However, the bus service does not attract to the students and staff, influenced by private vehicles (motorcycle and passenger car). The Stated Preference (SP) technique was applied to evaluate travelers' responses to different policies in encouraging the modal shift from private vehicles to public transport. Binary logit models were developed and applied to evaluate different policies. The results show that the integrated policies between improvement of bus service (travel time and waiting time reduction) and management of private vehicle parking (parking limitation and pricing) could promote the bus system and reduce CO2 emission in the community.
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  • Keiichi OGAWA
    Volume 11 (2015) Pages 1140-1154
    Released: December 26, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The increased probability that bicycles traveling on the right side of a sidewalk will suffer accidents is seen as justification for regulating the location and direction of bicycle travel in Japan. However, this high traffic accident probability level exists primarily at intersections and is not indicative of the overall probability that cyclists will become involved in traffic accidents between their origin and destination points. This study compares traffic accident probability levels when provisions have been made to restrict bicycles the left side of a street with situations where bicycles are allowed to travel on both sides, taking into account the number of intersections traversed between origin and destination points. As results, traffic accident probability might be higher than when travel is allowed on both sides if bicycle travel restricted to the left side by the road network configuration in the target area.
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  • Veng Kheang PHUN, Pharinet PHENG, Tetsuo YAI
    Volume 11 (2015) Pages 1155-1172
    Released: December 26, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    After the first and fail attempt in 2001, the public bus service is now provided for citizens of Phnom Penh. However, the sustainability of the public bus service remains questionable due to unstable demand. This paper assesses the public bus performance from the viewpoints of bus passengers. Factors affecting passengers’ perceived bus performance are investigated under an ordered probit model, using data from an on-board survey with bus passengers during service testing period in Phnom Penh (N = 1,100). Results show that the perceived public bus performance is likely to be improved by enhancing the bus attributes (e.g., speed, comfort) and by addressing the concerns expressed by the bus passengers (e.g., requests for bus service expansion). The findings provide the government useful information in considering appropriate strategies to ensure the sustainability of the public bus and to lessen the current traffic issues in the city.
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  • Aleksander PURBA, Fumihiko NAKAMURA, Shinji TANAKA, Peamsook SANIT, Ry ...
    Volume 11 (2015) Pages 1173-1187
    Released: December 26, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To tackle the increased motorization, Ministry of Transportation (MoT) of Indonesia has promoted pilot cities for land transport improvement. Unfortunately, TransJogja as a new transit system has failed to encourage number of passengers in spite of the increasing of travel demand from population growth as its service quality has continually declined after over five years of operations. This research provides a comprehensive tool for measuring the overall transit service quality, named Heterogeneous Customer Satisfaction Index (HCSI), by considering different service aspects. To measure TransJogja service quality, users completed information about 8 service aspects which consists of overall 27 service attributes. The value of HCSI is 7.22 out of 10 indicating that the service delivered is about 72 percent successful in satisfying TransJogja customers. More efforts are needed to increase the level of customer satisfaction and attract new users to establish TransJogja as an appropriate transit system within the city.
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  • Marcus Kyle BARON, Kasem CHOOCHARUKUL
    Volume 11 (2015) Pages 1188-1200
    Released: December 26, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Bangkok, Thailand and Manila, Philippines each have three urban rail systems. Focusing on two urban rail systems in Bangkok and Manila, Bangkok Mass Transit System (BTS) and Metro Rail Transit (MRT3), the transit fare for the BTS is high and wide-ranging compared to the subsidized transit fare in the MRT3. Using the concept of price elasticity we demonstrated the sensitivity of urban rail passengers when a change in transit fare is implemented. Fare elasticity values obtained were -0.46 and -0.06 for the BTS and the MRT3, respectively, implying that the responsiveness of BTS users was much higher compared to the MRT3 when a price change is implemented. A modified Price Sensitivity Measurement (PSM), Kishi's Logit PSM (KLP), was used to determine reasonable price range for transit fare in both cities. Results indicated that the MRT3 transit fare could be increased, while the BTS system already had a reasonable fare setting.
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  • Dongsu KANG, Sunyoung PARK, Jinsu LEE, Heechan KANG, Jeong Whon YU
    Volume 11 (2015) Pages 1201-1220
    Released: December 26, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A comprehensive assessment method of the individual level-of-service (LOS) evaluation criteria (i.e., the mobility convenience, information provision, comfort, amenities, and safety and security) of an urban railway station, which is a public transportation facility in the selected area, was developed by surveying the facility status and the behavior of transfer pedestrians. The proposed method was established by analyzing the relationship between various quantitative factors, such as facility characteristics and usage scale of urban rail transfer stations, and qualitative service level represented by the perceived LOS of metro users.
    Analysis results showed that the consistency between of the assessed LOS score and the perceived LOS of actual facility users ranged from a minimum of 76.8% to a maximum of 93.4% depending on the assessment criteria, whereas the consistency derived from the comprehensive assessment was 93.7%, which made it possible to verify the accuracy and objectivity of the proposed LOS assessment method.
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  • Hiroshi TSUKAGUCHI, Upali VANDEBONA, Hayato MUKAI, Yoongho AHN
    Volume 11 (2015) Pages 1221-1239
    Released: December 26, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Route guidance information is important to visitors to tourist areas including persons who are not familiar with the area. Supplying a large amount of data may not be always helpful to the users. Therefore, the information system design has to pay attention to supplying the appropriate amount of information using a suitable layout. The primary objective of the sign system in a tourist area is to satisfy the user expectation to visit desirable attractions and use the budgeted time productively without getting lost. The analysis presented here is based on a case study using before and after data of a major tourist area that has modernized the sign system. The main focus of the analysis has been to identify the changes to circulation patterns within the site from view point of quantity and distribution of visitors getting lost.
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  • Vu Anh TUAN, Duong Thanh SON
    Volume 11 (2015) Pages 1240-1258
    Released: December 26, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Public transport system plays a vital role in providing mobility and accessibility to the people in emerging countries. It should be monitored, assessed, and improved continuously to meet the users' needs. Accessibility to public transport system is a core aspect that contributes to the system's effectiveness and attractiveness. This study aims to develop a concept of comprehensive accessibility and measurable indicators for understanding how good or how bad the system can be accessed over space, time, and by different population groups. A demonstration study is conducted for Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The results of the study may bring important insights into the planning, designing, operating and maintaining of effective public transport systems for developing countries.
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  • Takanori SUNAGAWA, Kenji DOI, Kiyoshi SUZUKI
    Volume 11 (2015) Pages 1259-1271
    Released: December 26, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Due to prioritization of growing automobile traffics over a variety of other road users, road facilities and infrastructures have often disregarded the needs of non-motorized transport users. It is often observed that structural problems among accessibility, safety, and usability cause serious situations in which inappropriate road facilities jeopardize traffic safety of pedestrians and cyclists. This paper takes road-crossing facilities as typical examples of the most problematic facilities, and elucidates the complicated structure of problems by applying the new concept of social usability. Finally, the paper proposes a holistic framework on social usability improvement of road-crossing facilities including road space management and travel speed management.
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  • D.M.W. Kanishka K.U.K. RAMBUKWELLA, Djoen San SANTOSO
    Volume 11 (2015) Pages 1272-1290
    Released: December 26, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study aims at examining the satisfaction levels of the users of the recently implemented luxury long distance bus service in Sri Lanka. This service was introduced to the public by the Ceylon Transport Board (CTB) as way of improving the current poor public bus service in the country. Data was collected through a survey questionnaire among the passengers and was tested using the statistical methods. The too pricy perception group showed a lower satisfaction compared to the fair fare perception group. It was identified that this difference was mostly influenced by the passenger's previous modes of travel. It can be concluded that a fair service is provided to the public for the price charged for the services. The attributes of low satisfaction are mostly terminal related attributes. One way to improve terminal attributes would be to provide feeders to the terminal and increase number of stops along the normal road to increase satisfaction regarding terminal accessibility.
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  • Sharifah Adibah Alyia SYED ADNAN, Abdul Azeez KADAR HAMSA
    Volume 11 (2015) Pages 1291-1306
    Released: December 26, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The upsurge of the working population has contributed to the increase of travel demand into the city centre. This situation has led to traffic congestion on the major highways leading into and out of the city. Transportation Demand Management (TDM) strategy known as the “park and ride” scheme was introduced towards encouraging commuters to use public transport. The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors that influence the parking demand of the park and ride facility at Putrajaya Sentral. A questionnaire survey was administered targeting both multi-storey and surface parking users on weekday and weekend. The questionnaire consists of three sections, which are socioeconomic profile, travel characteristics and parking characteristics. The method of analysis such as cross tabulation, Mann-Whitney U-Test, and Principal Component Analysis were applied. The findings revealed that factors such as parking availability, parking convenience and safety were significant difference between multi-storey and surface parking.
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  • Veng Kheang PHUN, Iv LIM, Tetsuo YAI
    Volume 11 (2015) Pages 1307-1327
    Released: December 26, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    With lack of mass transit system in Phnom Penh, citizens mainly rely on paratransit as public transport mode. This paper explores the characteristics of paratransit operation and fare in Phnom Penh, particularly the motorized paratransit modes with flexible transport service (i.e., Motodop and Remork). Driver interview survey was carried out to examine their operations. GPS devices were used to observe the operating speed and servicing routes. A series of fare models were developed to identify the factors influencing on the fare defined by paratransit drivers. In addition to the revealed characteristics of paratransit operations, results of estimated fare models showed that the paratransit fare was influenced by several factors including trip attributes and driver working conditions. Gathered data serves as useful information for planning of public transport system in the city.
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  • Minh Tu TRAN, Makoto CHIKARAISHI, Quynh Huong PHAM, Junyi ZHANG, Akima ...
    Volume 11 (2015) Pages 1328-1345
    Released: December 26, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    By using subjective evaluation of neighborhood walkability collected in Hanoi in 2011, this study empirically investigates how walkability is different across different types of neighborhoods and how it influences mode choices of short-distance trips. Surprisingly, the results of walkability comparison indicate that new-urban neighborhoods are less walkable than downtown and mixed neighborhoods. Specifically, downtown neighborhoods have strengths in terms of aesthetics and walking facilities, while the positive aspects of mixed neighborhoods are accessibility by foot, trees and street connectivity. Further, the results of multinomial logit model indicate that perceived neighborhood walkability has a significant influence on mode choices of short-distance trips: (1) accessibility by foot and walking facilities have positive influences on walking choice in mixed and downtown neighborhoods, and (2) the fear of crime is positively associated with the use of motorcycles in all three neighborhood types. These findings are important to improve neighborhood planning in Hanoi.
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  • Tri Basuki JOEWONO, Djoen San SANTOSO, Yusak O. SUSILO
    Volume 11 (2015) Pages 1346-1361
    Released: December 26, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Paratransit, well known as Angkutan Kota (Angkot) in Indonesia, has been a major public transport mode in most developing countries. This mode offers public a frequent and flexible service, regulated via a micro cooperation, and operated freely by individuals. The study aims to elaborate the characteristics and user perceptions on the service attributes of Angkot. Data was collected from three Indonesian major metropolitan areas: Bandung, Jakarta, and Yogyakarta. Results show that Angkot has a specific market segment. Users experienced that the services received less than their expectation. Security in using the mode has been the priority concern for passengers in all three cities. Angkot shelters need to be improved, organized, and maintained properly to provide acceptable service to passengers. Size and economic development of a city may influence the level of service delivered by operators and/or perceived by respondents.
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  • Francis Aldrine UY, Riches BACERO, Edgar Allen MALALAD, Leandrew ROA
    Volume 11 (2015) Pages 1362-1377
    Released: December 26, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study focused on the non - motorized transportation (NMT) primarily on pedicabs in Intramuros, Manila, both existing and a proposed transportation system. The study aimed to come up with an engineered transportation system of the pedicabs and also promote walking as a travel means. Preference Survey on pedicabs was used in the study and a field walkability survey was adopted from Asia Development Bank. The study found out that there is a need to improve the NMT system of Intramuros in terms of pedicabs attributes and terminals as well as pedestrian facilities. This is to encourage people to use non - motorized transport as means to travel around Intramuros.
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  • Younghyun SEO, Dong-Kyu KIM, Seung-Young KHO
    Volume 11 (2015) Pages 1378-1385
    Released: December 26, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study aims to consider strategies for public bicycle systems with different demand patterns. We propose operating cost considering a penalty function representing the expected number of shortages of bikes or lockers. Example networks consisting of 10 stations are created to illustrate the proposed model. The model used in this study is Mixed Integer Nonlinear Programming (MINLP) and determines what route the driver chooses in order to minimize repositioning costs. It is conducted with MS Excel 2013 and GAMS solver (SCIP). Demands of each station were generated stochastically at every iteration and normally distributed. This study analyzes five scenarios and shows that solving time is high when most of stations have similar demand. In addition, the more rental and return demands are clearly separated, the lower the standard deviation is. This result implies that an additional algorithm which helps to reduce the fluctuation is needed when demands are similar.
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  • Sho KASHIMA, Kenji DOI, Takanori SUNAGAWA, Hiroto INOI
    Volume 11 (2015) Pages 1386-1402
    Released: December 26, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Most of the current station plazas are now left behind as spaces for road traffic in order to deal with increasing traffic demands especially in suburban areas. This paper aims to examine a methodology for the improvement of the spatial design of station plazas that can restore the inherent functions of plazas, open spaces for conviviality and sociability. Firstly, the method to determine an appropriate environmental space rate for station plazas was developed in order to strike a balance between road space for traffic and environmental space for people. Based on this consideration, the necessity to set up a new additional standard for station plaza planning was addressed. Secondly, the paper developed a system of indicators to assess social usability that enables us to identify problematic station plazas among existing ones. Finally, design principles for the improvement of station plazas with higher usability were proposed
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  • Xin ZHANG, Hideki NAKAMURA
    Volume 11 (2015) Pages 1403-1415
    Released: December 26, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Quantifying effects of crosswalk length and signal timing on pedestrians' presence position and timing is an important requirement for evaluating the probability of conflict. It can be utilized to provide a rational safety assessment and improve existing operational policies at signalized intersections. This study investigates the effects of crosswalk length and pedestrian green time on the spatiotemporal probability of pedestrian presence. It was found that the longer pedestrian green time and crosswalk length leads to the wider distribution of pedestrian presence probability. In addition, a surrogate safety measure for assessing pedestrian safety is proposed by utilizing the pedestrian presence probability model.
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  • Phathinan THAITHATKUL, Toru SEO, Takahiko KUSAKABE, Yasuo ASAKURA
    Volume 11 (2015) Pages 1416-1432
    Released: December 26, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Ridesharing system has been recognized as an efficient transport mode to solve the environment, energy, traffic congestion issues. In recent researches, user preference was revealed as an important factor to enhance the performance and reliability of ridesharing systems. With the development in ICT, internet-enabled devices and social network enable us to obtain real-time travel information and users' personality. Therefore, user preference based on their personality is considered in this study. The aims of this study are to formulate a matching model between passengers by considering user preference and to investigate how user preference affects ridesharing system's performance. The algorithm for solving stable roommates problem is modified for one-on-one passengers matching problem. The factors of user preference are personality and steadiness of user personality. The results of numerical experiments showed that steadiness of user personality affected to both individual and system success rate, while personality only affected to system success rate.
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  • Yasunori MUROMACHI, Iv LIM, Achmad WICAKSONO, Karl N. VERGEL, Kasem CH ...
    Volume 11 (2015) Pages 1433-1450
    Released: December 26, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this study, we conducted an international comparative study on road-based urban public transport policies in six Asian countries: Cambodia, Indonesia, Japan, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam. We paid attention especially to governance, urban planning and financial aspects as important background factors for considering road-based urban public transport policies. We found that the assignment of the administration on road-based urban public transport was different in the six countries. Among three urban planning measures, zoning for Transit Oriented Development and land development permission were implemented in all six countries. However, coordination with public transport through these two mechanisms was not necessarily established. In relation to financial policy for public transport, the six countries share many common policies. The exception in terms of the subsidy to paratransit was Japan where paratransit mode serviced in the area with serious population decrease.
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  • Tetsu BANDO, Daisuke FUKUDA, Achmad WICAKSONO, Lila Kurnia WARDANI
    Volume 11 (2015) Pages 1451-1466
    Released: December 26, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study analyzes citizens' travel choice behavior in a medium-sized Southeast Asian city to observe their intention to use new public transport. We selected Malang in Indonesia as a case study. A travel behavior and intention survey including stated preference questions was conducted with university students. The results of the latent-class model of commute mode choices show that respondents could be divided into “cost and delay time” and “travel and access time” oriented classes. Respondents who were likely to convert to new public transport modes were male, had a higher income, and were interested in new public transport. The estimation results of the scheduling choices model confirm the significant difference in the sensitivity to recreation time between recreational activities.
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  • Apiwat RATANAWARAHA, Saksith CHALERMPONG, Chakaphan CHULLABODHI
    Volume 11 (2015) Pages 1467-1478
    Released: December 26, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper investigates the walking distance of commuters in Bangkok who changed transport modes to rail transit, and examines the factors that may determine the degree of change in walking distance. We hypothesize that people walk a longer distance after the modal shift and that socioeconomic, trip characteristics, residential and job location choice affect the change in walking distance. We test the hypotheses by analyzing 1,020 commuter surveys, conducted at 34 stations of the Bangkok Mass Transit System, using regression techniques. The results suggest that people walk farther, averaging a 750-m increase, after modal shift. The regression results imply that socioeconomic characteristics, including gender, age, income and occupation, and trip characteristics, such as type of origin stations, significantly affect the degree of change in walking distance, while residential and job locations choice have a more limited impact on the change.
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  • Djoen San SANTOSO, Kunihiro SAKAMOTO, Masaru YAJIMA, Hisashi KUBOTOA
    Volume 11 (2015) Pages 1479-1494
    Released: December 26, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Access trip characteristics to rail station are examined from two physical environments: distance and slope with a focus on the provision of public bus as a feeder. The study is based on public responses collected from a questionnaire survey distributed to major residential areas in Hidaka City, Japan. Mode use pattern, distance and gradient from home to station and to bus stop were evaluated and discussed. A sloping terrain lessened the attractiveness of walking and cycling but it is not one of the major reasons in mode selection. A 400 m is considered an acceptable walking distance to bus stop, which is suit well in this study. The acceptable walking distance from home to rail station is 2 km, which is relatively higher when compared to other findings. This is good for rail business but may inflict a challenge for public bus service as a feeder to rail stations.
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  • Norlida ABDUL HAMID, Peck-Leong TAN, Mohamad Faizul MOHAMAD ZALI, Nor ...
    Volume 11 (2015) Pages 1495-1506
    Released: December 26, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The issue of safety and security has always been of concern to any passengers. This study examined the travelers' perception towards the safety and the security needs of a commuter rail service. Three hundred respondents from three stations were selected for a purposive survey. Using multiple liner regression, the relationship between lighting, availability of security guard, passengers' behavior and layout and design with travelers' perception on the safety and security needs was predicted. The results revealed the availability of security guards had the most significant contribution towards the variance of the dependent variable. This is followed by the layout and design of the stations and then lighting. Passengers' behavior however does not contribute significantly to the variance of the dependent variable. Such findings provide good input towards further enhancing the overall safety and security aspects of the commuter rail services.
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  • Sony S. WIBOWO, Natalia TANAN, Nuryani TINUMBIA
    Volume 11 (2015) Pages 1507-1521
    Released: December 26, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    For Indonesia cities, walking mode, is not yet preferred one because of lack of walking facilities. Walking assessment is needed to evaluate how the walking infrastructure and environment can encourage more walking. The research objective is to develop is walkability measures using the concept of walkability index with case of Bandung city. The index was considered as the quality parameter of walking facilities for ease to walk. Four city areas were used with nine parameters to assess the index. Based on the parameters, a scoring system was developed and to complete it, a survey form was developed and then filled up as an inventory survey along the dominants walking routes within theoretical catchment area of 800 meters from the center area. Research findings show that index for the study areas spread was relatively same. However, detail investigations on the index's parameters showed that were critical condition for walking facilities improvement.
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  • Nguyen HOANG-TUNG, Aya KOJIMA, Hisashi KUBOTA
    Volume 11 (2015) Pages 1522-1534
    Released: December 26, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Recent literature of travel behaviour studies showed that travellers' motivation to use transport mode was considered in two motives which are self-interest motive and pro-environmental motive. In addition, a common finding in comparing the two motives was that travellers rely more on self-interest motive than pro-environmental motive to decide travel behaviour. However, the practice of transportation management showed that increasing public transportation ridership by improving travellers' self-interest motivation (e.g., advantages of public transportation) is not an easy task. Therefore, it is necessary to focus more on travellers' pro-environmental motivation which is likely an easier-to-implement solution for increasing public transportation ridership. A notable revision work of the present study suggested that travellers' pro-environmental motivation in deciding travel behaviour may change accordingly to trip characteristics. In particular, a hypothesis was made that the role of environmental motivation in deciding bus use intention is weaker regarding more-frequent trips and greater regarding less-frequent trips. As a result, an empirical study conducted in Saitama city, Japan showed support to the hypothesis, suggesting that environment-based interventional policies to increase bus ridership probably work better in cases of less-frequent trips such as trips to social events and trips for dining.
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  • Nabila ABDUL GHANI, Tetsuo SHIMIZU, Safizahanin MOKHTAR
    Volume 11 (2015) Pages 1535-1554
    Released: December 26, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The objective of this paper is to rate pedestrian facilities in Malacca World Heritage Site using Pedestrian Index (P-Index) method. P-Index has four indicators to assess pedestrian facilities namely mobility (M), safety (S), facility (F) and accessibility (A). The two stars rating for pedestrian facilities in Malacca WHS can be interpreted as unfavorable to pedestrians. This reflected the poor walking environment of Malacca WHS and improvement strategy is necessary in order to create a pedestrian friendly environment in the heritage city.
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  • Le Quan HOANG, Toshiyuki OKAMURA
    Volume 11 (2015) Pages 1555-1574
    Released: December 26, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study explores influences of motorcycle use on travel intentions with respect to Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) in the context that motorcycle use becomes long-standing habit and public transport accounts for little share of travel demand. It is found that attitudes toward travel modes and bus access preferences have significant influences on travel intentions. However, attitudes toward motorcycle have less contribution to bus use intention in comparison with attitudes toward bus transport. While motorcycle uses of bus access preferences have no relationship with bus use intention, these preferences are associated with future MRT choices.
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  • Anshuman SHARMA, Manoranjan PARIDA, Ch. Ravi SEKHAR, Ankit KATHURIA
    Volume 11 (2015) Pages 1575-1593
    Released: December 26, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Capacity estimation of Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) is an important attribute to assess its operation, reliability and to comment on its performance. In context of existing BRTS corridor in India, knowledge about bus lane capacity is scarce. This study demonstrates the applicability of empirical and simulation models to estimate bus lane capacity of Bhopal BRTS, India. In empirical model, Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual (TCQSM) guidelines were followed and bus lane capacity value estimated was 41 buses/h. In simulation, a base network of Bhopal BRTS was developed, calibrated, and validated in microsimulation software VISSIM. Following this, two approaches, namely Failure Rate (FR) and Speed Reduction (SR) have been implemented in the simulation model to estimate bus lane capacity as 39 and 38 buses/h, respectively. The comparison of simulation outcomes with TCQSM result shows that FR approach (error 4.8%) is closer to estimate bus lane capacity.
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