Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies
Online ISSN : 1881-1124
ISSN-L : 1341-8521
Current issue
Showing 1-50 articles out of 155 articles from the selected issue
A: Transportation General
  • Jetpan WETWITOO, Masaru KOMORI, Naohiko HIBINO, Hisao UCHIYAMA, Atsush ...
    2019 Volume 13 Pages 1-19
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: January 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Travel survey in Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR) has been constantly conducted since 1990 on an interview basis. Recent technology enabled a GPS-based travel survey to be conducted via a smartphone application. With this method, travel information can be obtained more precisely compared to interview-based survey as travel location can be instantly obtained from GPS tracker and other travel information can be recorded immediately after the completion of the travel. This study is the first large-scale pilot survey on the GPS based travel survey in BMR, covering 308 samples in 10-days consecutive study period. Based on the unique survey data from mobile application survey, travel characteristics in BMR such as modal shift and time/day travel fluctuation can be presented. Problems found during the survey period and directions for future implementation are also discussed.

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  • Saurabh DANDAPAT, Tamojit GHOSH, Uday SHANKAR, Swati MAITRA, Bhargab M ...
    2019 Volume 13 Pages 20-42
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: January 25, 2020
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    Air pollution in urban context is a major concern across the world which has severe impacts on human health. Vehicular emission contributes a major part in urban air pollution, thus, many countries have taken various steps to reduce the vehicular emission with several policies and interventions. Vehicular inspection and maintenance (I/M) program has been instrumental for curbing and controlling vehicular emission across the globe including India. Pollution certification of in-use vehicles is one of the important components of I/M program adopted by India. This paper presents a review the existing pollution certification process and corresponding institutional and regulatory framework with reference to India, highlights several gaps in the certification process, and recommends necessary interventions for improving the effectiveness of the certification process.

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  • Blawal HUSSAIN, Hitomi SATO, Shiyu XIONG, Tomio MIWA, Ngoc T. NGUYEN, ...
    2019 Volume 13 Pages 43-59
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: January 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the basic cross-cultural differences in the aberrant driving behaviors of Japanese, Chinese, and Vietnamese drivers. Overall, the Vietnamese drivers reported more instances of all four types of aberrant behaviors on the road as compared to the drivers from the other two countries. On the contrary, the fewest aggressive violations were reported by the Japanese drivers. An analysis of variance was also performed; the results indicated significant differences in the aberrant driving behaviors of drivers from the three countries. The test statistics indicated there are significant differences between the drivers from the three countries in terms of the Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) items. Finally, the results of a confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the four-factor model structure of the shorter version of the DBQ used in this study was valid for Chinese drivers but only partially valid for Vietnamese and Japanese drivers.

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  • Minh Tan DANG, Duc Thinh NGUYEN
    2019 Volume 13 Pages 60-69
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: January 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    There are many technologies for counting and measuring traffic, such as pneumatic tube, IR sensor, Inductive loop, Ultrasonic wave, video image processing and so on. However, many of these technologies are costly and inflexible to operate and some issues about authorization as well as access rights. Meanwhile, in recent years, the number of people using smartphones with internet connection is increasing. Therefore, taking advantage of it for purposes of traffic couniting and measurement is necessary. The paper presents process to develop a low-cost and flexible system which utilizes an existing IOT device for traffic data collection from MAC address-based crowd data and process to evaluate the tool as well as an applicable application in traffic analysis. Common problems like detecting capacity of the system, data processing and so on are also discussed. The result shows that the system is flexible and very useful for traffic movement data collection and analysis.

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  • Sherwin Roy CALUMBA, Alexis FILLONE, Monorom RITH
    2019 Volume 13 Pages 70-79
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: January 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This paper intends to explore the impact of facility damage, evacuation distance, and tsunami warning on earthquake evacuation choice using the primary stated preference data of 1,079 individuals collected in Surigao City, Philippines in 2019. Three alternative evacuation choices were classified such as stay at home, evacuation to open space, and evacuation to a public shelter. The Multinomial Logit (MNL) and the Multinomial Probit (MNP) regressions were used to develop the model for comparison. The results highlighted that the MNL and MNP were comparable in terms of log-likelihood value and McFadden R2. The estimated coefficients of the two models are in the same trend and informed that people are more likely to evacuate to open spaces or public shelters rather than stay at homes in case of the complete facility damage. Interestingly, people are least likely to leave to public refuges if there is a tsunami warning.

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  • Amila SANDARUWAN, Tharuka KARUNARATHNE, Vasantha WICKRAMASINGHE
    2019 Volume 13 Pages 80-92
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: January 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Capacity of a roundabout is highly dependent on gap acceptance parameters. One of the major influential parameters is critical gap. Many researchers have used various methods in estimating critical gap (tc) at different types of intersections including roundabouts. Much attention has been drawn into homogenous vehicle flow, but less attention has been drawn into heterogeneous traffic flow conditions related to local vehicle conditions based on its composition in Sri Lanka. Motorcycles and three-wheelers possess up to 50% of the vehicle mix in Sri Lanka. It is very important to analyze the impact for critical gap under this condition. In this paper, present methods for estimating critical gap are compared and new method for estimating critical gap is proposed incorporating the vehicular mix. Applicability of the proposed method and critical gap value for each vehicle category for local roundabout condition has been determined.

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  • N. ALEKSEEV, William H. K. LAM
    2019 Volume 13 Pages 93-101
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: January 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This paper is devoted an analysis using WIFI MAC addresses and video data. A framework is developed for processing and analysis of the data from WIFI scanners, particularly electronic devices with unique MAC addresses, for estimation of pedestrian flow and walking time. Experiments are conducted in the campus of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU) to collect relevant data and to investigate the detection performance of the WIFI scanners together with the signal strength of electronic devices. Pedestrian flow is estimated based on video data by moving observer method and WiFi data by the developed framework, respectively. Comparison is also made between the estimated number of pedestrians using WIFI data with the actual number of pedestrians extracted from video records.

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  • Rika IDEI, Hironori KATO
    2019 Volume 13 Pages 102-119
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: January 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Improving rural roads has been widely believed essential for offering all-season accessibility and improving peoples’ mobility. Several paths to achieve this have been proposed, one of which is a change in people’s travel mode ownership. This study analyzes the changes in people’s modal ownership using a dataset comprising 332 samples collected in rural Cambodia, where a rural roads improvement project was completed. The descriptive analysis reveals that the growth rate for motorcycle ownership was greater than the rate for bicycles, that changes in income do not necessarily increase people’s travel mode ownership, and that bi-wheeled mode ownership does not always increase travel frequency. These findings indicate that improving road conditions does not necessarily motivate people to obtain new personal travel modes or change their travel behavior, and that other factors may influence their behavior, some of which were involved by the road improvement.

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  • Anirban GUAHROY, Bandhan B. Majumdar, Prasanta K. Sahc, Avijit Maji ...
    2019 Volume 13 Pages 120-131
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: January 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This study aims to identify and evaluate a key set of factors related to twowheeler ownership in typical Indian context. Data collected from 934 households in Pune, a metropolitan city in India are used in this study. Based on the collected dataset, choice sets are defined by three categories of two-wheelers, namely, two-wheelers with engine capacity upto 150 cubic-centimetres, more than150 cubic-centimetres and automatic scooters. Subsequently, multinomial-logit and nested logit models are developed to a) estimate and compare the utility associated with three categories of two-wheelers and b) identify the most important attributes influencing two-wheeler ownership in Indian context. Results clearly indicated that mileage offered by a particular two-wheeler category is one of the most significant factors. Among other attributes, lower operation and maintenance costs are observed to play an important role towards choice of a particular two-wheeler category.

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  • Kazuyuki TAKADA, Kazufumi KAWABATA, Hitomi MURAKAMI, Maki KOYAMA
    2019 Volume 13 Pages 132-143
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: January 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Tsunami evacuation at Horikiri district in Tahara city was focused on since there would be hit by a forthcoming Nankai trough earthquake with seismic intensity of 7 at maximum and also be inundated with 2m depth within 18 minutes after the earthquake. In addition, this district is located in low flatland so that evacuation situation is extremely severe. To accomplish safer situation, in 2018, the municipality has built artificial evacuation mound near residential area in low flatland. Then, in this study, a questionnaire survey was conducted to investigate the influence of the evacuation mound on evacuation behavior of the residents. Moreover, agent-based simulator was built to evaluate evacuation behavior that was imagined by residents. As the results of this study, the evacuation behavior imagined by the residents is not safer situation. Finally, it is mentioned that appropriate usage of the tsunami evacuation mound is necessary to accomplish the safer evacuation situation.

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  • Eeshan BHADURI, Manoj BS, Joy SEN, Bhargab MAITRA, Arkopal K GOSWAMI
    2019 Volume 13 Pages 144-171
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: January 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Human behavior has a correlation with the perception of an infrastructural service, which may influence its usage. Users’ perception of pedestrian infrastructure in developing nations are being increasingly studied and sometimes also is translated into designing the walking environment. In India, where motorized travel is on the rise, it is imperative that we sustain our non-motorized modal share by providing its users with quality and safe walking infrastructure. The research measures user satisfaction of present walking environment in three different cities of India. Aggregate and city specific pedestrian satisfaction models identify a set of factors comprising socioeconomic, trip specific, and built environment attributes. Data reveals that pedestrian perception of the overall walking environment ranges from “poor” to “average”. Modelling results show commonalities in factors significantly affecting overall pedestrian satisfaction across the three cities. However, magnitudes of the perceptions of overall satisfaction are distinct across cities.

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  • Tharuka KARUNARATHNE, Amila SANDARUWAN, Vasantha WICKRAMASINGHE
    2019 Volume 13 Pages 172-186
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: January 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Roundabouts are very popular and used in many countries as a method of intersection control. It facilitates an orderly movement of traffic in a circular motion around a central island in one direction. Design and planning of roundabouts require thorough analysis of its performance. The entry capacity is one important measure of performance of a roundabout. There are several methods to estimate the capacity of roundabouts which have been developed in many countries. However, those methods have been developed for the homogeneous traffic flow conditions in most of the developed countries. The traffic flow condition in most of the developing countries like Sri Lanka is heterogeneous since it consists with motor bikes and three wheelers. Therefore this research aims to determine the effect of the mixed traffic condition in roundabout entry capacity and to develop a method to estimate the entry capacity for urban roundabouts perform under mixed traffic conditions.

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  • Sharmin SULTANA, Khadija Bint Abdur ROUF, Sakib Sarwar AHMED, Moinul H ...
    2019 Volume 13 Pages 187-209
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: January 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This paper examines the interior design perceptions and preferences of male and female public bus users based on different service quality criteria, sub-criteria, and design alternatives using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) decision-making model. The ultimate objective is to redesign the interiors of the existing public buses in Dhaka City to suit the needs of both genders. Several interior design aspects, their problems, and alternative solutions were discussed in three focus group discussions (FGDs). A customized service quality model based on SERVQUAL and RESCA models was used as the instrument for the FGDs which eventually led to the design of the AHP study. Results of pairwise comparison survey based on the AHP model suggest dire need of restructuring of the interiors of the existing buses, especially for the female passengers. Finally, sketches of the most popular redesign alternatives are presented followed by a discussion on the policy implications of such reforms.

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  • Narayan CHATURVEDI, Durga TOSHNIWAL, Manoranjan PARIDA
    2019 Volume 13 Pages 210-220
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: January 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Transportation is an essential part of human life, therefore, it is important to understand the opinion of the general public in different aspects of transportation. Furthermore, the citizen’s opinion is the actual customer-based performance metric which can be used to assign priorities to the urban traffic issues. Further, Social media is the cost effective source of large amount of dataset, which provides the possibility of opinion mining in this context. This paper proposes an opinion mining approach based on traffic-related tweets to find the citizen’s sentiment for urban transportation issues. In order to show the prevalence of transportation on social media, the location-based traffic related tweets, written by individuals expressing their sentiments about different transport services have been mined, preprocessed, and then a dictionary-based approach is used for the calculation of sentiment and classification of sentiment polarity to evaluate the satisfaction of transportation users.

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  • Xun ZHENG, Tomio MIWA
    2019 Volume 13 Pages 221-237
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: January 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Population decline is a pressing issue facing Japan and other developed countries. Elderly’s daily travel demand should be meet in aging society. With more elderly people are willing to return their driving license, Japanese government is seeking solutions to ensure a durable transportation construct for elderly’s daily life. This paper discussed four on-road public transport services, and investigated the option price of these services. Option price is the willingness to pay of residents for maintaining the service. This study attempts to gain the insights on a reasonable level of subsidy from the government. A comparative analysis among age groups and different city size groups is made. The result shows that bus service has the highest and ride-sharing service has the lowest option price. In addition, elderly residents show a higher option price than younger and middle-age residents.

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  • Neenu THOMAS, Santanu BANDYOPADHYAY, Arnab JANA
    2019 Volume 13 Pages 238-257
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: January 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    A significant association of individual and neighborhood level characteristics with the variation in travel time is anticipated. In this research, distinct indices are formulated with variables specific to socioeconomic conditions, automobile accessibility, sustainability transport, and proximity to facilities. The detailed case from Mumbai, India is taken for the research, and we hypothesize: (a) high travel time with lower socioeconomic condition as those individuals tend to choose cheaper mode options which are slow; (b) individuals with higher mobility tend to travel longer; (c) availability of better sustainable transportation system induces usage; and (d) proximity to facilities reduces travel time. The findings can help policymakers and urban planners, not only from India but the cities of Global South, to develop effective strategies to promote mixed land use and sustainable transport. The method has proven to be a helpful tool to explore the impact of individual-specific multiple characteristics on travel behavior.

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  • Tri Basuki JOEWONO, Muhamad RIZKI, Prawira Fajarinda BELGIAWAN, Muham ...
    2019 Volume 13 Pages 258-276
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: January 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Studies from mostly developed countries provide evidence that e-shopping decrease the needs for shopping trips. With unique characteristics of the quality of infrastructure as well as cultural background, it is hypothesized there is a different impact of online shopping on shopping trip behavior. This study aims to investigate the impact of online shopping on the travel behavior of shoppers. Investigation employed data from Bandung, Indonesia to represent developing countries. The study results found that online shoppers keep making the trip, as a substitution as well as complementary to their in-store shopping. Shoppers’ decisions are found significantly influenced by their e-shopping experience for both positive and negative. This study also found that their e-shopping spending are influenced by in-store shopping frequency and spending

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  • Nan Thazin Khine OO, KYAING, Ko Ko LWIN, Yoshihide SEKIMOTO
    2019 Volume 13 Pages 277-297
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: January 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Intercity trips have been understudied by researchers and public agencies in comparison to routine trips within an urban area. Currently, intercity travel demand are increasing, and a significant portion of total mileage travelled. However, traditional methods to estimate OD demands through household or roadside surveys are time consuming and expensive. An emerging alternative is passive data sources, such as anonymous cellular data. Anonymous cellular data can provide large random samples and provide results much faster and as much lower cost than travel surveys. It also has a low deployment cost, as it does not require any additional equipment. Yangon-Pathein Highway is the only available supply for the travelling between Ayeyarwady region and Yangon city. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate how anonymous cellular data may be used to extract about intercity travel patterns and how the travel pattern have the impact on Yangon-Pathein Highway Road.

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  • Yoshikazu KUKI, Tetsuo SHIMIZU
    2019 Volume 13 Pages 298-313
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: January 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Through a statistical analysis of data, this study aims to explore how international and domestic flights to local airports in Japan affect the number of overnight stays by Chinese, Koreans, and Taiwanese visitors in the rural areas of Japan, impacting the amount of visitor consumption. One of the main estimated results is that an increase in the number of international scheduled flights has a significant effect on the number of overnight stays by foreign visitors from the three countries/regions.

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  • Ritvik CHAUHAN, Ashish DHAMANIYA, Shriniwas ARKATKAR, Prasanta K. SAHU ...
    2019 Volume 13 Pages 314-330
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: January 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    USHighway Capacity Manual and Indian Highway Capacity Manualdefine road capacity as the maximum sustainable flow rate at which vehicles or persons can reasonably be expected to traverse a point under the given roadway, geometric, traffic, environmental, and control conditions. The capacity of the roadway system often gets reduced by the roadside activities called side friction. In India, side friction prevails predominantly in urban areas due to a significant rise in population and economic activities. These activities restrain the urban road system to serve at full operating capacity. In this study, the impact of a side friction parameter (on-street parking, and non-motorized vehicles) on the performance of an urban road has been measured. Secondarily, the product limit method of capacity estimation has been implemented to overcome the randomness observed in capacity value. A microsimulation model is developed to validate the results.

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  • Chintaman BARI, Yogeshwar V NAVANDAR, Ashish DHAMANIYA
    2019 Volume 13 Pages 331-350
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: January 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Service time is one of the key factors for the operation and performance evaluation of toll plazas. The service time is found to be dynamic in nature depending upon vehicle-class, traffic composition, toll rate, drivers’ and tollbooth operators’ behavior. The present study aims to evaluate the service time variation under mixed traffic conditions considering seven vehicle classes. The mean service time was found to be low for a small car (SC) and high for Trailer as 10.47 seconds (s) and 33.69 s respectively. Furthermore, the leader-follower pair’s effect on service time variation is also evaluated, selected thirteen-pairs with SC as leader or SC as a follower is considered. The results indicate that the average service time is minimum for SC-SC pair and maximum for Trailer-SC pair as 10.42 s and 33.81 s respectively. The relationship between toll rate and service time shows the polynomial as the best fit.

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  • Suzanna Razali CHAN, Norlida Abdul HAMID, Kasypi MOHKTAR
    2019 Volume 13 Pages 351-368
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: January 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The shipping industry plays a vital role in the Malaysian economy as most of the trading activities are done by ships. However, recent statistics show that the number of incidents within the shipping industry had risen over the years, and this involves loss of lives, damages on property and also to the environment. The aims of this study are to examine the relationship between supervision, safety focus, safety communication and feedback and also training towards safety performance at sea as well as to examine the most influential factor towards influencing the variance of the safety performance at sea. Through purposive sampling technique, a total of 233 seafarers working on board commercial ships in Malaysia were selected as the respondents. It is hoped that the findings of this paper can provide further insights into a more effective training strategies towards improving safety at sea as well as reducing maritime incidents.

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  • Muhammad HUSSAIN, Jing SHI
    2019 Volume 13 Pages 369-383
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: January 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The aim of this study is three-fold. Firstly, it explains the aberrant driving behaviors among Pakistani drivers. Secondly, it focusses on the predictors which predict these aberrant driving behaviors. Lastly, it compares the aberrant driving behaviors of Pakistani drivers with Chinese drivers. 396 respondents from Pakistan completed the Internet-based questionnaire survey. Principal component analysis with varimax rotation revealed that the drivers in Pakistan are involved in three aberrant driving behaviors; self-willed violations/errors, distracted violations, and risky violations/errors. Three Proportional Odds (PO) model were used to explore the predictors of aberrant driving behaviors. Results showed that driving training, driving license and driving experience are the significant predictors of self-willed violations/errors whereas gender, age, and education level are significantly associated with distracted violations. Moreover, drivers getting more income are directly related to fewer risky violations/errors. The results also demonstrate that Pakistani drivers are less-disciplined as compared to Chinese drivers.

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B: Transportation Economics and Policy
  • Phani Kumar PATNALA, Manoranjan PARIDA, Ravi Sekhar CHALUMURI
    2019 Volume 13 Pages 384-396
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: January 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Transit Oriented Development (TOD) planning in India become essential to address neighborhood structure and transportation issues in its urban areas. Present study employed an enhanced fuzzy-analytical hierarchical process (EFAHP) framework to a TOD planning problem for Delhi, India. Seven universal planning parameters as criteria and their corresponding indicators were established from elaborate literature and expert consultation for the decision making process. Thirty-one expert decisions segmented to three groups were involved in assessing the importance ratings to the established criteria/indicators. The criterion weights obtained from the EFAHP approach reflects the priority planning parameters that are to be focused for TOD planning. Further, a comprehensive TOD definition was proposed which will serve as a prescription to planners, policymakers and government authorities in the TOD policy development for other Indian cities, especially for Delhi.

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  • Fumio KUROSAKI, Shosaku HIGASHINO
    2019 Volume 13 Pages 397-413
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: January 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Since IC cards have much larger data capacity in comparison with paper-based magnetic tickets, they can record the precise data of passengers’ travel. Japanese passenger railways have tried to utilise this advantage to make public transport more convenient and to expand its business scope without support from the public sector. Although various IC card systems were developed by different railways, 10 major cards have agreed on mutual use among them since 2013. As such, Japanese passenger railways have garnered fruitful results by utilising IC card systems so far. To make public transport in urban areas more convenient, the public sector can also utilise IC card systems to introduce new rules like those found in Singapore.

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  • Taiga SAKAMOTO, Kosuke TANAKA, Shintaro TERABE, Hideki YAGINUMA, Nan K ...
    2019 Volume 13 Pages 414-426
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: January 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    In Japan, public works budgets are generally decreasing; other developed countries, however—such as the United States—have been increasing their respective public works budgets. The question of this study is why have only Japan decreased the public works budget. In democratic country, political decision such of government budget is affected by public opinion, which is likely to be affected by mass media coverage. We therefore analyzed newspaper coverage in Japan and in the United States, a developed country that also has a liberal democracy system, with respect to this issue. We analyzed the editorials in two leading Japanese newspapers and compared them to those in the United States. Ultimately, we found that the two Japanese newspapers tend to report more negatively on public works than those in the United States.

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  • Varsolo SUNIO, Jan-Dirk SCHMÖCKER
    2019 Volume 13 Pages 427-441
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: January 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Stage models are found useful to reflect the gradual process as to how a person can be guided to a change in attitude and finally behavior. This paper discusses how stage models, the transtheoretical model and the stage model of self-regulated behavior change, can be used to systematically inform the development of travel behavior change interventions. Stage-tailoring, a design approach that matches the interventions to the stages, is the most prominent strategy in studies that do systematically apply the theories, but an alternative approach, called menu-based, is also introduced, which is grounded on the theoretical conceptualization that stages represent an underlying continuum of action readiness. As illustration on how a menu-based approach may be applied, we present the Blaze mobility behavior change system.

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  • Ryohei YAMAMOTO
    2019 Volume 13 Pages 442-462
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: January 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Mergers change competitive situations in markets and affect consumers and rivals. We assume three cases as potential merger forms between two firms: (i) two firms (both brands) maintain their activity under a holding company; (ii) a firm maintains its own brand and the other is resorbed; or (iii) vice versa. What are the differences among the market results of these three cases? We examine that question using data from the U.S. airline industry (merger between Delta and Northwest) by simulation. Results show that firms expand their profits when they merge to either one. It is important for consumer surplus to maintain high quality and low cost products, and that the rival drops the price.

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  • Lisha WANG, Meilan JIANG, Tomio MIWA, Eleni BARDAKA, Takayuki MORIKAWA
    2019 Volume 13 Pages 463-481
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: January 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The effects of the opening of two urban railway lines on residential gentrification in Nagoya, Japan, are separately investigated. The difference-in-differences model, a quasi-experimental model, is applied to explore the possible causal relationship between rail investments and residential gentrification. Two rail transit lines, which consist of subway and elevated railway, have been opened in the same year in a period of economic downturn. The analysis results reveal that these railway lines located in different areas have achieved their own geographic scale of influence. Furthermore, the analysis points that the railway line located in the center of Nagoya produces a significant change in household income in the nearby neighborhoods, while evidence of transit-induced residential gentrification is not found for the suburb of Nagoya.

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  • Hidetoshi MATSUSHITA, Shigeru MORICHI
    2019 Volume 13 Pages 482-502
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: January 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Most PPP urban railway projects in Asia have not succeeded. We have analyzed the reasons and risks of these projects qualitatively. The purpose of this paper is to get lessons from these failures and to know the information of better project scheme for new urban railway in Asia. In this paper we make quantitative analysis on each risk focusing on the Blue Line in Bangkok, the MRT Line 3 in Manila and the Kaohsiung Metro to understand the priority of improvement for these risks. Upon review of related literature and analysis of financial and operational data, this paper identifies various risks encountered and the risks allocation in the projects and prepares financial model of the projects to demonstrate the quantitative impacts caused by said risks. Finally, the paper provides the considerations focusing on the most influential issues and concludes with a series of suggestions to improve the projects.

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  • Tran Vinh HA, Takumi ASADA, Mikiharu ARIMURA
    2019 Volume 13 Pages 503-522
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: January 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The combination of multi-mode on a trip appears significantly in the total amount of trip generated daily. Understanding the influential mechanism in the multi-mode choice process will greatly help policymaking. This work introduces the application of Gradient Boosting Machine, a Machine Learning algorithm, and Local Interpretable Model-agnostic Explanations technique to investigate the multi-mode pattern and its determinants in order to deeper understand this problem. The empirical results from the case study of Jakarta city show that the single-mode choice was affected by limit features while the multi-mode choice was influenced by the wide range of variables. Additionally, the Gradient Boosting Machine was indicated with the impressive potentiality in solving this subject not only by its performance but the effectiveness in dealing with the big data.

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  • Muhamad RIZKI, Tri Basuki JOEWONO, Prawira Fajarinda BELGIAWAN
    2019 Volume 13 Pages 523-541
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: January 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Travellers performed activities during travel time to maximize their time and space constraint. Previous studies have suggested that this engagement will influence travel experience and consequently imply to well-being. This paper examines how travel experience of private car, taxi, and ride-sourcing passengers influenced by different types of secondary activities and its interaction with travelers’ personal and travel characteristics. For those purposes, 216 respondents of aforementioned passengers were asked their travel experience in the formed of nine cognitive and affective questions using Satisfaction of Travel Scale Method (STS) in Jakarta Metropolitan Area (JMA). The results of this study found that performing relaxing activities such as resting/sleeping positively influenced travel experience across all the affective and cognitive domains. Positive cognitive evaluation of travel experience found associated with more multitasking engagement. This study also found that trip for working purpose associated with lower overall travel satisfaction.

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  • Sarala GUNATHILAKA, Niranga AMARASINGHA
    2019 Volume 13 Pages 542-554
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: January 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The current pavement rehabilitation and maintenance projects prioritization of Sri Lanka considers only the economic factors while neglecting the other social, political and environmental factors. In the study, the Analytical Network Process (ANP) which can be used as a multi criteria decision making tool was used for evaluation of pavement maintenance and rehabilitation projects in Sri Lanka and three different projects were selected for this. Social and economic factors that affected the candidates were considered and the dependencies among them were evaluated and weighted, assisting pairwise comparisons and for that, the transportation experts in the Road Development Authority (RDA) of Sri Lanka were contributed through interviewing sessions. The RDA current method considers only the economic factors and the results were different from two methods. Therefore, it could be recommended to use the ANP for prioritizing pavement maintenance and rehabilitation projects in Sri Lanka.

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  • Kittipong TISSAYAKORN, Fumihiko NAKAMURA, Shinji TANAKA, Shino MIURA
    2019 Volume 13 Pages 555-573
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: January 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The Thailand-China High Speed Rail (HSR) project is a government to a government investment project and under construction for the first stage of Northeastern route. This HSR project will span across Thailand, Laos and Kunming and also plans to reach Malaysia and Singapore in the future. The pathway is a strategic route to increase the potential and economic opportunity for Thailand as well as supports Thailand as a regional land transportation hub in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). However, the project has some barriers that the Thai government could carefully consider to solve and protect all problems in this situation and may appear in the next phase. Especially, transit-oriented development (TOD) is one of the most influential factors to generate significantly welfare and benefits inclusive to drive the development of the sustainable HSR project as well.

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  • Li MENG
    2019 Volume 13 Pages 574-593
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: January 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This paper discusses residents’ preferences regarding train travel with a focus on their mode choice behaviour for the following railway station access modes: car, bus, bicycle and walking. This paper utilises stated preference data to help identify significant factors in train access mode choices within a rail corridor case study. The findings reveal that walking distance, train frequency, bus access, bus waiting time, car access and car park availability are statistically significant. When considering the choice heterogeneity, train frequency and time of day has an impact on people’s choice to access the station by the modes of walking, car or bus. The socio-demographic factors of age, income and gender also influence mode choice and should always be considered in rail service planning. Policy recommendations include providing sheltered walkways and shaded cycling paths and improving feeder bus services to railway stations that will provide a better multimodal transportation network.

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C: Travel Demand Analysis and Forecast
  • Bi Yu CHEN, Huimin XIONG, William H. K. LAM, Hu SHAO, Agachai SUMALEE
    2019 Volume 13 Pages 594-605
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: January 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The paramount goal of transportation planning is to provide sufficient accessibility for citizens to access various urban services in their daily life. However, few network design models have been developed to design network improvement schemes with the objective of maximizing total system accessibility. To fill this gap, we propose a new accessibility-based discrete network design model to maximize the accessibility in determining the optimal network design scheme. The proposed model is formulated as a bi-level optimization problem. The upper level is formulated as an accessibility maximization problem subject to the construction budget constraint. The lower level is formulated as an equivalent elastic-demand user equilibrium model. To handle the proposed model, an effective solution algorithm is developed by integrating genetic algorithm with Frank–Wolfe algorithm. Numerical examples using Sioux Falls network are carried out to demonstrate the merits of the proposed model by comparing to the conventional mobility-based network design models.

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  • Canh Xuan DO, Makoto TSUKAI, Akimasa FUJIWARA
    2019 Volume 13 Pages 606-625
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: January 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    In Japan, the Interregional Travel Survey (NPTS) has some limitations. Recently, there are new ways of conducting and collecting data via the internet (e.g., WEB survey) or passive data collection (e.g., MOBI data). However, new data sources come with new challenges of estimation, integration, and validation. Therefore, as an initial step by evaluating the data quality of new data sources toward finding out the potential of data integration with NPTS or survey replacement of NPTS, this study focused on the clarification of how similar or different in trip characteristics is among three data sources by comparing travel patterns extracted using a non-negative matrix factorization method. This study found that O-D pairs travel patterns of MOBI were significantly different from those of NPTS and WEB while there was some similarity between NPTS and WEB. However, this study still has some remaining issues that should be solved in the future.

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  • Tetsuji SATO, Eiki TAKASUGI, Atsuya HANDA, Keisuke SUGITA, Kana ISOGAI
    2019 Volume 13 Pages 626-642
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: January 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Many tourist cities in Asian countries developed or have plans to introduce a new mass transit system such as subway and light rail transit recently to reduce traffic jam and improve convenience of tourists, etc. In tourist cities, the fare of new mass transit lines can be low because tourists increase the demand of the lines compared to other cities. In this paper, we propose an estimation method of the impact of a new mass transit system and its fare level on population distribution in a city and demand of new lines considering the change in population distribution. We also develop an empirical model for Kanazawa city which is one of the famous historical tourist cities in Japan, and estimate the impact of developing a new light rail transit line and the fare level on population distribution and demand of the line.

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  • Shinya YAMADA, Masato ISHIBE, Yoshihisa YAMASHITA, Daisuke FUKUDA
    2019 Volume 13 Pages 643-663
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: January 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    An activity-based model system is presented for the Tokyo Metropolitan Area, where the railway network has over 30 million passengers per day. The model system represents a rail passenger’s choices of activity pattern, time-of-day, and destination in response to a change in railway services. The activity-based model is designed for analysis of a change in activities after a traveler leaves the office. The paper describes the creation of the destination choice model in detail. The model system divides the Tokyo Metropolitan Area into 692 traffic analysis zones. Stratified importance sampling and a time–space constraint are adopted for the choice set formulation to predict traveler destinations. The paper discusses the requirement to introduce variables related to the origin zones of different travelers into the destination choice model to improve the predictive accuracy.

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  • Sho NITTA, Ryuichi TANI, Teppei KATO, Kenetsu UCHIDA
    2019 Volume 13 Pages 664-677
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: January 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Development of automatic driving technology is proceeding. In this paper, a traffic flow assignment method for estimating the travel time reduction benefit brought by the spread of autonomous vehicles is proposed. For the two networks, i.e., the network where human driven vehicles are prevailed and the network where autonomous vehicles are prevailed, two generalized total travel times are estimated by the proposed method. From two generalized total travel times, the benefit thanks to autonomous vehicles is then calculated. In addition, sensitivity analysis is also carried out to see how the traffic flows are influenced by exogenously given calibration parameters.

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  • Reema BERA, Bhargab MAITRA
    2019 Volume 13 Pages 678-697
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: January 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The present study aims to identify the priority attributes influencing the choice of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle in urban India. 1000 responses were collected from car owners in two megacities, namely Delhi and Kolkata using Computer Assisted Personal Interview (CAPI). The data were analyzed using RIDIT analysis, a Multiple Attribute Decision Making (MADM) approach to identify the priority attributes influencing consumers’ choice of PHEV. Results indicate that in addition to the attributes specific to PHEV technology such as battery warranty, electric range and charging infrastructure, attributes for general vehicle use such as safety, security, seating comfort, and air conditioning were also considered equally important by car owners in two cities. Although the results are case specific, it is expected to be of interest to PHEV manufacturers and the larger community of researchers and policymakers, working on electric mobility as an instrument to reduce vehicular emission in urban areas.

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  • Tien Dung CHU, Tomio MIWA, Hitomi SATO, Chiho KENMOCHI, Takayuki MORIK ...
    2019 Volume 13 Pages 698-715
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: January 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This paper investigates attitude of respondents towards a new transportation alternative namely cooperative ride system (CRS) for elderly people using 1052 samples collected in Asuke, Japan. A multinomial logit (MNL), nested logit (NL) and NL with consideration of covariance heterogeneity (COVNL) across decision makers were estimated. Additionally, three COVNL models with different transformation functions (probit, logit and C log-log) were tested for comparison. The results indicate that by incorporating the covariance heterogeneity, the COVNL model results in dramatic improvements in terms of better fitting to the data and behaviorally representing the choices of decision makers. Moreover, among three transformation functions, the C log-log function is the best while the probit function is the worst ones for data fitting. Evidence from model estimation results shows that the potential volunteer drivers for the CRS are the people living in a single household, currently using cars and having more frequencies of driving and traveling. Most importantly, the elderly people, whom the CRS is proposing for, are found to significantly participate as the riders. Furthermore, females, students and the people earning low annual income possibly join as the riders. Interestingly, the people who gained experiences of being the volunteer drivers or riders have higher willingness to take part in the CRS.

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  • Kota TANAKA, Naohisa OKAMOTO, Yang XUE, Zhongdi PEI, Qi XIA, Yan CUI
    2019 Volume 13 Pages 716-732
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: January 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Most of the previous studies were targeting Chinese tourists who have already visited Japan, but only a few studies focused on potential travelers who have not visited Japan yet. Therefore, based on the Web questionnaires conducted in mainland China, this study clarifies the travel viewpoint difference between people with Japan visiting travel experiences and the people without. According to the questionnaires’ results analysis, compared to other elements, emotional issues (such as "likability"), can be seen higher for those who have Japan visiting travel experiences. On the other hand, raise awareness of (such as "risks of the natural disasters"), was also confirmed. Furthermore, Chinese tourists who don't have experience of visiting Japan, obtain information from “outside”. This “outside” influence could also be a key point on their travel decision making.

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  • Sadayuki YAGI, Deo NOBEL, Hirohisa KAWAGUCH
    2019 Volume 13 Pages 733-753
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: January 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Japan International Cooperation Agency has provided assistance in urban transport planning for over 60 metropolitan cities of developing countries by conducting urban transportation studies that included large-scale household travel surveys (HTS) as a main means of understanding current situation of travel movements. In the past HTS in developing countries, it is common to set sampling ratios of 1% to 3% in order to secure statistically effective samples involving a great number of respondents and spending considerable time and cost. As for a travel demand forecasting method based on the HTS, a trip-based approach represented by the four-step method has been widely in use; however, this approach has several drawbacks. With these issues as a background, this paper aims at extracting issues of travel surveys and demand forecasting methods and studying directions for improvement with a view to reorganizing the contents for future cooperation. Based on the result of the reviews and interviews of the 12 urban transportation studies, this paper identified and organized common issues and problems in terms of travel surveys with a main focus on HTS, travel demand forecasting methods, and cooperation needs in the urban transportation sector. Directions for improvement on travel surveys and demand forecasting methods in developing countries that should be further pursued in this research are 1) improvement of accuracy in travel demand forecast, 2) travel surveys and demand forecasting methods tailored for study objectives and cooperation needs, 3) reduction of required time for travel survey and demand forecast, and 4) reduction of cost for travel survey and demand forecast.

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  • Hiroshi SHIMAMOTO, Atsushi KONDO
    2019 Volume 13 Pages 754-774
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: January 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This paper proposes a semi-dynamic path flow estimator (PFE) that does not require enumeration of the paths set. The proposed model takes traffic assignments derived by the absorbing Markov chain approach and incorporates them into the nonlinear PFE model while considering the inconsistency of traffic counts described by Chen et al. (2009). The proposed model was applied to two types of toy networks. As a result, we confirmed that the proposed model can estimate the link volume with high accuracy if the observed link volumes are error-free. We further confirmed that the total origin-destination volumes as well as link volumes are underestimated if the observation interval of the traffic counts is longer than the length of the time period.

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  • Rahul RAONIAR, Trinayan DAS, Arunabha BANERJEE, Kumar MAURYA
    2019 Volume 13 Pages 775-794
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: January 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This study highlights the role of parents in the decision-making process through their perceptions of safety, economic standards, and child characteristics. Findings suggest that parents usually prefer schools near their residence, and cars are the most widely preferred mode of transport (>50%) as parents find them to be safe, fast, comfortable and reliable. Moreover, the increase in household income increases the likelihood of using cars and school buses. Further, parents allow older children to choose their preferred mode for commuting. Also, very few parents allow their children to use an active transport mode such as walking or cycling as they believe that road infrastructure lack safe crossing facilities and cycling paths. Parents highly believe that public transport such as bus with reliable, safe and up to date travel information can be an alternative mode. The study provides an insight into the present trend of school mode choice, which provides planners and policy makers appropriate knowledge source to take steps for planning a better and safer transportation system.

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  • Khoa Dang VO, Kun QIAN, William H.K.LAM, Agachai SUMALEE
    2019 Volume 13 Pages 795-814
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: January 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This paper proposes a new model for solving thejoint activity-travel pattern (JATP)scheduling problem in pedestrian networks.A novel pedestrian-joint-activity-time-space (PJATS) supernetwork is proposed to capture the complex structure of pedestrian networks and pedestrians’ intra-group interactions. The JATP scheduling problem is transformed intoanextended staticUser Equilibrium (UE) traffic assignment model with constraints for capturing the intra-group interactions. A heuristic solutionmethod is proposed to solve the extendedUEproblem. Asimplified pedestrian networkis used to illustrate the convergence of the proposed heuristic solution method.Furthermore, the possibility of using Wi-Fi tracking data from mobile phones is also investigated and illustrated for estimating the PJATS patterns within the university campus. Results are presented and discussed to preprocess the raw Wi-Fi data and generate the PJATS patterns from matched media access control addresses of detected students in the selected area of the Hong Kong Polytechnic University.

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  • Ruotian TANG, Ryo KANAMORI, Toshiyuki YAMAMOTO
    2019 Volume 13 Pages 815-830
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: January 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    To solve the increasing urban congestion problem, intelligent transportation system (ITS) is drawing researchers’ attention. Dynamic traffic assignment (DTA) has been recognized as a significant part of ITS solutions for a long time. Most DTA approaches focused on realizing single objectives by solving routing problems but paid less attention to the intersection which is the main bottleneck of urban networks. This paper proposes a method based on the link transmission model (LTM), which manages the traffic flow of each incoming link at the intersection, to reduce the congestion when route choices are determined in advance. This method employs a local linear programming formulation so it can be added to other DTA approaches which have different global objectives. The proposed model and other LTM-based models are tested by simulation data. Results show that the congestion level in the proposed model is lower than other models, while the travel cost remains similar.

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  • Shalini RANKAVAT, Geetam TIWARI
    2019 Volume 13 Pages 831-840
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: January 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Pedestrians fatal traffic crashes have become a major safety problem all over the world, particularly in developing countries, due to rapid urbanization, high population density and lack of adherence to traffic regulations by pedestrians and drivers. Pedestrian fatalities from 2006-15 in Delhi, India show that pedestrians have the largest share in total road fatalities. The focus of this study is to understand pedestrians’ preferences for road crossing at mid-blocks and intersections. The Multinomial Logit model is used here to understand the relationship between demographic variables and the crossing behavior of pedestrians at midblocks and intersections. Mid-blocks crossing behavior shows that if the number of marked crosswalks is increased then it will decrease the risk of pedestrians while crossing the road. Responses at intersections is showing vigilant behavior and high-risk perception of young-aged and old-aged pedestrians.Practitioners can use these results to design safer intersections and midblocks for pedestrians in Delhi.

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  • KYAING, KO KO LWIN, Yoshihide SEKIMOTO
    2019 Volume 13 Pages 841-860
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: January 25, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Rapid urbanization and modernization are increasing around the world including Myanmar. Mobile call detail records (CDRs) provide new opportunities to measure the transport demands in transportation planning. This research aims to identify the mobile phone user transportation modes and their transit behaviors based on their call activities. In this research, daily origin-destination trips have been generated to detect various transportation modes based on their travel speeds. Travel speeds of each transportation mode were predefined based on Global Positioning System (GPS) probe data from ground truth data collection. When the speed is within the predefined range, the traveler is using a specific transportation mode. The results were validated by Person Trip Surveyfor Comprehensive Urban Transport Plan of the Greater Yangon. This study also analyzed mobile phone user transit behaviors in Yangon City. The results will use in prediction of future travel demands to improve City transportation and public facility management.

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