Since the 1960s, JICA (Japan International Cooperation Agency) has been providing assistance in the performance of comprehensive transport planning studies in different parts of the world. A major input to such transport planning studies is the conduct of an HIS (Household Interview Survey) that gathers information on the travel and socio-economic characteristics of the population. These information-rich HIS databases have recently been opened by JICA to researchers. The current study analyzes trip characteristics in relation to socio-economic characteristics of travelers. The analyses are done per city and international comparisons among the 13 cities are made. Possible reasons for similarities and differences among the cities are presented including level of infrastructure development, degree of motorization, demographics, and local culture.
Extensive cracking on the runway slabs at the Zia International Airport, Dhaka took place due to overloading of aircraft operations and poor subgrade stability. A visual crack survey was carried out in 1993. The survey detected cracks of width of less than 6.4 mm to more than 50 mm which were classified into four types according to their width of opening. Repair methodologies were developed for each category of crack. The thickness of the asphalt overlay at the centreline of the runway was 200 mm and a slope of 1.5 per cent of the surface was provided. The repair works and the construction of the overlay were carried out at night. The runway has been in service and no sign of distress has been observed since the completion of repair works and overlay construction in 1996.
An analytical method of overlay design has some advantages, such as to take into account the variation of loading types, which will give more exact and accurate results. The purpose of this research is to analyze the existing pavement structure of Jakarta-Cikampek toll road, for analysis period between 1995 to 2003 and to calculate the Residual Life and Overlay Thickness required, based on the deflection data using Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) equipment. The deflection bowl was then analyzed by Method of Equivalent Thickness (MET), firstly proposed by ODEMARK-ULLIDTZ and the results were Resilient Moduli in each layer. Considering the Cumulative Damage theory and the allowable stress/strain in each layer, the residual life of pavement and the overlay thickness needed were obtained. These results could be compared to the calculation results using semi-analytical method i.e. AASHTO® 2002 method. The result of Resilient Moduli in each layer shows that those values could identify the weakness layer in the pavement structure, indicated by the lower value of Moduli. The calculation of Residual Life for each section showed some locations that needed to be overlaid immediately, because of those values are nearly zero or less than 1 year. On the other hand, there were some sections having Residual Life more than 20 years. This means that pavement structure in those sections was strong enough and need not to be repaired in short term. In general, the Residual Life and Overlay Thickness calculated by those two methods i.e. MET and AASHTO method, were indifferent significantly.
This study proposes a new index for estimating visibility under poor-visibility conditions by using digital images from a road monitoring camera. The method allows representation of the amount of visual information based on human spatial frequency characteristics. A laboratory experiment was performed in 2002 under artificial fog. We examined the weighted intensity of power spectra (WIPS) to determine its applicability as a visibility assessment value. The magnitude of WIPS represented the difference in spatial frequencies within the image based on human contrast sensitivity function. WIPS was calculated from the following image-processing procedure. As an initial step, a box measuring 128 × 128 pixels was cut from the original image. The spatial frequency of the cutout image was calculated using two-dimensional Fourier transform, and the power spectrum of the cutout image was calculated. We totaled the WIPS at five spatial frequencies (cycles per degree, cpd): 1.5 cpd, 3 cpd, 6 cpd, 12 cpd and 18 cpd. WIPS were compared with the subjective visibility assessment values (SVAV) given by test subjects. There was a clear relationship between WIPS and total SVAV: WIPS increased as total SVAV increased. These results suggest that WIPS might be an appropriate index for estimating visibility using digital images.
Transportation is one of the most important functions that a network provides. However, those functions may fail due to ruined links caused by earthquake disasters. We took emergency paths as our strategies to connect demand and supply nodes. The used links under various replaceable paths were considered factors causing the job to succeed. We used passed probability as index to represent the ability of every link. When the probabilities of some links are relatively higher, they are claimed dominant links. Enumeration algorithm was used to calculate the probability of every link. With respect to three activities: fire rescue, medical rescue, and logistics supply, we can identify the essence of every link. At the final part, the network of Lingya administrative district of Kaohsiung City in Taiwan was taken as an example to apply this method. We have found 17 fire rescue, 19 medical rescue, and 17 logistics supply dominant links.
From the perspective of transportation policies, this study first proposes a new indicator, called “travel behavior array pattern (TRAP)”. TRAP is defined based on trip information arranged in the order of occurrence in the context of the widely used person-trip data. Empirical analysis using the data collected at a local Japanese city, shows that the purpose-based TRAPs vary with household attributes and urban structure, and individual attributes and accessibility of transit systems affect the TRAPs based on the sequences of representative travel modes. It is further found that the TRAPs related to transportation nodes are mainly determined by the operation frequencies of main transit systems. Finally, the effectiveness of TRAP is confirmed from the perspective of the policies related to the compactness of urban structure, the elderly society and the efficient use of existing transportation infrastructures.
In this study, the properties on perturbation stability of stochastic dynamic processes are provided. The probit based multi-modal transport assignment model considered in this paper can have multiple equilibria because of the asymmetric link disutility functions. An examination on the uniqueness and stability of the multi-modal transport assignment model is carried out by using a simple example. The demand on a single OD pair is assumed to choose between bus and auto depending on their disutility functions. The examination is carried out by assuming the interaction effect of the road congestion caused by autos and buses. As the results, the following three findings are obtained: (i) if the condition on the uniqueness of solution is violated, in general, there are three solutions; (ii) one of three solutions is stable in terms of perturbation stability; and (iii) the trajectory of dynamic system is determined by the domains where each equilibrium dominates.
PARA-TRANSIT, MOTORBIKE AND NON-MOTORIZED TRANSPORT
The effects of non-motorized vehicles (Rickshaws) are different at signalized intersections and mid-block sections. So, different approach should be used to estimate passenger car equivalents of rickshaws at mid-block sections. This study introduces a method for estimating passenger car equivalents (PCE) for non-motorized vehicle (Rickshaws) at mid-block sections of urban arterials based on speed reduction of passenger cars in the mixed flow due to the presence of non-motorized vehicles. In this study PCE value for rickshaws are estimated as a unit value plus the ratio of the speed difference of passenger cars in basic flow and mixed flow to the speed of passenger cars in the basic flow. Principal Component Analysis was performed to establish the relationships between PCE values and proportion of non-motorized vehicles and flow level. Average speed of passenger cars in basic flow and mixed flow are calculated from the observed data collected from two mid-block sections of Dhaka metropolis, Bangladesh. It was suggested by the study results that presence of rickshaws had a significant impact on the average speed of passenger cars in the mixed flow.
The objective of this study is to identify the factors affecting pedestrian level-of-service (LOS) at intersections and propose a method for the estimation of pedestrian LOS at intersections. In order to fulfill this objective, a stepwise multi-variable regression analysis was performed using the observed data of various types of intersections in the city of Sapporo, Japan. A significant number of pedestrians were requested to give ratings for each intersection based on their experiences at the actual sites. The scores given by the pedestrians were considered as the dependent variables for the analysis. A field survey was conducted to collect geometric, operational and traffic characteristics of crosswalks. A number of primary independent variables influencing pedestrian LOS was identified and tested in the stepwise regression analysis. The factors such as space at corner, crossing facilities, turning vehicles, delay at signals, and pedestrian-bicycle interaction were identified as the primary factors affecting pedestrian LOS at intersections. Each of the factors is weighted by coefficients derived by stepwise regression modeling importance. A statistically reliable t-statistics were obtained for each factor. The pedestrian LOS model was developed as a function of identified variables.
This study analyses the effects of motorcycles on traffic operations at signalized intersections and a mid-block section of an urban road. Data collection was done at two intersections, one with motorcycle queue storage and the other without. Discharge headway was used to identify the relationship between a number of motorcycles discharged in each signal cycle and the start-up lost time of passenger cars. In addition, the effectiveness of motorcycle queue storage is also examined. Start-up lost time of passenger cars is found to be linearly correlated with the number of motorcycles in the waiting queue. Motorcycle queue storage is found to increase start-up lost time of the traffic. At mid-block, Passenger Car Equivalent (PCE) of motorcycle at different traffic volume and proportion of motorcycles in traffic stream are determined. It is found that PCE of motorcycles consistently decreases with the share of motorcycle in total traffic.
Walking accessibility is defined as how easy it is to access public transport terminals by walking. Walking effort instead of walking distance or walking time is used to represent the utility of walking as access mode to public transport terminals (Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) stations). This effort is expressed by an equivalent walking distance, which consists of actual walking distance and generalized walking effort. The main objective of this research is to develop walking accessibility measure using equivalent walking distance. The probability of walking is introduced to show the acceptable walking distance to public transport terminal. This concept assumes that for every distance to the terminal, there is a probability of walking to access. Eventually, all components of walking route would be converted to equivalent distance. Each type of walking routes to access public transport (i.e. walkways, sidewalks and road crossings) has some elements that influence the effort of walking.
The study on motorcycle behavior is important to understand its characteristic and system for ease in policy decisions related to the vehicles. One of the purposes of motorcycle usage is for the delivery of documents or commodities. This study aims to investigate the characteristics and system of delivery motorcycles. Delivery motorcycles are examined from two approaches: interview and traffic surveys. Delivery motorcycle drivers were interviewed about the characteristics of firm, driver, and the movement of vehicle. Traffic survey is another approach to countercheck the results. The survey results imply that the total vehicle kilometer traveled of delivery motorcycles for the entire Bangkok is almost 4.6 million vehicle-kilometers per day. More than 80 percent of delivery motorcycles are used for delivery documents. Among businesses, banks contribute the greatest share of the usage of motorcycles for delivery.
This paper presents the predictive performance analysis of transferring and updating a mode choice model estimated in Ho Chi Minh City to Phnom Penh. Difficulties in transferring a model due to different data collection method and simplified approaches to solve the problems are also presented. Four updating approaches associated with small sized sample of 200, 400 and 600 observations are applied in this study. The study shows that predictive performance improves with updating alternative specific constants and improves further with additional adjustment of scale parameter. Combined transfer estimator has proved to produce the most significant improvement in updating the model. In case of the existence of transfer bias, application of Bayesian updating is not recommended.
The purpose of this study addresses a comprehensive analysis of the characteristics of passing and paired riding maneuver of motorcycle based on video technique. Two locations in Hanoi, Vietnam have been used for data collection, including exclusive motorcycle lane and undivided roadway. The passing characteristics in this research include (i) individual speeds and speed differences between passing and passed motorcycles; (ii) lateral spacing of passing and passed motorcycles; (iii) longitudinal distances from beginning and ending of passing event. For paired riding maneuvers, statistical analyses of speed and lateral spacing were revealed useful information. The threshold for paired riding including speed difference was also determined. The present study provides a comprehensive understanding of the characteristics of passing and paired riding maneuvers. These findings can be used to develop more accurate procedures for the analysis of the quality of service of motorcycle paths as well as to develop a comprehensive simulation model.
We present a pedestrian movement model, which use a multi agents system for pedestrian traffic analysis. The model captures the dynamic microscopic interaction between pedestrians, which cannot be addressed using traditional macroscopic approach. The pedestrians are modeled as autonomous agents with non-linear system differential equations. The pedestrian agents may avoid other pedestrians, passing and overtaking slower pedestrians and to form a self-organization behavior of lane formations as in real pedestrian studies. A critical issue for such multi-agent pedestrian models, however, is the validation of the model against real world data. We show that the sensitivity analysis of control variables and parameters of the multi-agents model form the basis in ensuring the validation step. The model was automatically validated using real world data by minimizing the difference between the speed distributions. With the validated model, we can utilize model applications to evaluate pedestrian facilities.
The FX type of para-transit service emerged about ten years ago and has become a significant part of the public transport system. However, in its current form, the operations are not complying with the actual permissions granted by the public transport regulatory agencies. Bringing operations in line with existing franchise requirements appear as challenges to continued existence in current form. Based on the financial analysis conducted considering passenger occupancy and fare structure, it appears that the FX operations under recently proposed regimes will lose the financial viability that they currently enjoy. Although these results are based on information on services between Manila City and Quezon City only, these results provide an indication of the possible outcome. In support of its continued existence, it is proposed that FX services be placed under the Filcab classification, allowing continued service similar to their present condition, but under a rationalized allocation of the service.
Public parks provide a variety of benefits and opportunities for community. This paper reports the investigation on the behavior of park users in Saga city, Japan using a new recreational valuation method and Voronoi diagram to redefine service area of park. The valuation was performed through comparison of walking, cycling and car mode. Different threshold distances based on rational choice approach was derived to understand behavior of walking and cycling users that their characteristics and socioeconomic cou3ld affect different patterns of park utilization. This information reflects the need to improve accessibility and facility for walkers and cyclists according to the community need since approximately 70 percent of parks users are the frequent users. This valuable approach could be utilized to guide local planning agency to locate suitable plan for current and future policy for accessibility of public park service improvement for livable city.
Pedestrian route choice behavior is affected by numerous factors. A lot of research has demonstrated that the route length or distance is one of the most important. Since distance is related to the network topology, it is desirable to incorporate network topology into pedestrian route choice behavior models as a variant. However, unfortunately, although there are some conceptual or graph-theoretical studies concerning network topology analysis, the studies concerning the real existing network remain uncultivated, especially from the perspective of pedestrians. After reviewing the previous studies, this paper proposes a new classification methodology which facilitates the topology analysis of real existing networks by using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Considering the pedestrian's distance priority, this paper points out the existence of one-route OD pairs i.e. the OD pairs without alternative routes, and discusses their relationships with network topologies.
This paper provides a strategy planning to design a new portable LED-display system, named Travel Kit, based on an extensive survey and demand function analysis among visually impaired persons in Taipei, Taiwan. Accessibility to take a bus, ability to travel and Dilemma of daily affair are three measures to evaluate performance of Travel kit. Using two samples T-test to compare the number of successfully boarding the requested bus before and after employing Travel Kit, it shows that Travel Kit significantly improves not only in boarding a bus, but also increasing the ability of independence for individual visual impairment to take transit in Taipei.
Angkutan Kota (paratransit) and non-motorized vehicles still exist in many small and big cities in Indonesia. This paper intends to explore the characteristics of paratransit and NMT in Bandung. Operational, financial, perception, and users' ability and willingness to pay data were collected using survey. There is significance difference in becak operational characteristics between 1984 and 2001. Analysis shows that NMT provides mobility for women, student, low-income user, and job opportunity for people with limited skill and education, including exercise. Survey shows that NMT still accepted by community. Paratransit is 61.24% of total public transportation in Bandung. The minimum load factor is 29.17% and the maximum is 82.34%. 70.7% of paratransit user answers that the service quality of paratransit is good enough and 53% respondent says that tariff is suitable with the service quality. User ability and willingness has been analyzed according to service quality, trip purpose, user expenses, and fare perception.
Railway operators are heavy users of electric energy. To implement energy saving programs and to study economical operation strategies, an energy estimating model is required. In this paper, two models for estimating energy consumption of single train operation are presented. To verify the proposed models, a real railway link and an electric train from Taiwan Railway Administration (TRA) are selected for the experiment. The energy consumption estimated from the proposed model is then compared with that estimated by other commercial software. It is found that the difference is only 0.22%, demonstrating that the proposed models are accurate enough in practice for estimating energy consumption. The models can be further extended to develop models and algorithms for estimating power demand of multiple-train operation and minimizing energy consumption through different driving strategies.
This study suggests new approach to assess the feasibility for adding new railroad station using AHP technique. To solve the problems caused by the requests such as adding a station, closure, and movement of a station, Economic Evaluation or Financial Feasibility Study is surveyed, but despite of these surveys many civil resentments are raised because they don't consider the situation of the residents and self-government community. In this study, of various kinds of railroad lines, the intercity line was focused on. For the applicability of the model developed in this study, the Koyri station of Donghae-Nambu line was surveyed as a case study. To solve the inherent problems in AHP such as dependence of questionnaire on each other and the dependence of the results on the groups for questionnaire, the fuzzy measurement developed by Song (2003) and the sensitivity analysis for a various weighted value were used.
We present a pattern analysis on the booking curve of an intercity passenger railway. It consists of three steps: cluster analysis, discriminant analysis, and prediction analysis. Basic booking curve patterns are built on the base of risk preference and booking magnitude. Using four-week ticket sales data from Taiwan Railway Administration, a numerical case study of the rapid train on a long distance market is illustrated to demonstrate the characteristics of the proposed method. We obtain pretty good statistical results in cluster analysis and discriminant analysis. Although its overall prediction accuracy is not good, the proposed method provides a useful pattern analysis procedure. Many forecasting techniques of growth curve may be included in the process so as to improve overall fit of the method in the future.
This paper studies the model and algorithm of railway passenger's OD-matrix estimation, based on actual passenger train information, such as: train manifest, train capacity, route and attendance rate etc. For acquiring the railway passenger's OD-matrix matching with factual traffic flow, this paper utilizes the method of traffic flow allocation suit to railway fieldwork, aim at bias rate between theory traffic flow and factual traffic flow and make use of error correction to iteratively compute, until get a satisfying solution.
In Japan, rapid railway lines have been installed and expanded in order to connect regional prime cities to Tokyo, while airlines began to enhance their domestic service after the deregulation of airlines in 1986. In longer term, the influence of competition between railway and airline become more complex, because of network externalities of LOS improvement on networks. This study makes a retrospective assessment of inter-regional transportation services in ODs with their demand by using the Japanese longitudinal data in 1970, and 1995. The inter-regional net passenger traffic, average speed, fare per distance, and least frequency of the link in line-haul route are compared to find the characteristics of inter-regional LOS. Through the analyses, three kinds of inter-regional transportation markets were identified, and the characteristics of those were summarized. The network externality in LOS strongly appeared in railway service and demand. Such modal characteristics should be carefully considered in inter-regional network planning.
The Tokyo Metropolitan Area (TMA) has traffic congestion especially during peak commuting hours, in spite of having one of the densest railway networks in the world. It is, however, observed that there is a great variation in the number of passengers carried by individual links of the network. This means that the network is in an unbalanced state and may still have spare capacity in order to improve its current efficiency. On the other hand, it is known that the passengers-flow on the network is assigned by the level of railway services. Therefore, it will equilibrate the passengers-flow with the network, according to the influence of the level of railway services by strategic improvements. This study focuses on the unbalanced usage of railway network and proposes the railway network assignment system that is able to illustrate weak points. It also evaluates the level of railway services in order to use maximally the whole network.
In this research, a train simulator (TrainSim) is developed using Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) concepts with C++ language. Two algorithms for generating train speed profiles are embedded in the system. Both generate speed profiles obeying equation of motion and physical constraints of train and railway geometries. The shortest time speed profile generated from TrainSim is compared with a commercial Train Operation Model (TOM). The result shows that the difference is only 0.16%. When compared with manual calculation by the expert from Taiwan Railway Administration (TRA), it is found that the difference in proper operation time between TrainSim and the TRA expert is -0.12% on average. These results demonstrate that the proposed algorithms are robust and efficient, and are very useful and flexible for train operation research and applications.
The purpose of this paper is the development of the operational strategies to maximize the rail network efficiency. The existing schedule optimization model, where the planning objective is operation cost minimization or travel time minimization, is extended to the new model by considering transfer behavior. The transfer penalty is introduced to constraints in the mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model for the analysis of the alternative with transfer between two types of trains. Because this type of the problem is NP-complete, so branch-and-cut approach, which is widely used for this type problem, is introduced to the solution procedure. The practical availability of the rail operational strategy in this paper has evaluated and the numerical results show that the schedule model constructed in this paper can product the optimal schedule to utilize the completed rail network efficiently by introducing the transfer penalty into the framework. Afterwards, this study can make the basis of the improved operational strategy consisting of the rail transfer scheduling by including the studies about the more detailed travelers' behaviors.
This study aims on analyzing important decision factor of freight transportation and logistic development strategy of conventional railway company in Taiwan (Taiwan Railway Administration, TRA), after the entry of High Speed Rail into intercity transportation market. Yet, such decision process needs to have some tangible and intangible variables being considered. Therefore, this study applies the method of Analysis Hierarchy Process by expert decision process to establish TRA's logistics development strategy. The results of AHP analysis shows: financial planning is the most critical factor for TRA to develop logistic strategy. This study also finds the most appropriate alternative would be for TRA to continue to utilize current narrow-gauge railway system for the main freight transports between TRA's stations. In addition, TRA could fully utilize central downtown location advantages of current stations to cooperate with private motor carriers for transportation from TRA's station to final destination.
The business of providing pick-up and delivery service for school children commonly develops in large Indonesian cities. However, there is no sufficient information regarding this type of service. This research is intended to fill this gap. Data was collected through field observations and interviews with drivers at two primary schools in Bandar Lampung including vehicle; driver; school and operating characteristics. Results of the analysis show that most vehicles are very old and are modified to accommodate more passengers. On average, each vehicle makes 4.67 trips and travels 75.60 km per day. For parents, becoming customers of this service is beneficial that they can save both time and money. But the children often complaint that they have limited seating space and, usually, arrive home late because of the dispersed home locations or due to the time-table differences among classes.
In this paper, the authors aim to develop transit capacity estimation model based on observed data in Japan and Brazil and to evaluate the capacity of BRT with the model, focusing on the possibility of the improvement in transit capability of BRT, considering the possibility to apply the output to the cases in Eastern Asia region. Based on these conditions, the authors developed the transit capacity estimation model with several variables, including structure of bus stop, fare collection system, bus stop interval, employment cost and so on, and evaluated the transit capacity of BRT with exclusive busway. In conclusion improvement of bus operation system such as bus stop or operation system could enhance the capacity and level of service of bus transit system up to that of rail based linehaul transit system, with maintaining present operating cost level.
This paper aims to examine the effectiveness of the complementary indicators from conventionally well-used monetary ones to evaluate public transportation planning in rural areas. Proposed non-monetary indicators for public transport services consist of “Quality of Life”, “Customer Satisfaction” and “Equality of public transport services”. An empirical analysis results show that the indicators are useful to evaluate the effects of improving the levels of public transport services and can consequently contribute to planning the public transportation planning.
Since congestion on roads has deteriorated quality of bus service, attractiveness of bus has been weakened. Bus priority signal is a method to shorten control delay of bus at signalized intersections and to improve its service quality, such as reliability, in-vehicle time and waiting time. It may, however, cause congestion in general traffic. For this reason, this study attempts to develop a signal priority strategy to improve bus service quality while little inducing additional delay in general traffic by restricting target buses for priority. The effectiveness of this strategy is evaluated using microscopic simulation model, PARAMICS. The results show that this selected signal priority strategy reduces bus travel time and improves regularity of bus headway, compared with fixed signal control. Furthermore, it may regulate bus headway more powerfully and induce less delay to general traffic than nonselected signal priority.
Bus bays have been introduced in a lot of bus stops in Japan especially where stopping buses without bays would block traffic stream seriously. In that sense, bus-bays in Japan have been evaluated as successful cases. However, based on some observations, buses in bus-bays do not stop closely at curbs, which make boarding and alighting passengers inconvenient due to big gap between buses and curbs. There might be several reasons why buses do not stop closely at curbs, including driving technical issues by bus drivers, some psychological issues for them and traffic conditions at streets. Among them, designing of bus bay is thought to be one of the factors to improve the situation. Some advanced designing can be observed in a few bus terminals but not in bus stops on the streets presumably due to safety consideration under mixed traffic condition. The authors have made several experiments to propose a new-shaped bus-bay applicable to regular streets. The proposal was applied to the real bus stop in Tokyo, which was evaluated as successful based on the observation survey and the interview survey towards the bus drivers.
Public transportation service is essentially based on the scale economy, which comes from that cost of one vehicle operation can be divided by many passengers sharing that service. Therefore, it becomes very difficult to provide service in the area with low density of demand. Recently, in order to provide transportation service in such low density areas, demand responsive bus(DRB) gathers attention and expectations. This paper discusses the market externalities in DRB system in suburb and show what kind of fare arrangement will be needed to realize the efficiency of the market. At first, we analyze the optimal division of resources between two kinds of buses; demand responsive service and direct trunk line service. Without any fare intervention, people try to overuse of DRB because they neglect the external effects by their calls. Then we try to estimate the amount of the externalities and give information for the additional price for DRB.
The objective of this research is to analyze the impact of the implementation new public transport corridor to the existing corridor at network level. Jakarta BRT System is taken as a case study. The discussion is focused on the development of public transport network model and the operational plan strategies. The supply model consists of road network with its attributes and other traffic systems, while the demand model combines point-based origin-destination and zone-based origin-destination trip. Several strategies which consider service line, operational aspects, fare system, and integration concept were developed. The predetermined strategies were incorporated into the model, and then simulated. The results, in term of operational bus performance and demand magnitude were analyzed. Simulation to the model yields to different impacts on the existing corridor due to different strategies applied. This result leads to the adjustment of the operational aspects of existing corridor in order to obtain optimum benefit at network level.
The objective of this research is to observe public transport user attitude due to the introduction of a new public transport system. A binomial logit model, based on stated preference (SP) data, has been developed as a tool to analyze people attitude toward the proposed new system. Data of public transport user based on SP method was collected along the proposed corridor of Jakarta Busway system. Travel time and travel cost are considered as the main variables compared with other collected data for the developed utility function. Based on the characteristics of model parameters, and different service strategies offered, people perception, and their probability of selecting the proposed system is observed. The results show that different people perception, and their probability of choosing better service, as expected, is occurred. Yet, from the model, it is also shown that not all public transport users is always shifted to the new and better system due to several reasons.
Punctuality of bus operation can be defined as “timely operation of buses according to their operation schedules.” It is often considered as one of the important measures of bus operation reliability in evaluating bus operation performance from the viewpoint of bus users. Passenger waiting times are severely influenced by the punctuality of bus operations. However, there exist many situations that predetermined schedules cannot be met. In these cases, other definitions of punctuality should be given. This paper is to develop punctuality indexes of bus operation based on various bus operating situations. Bus operation data sampled from Seoul bus system were analyzed to calculate punctuality indexes for a number of bus routes. Then, bus operation punctuality was characterized by various operating conditions. Several interesting results were obtained and explained.
This paper presents the development of the Computerized Bangkok Bus Transit Analytical System, BBTAS, to enhance the performance evaluation of the existing bus system in Bangkok. The bus performance indicators are classified into three performance measurement groups and each group was broken down into the performance class and sub-class. The weights of each performance class and sub-class were conducted mathematically to describe the bus operating performance level. The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was applied for weighing the bus performance class and sub-class. Finally, the user gracious computerized BBTAS package was developed to evaluate the performances of all bus routes in Bangkok. To demonstrate the real world application of this developed system, this paper used the bus operating data of 88 non- air-conditioned bus routes in Bangkok to evaluate their performances. Considering all mentioned performance indicators, this developed system can rank all 88 routes from the best to the worst.
Transport density and the rate of revenue and costs are usually applied to assessment to expend public subsidy in operating bus service. However, these indexes overlook factors such as business effort as bus services supply under minimum costs. Then, the aim of this paper is to develop an evaluation method of business management condition per bus route in order to distinguish the subsidized bus route efficiently. This method reflects operating condition for inside and outside business environment of bus route. This method is applied to the evaluation of 45 bus routes in Kumamoto city. Consequently, each bus route is classified under 16 categories. Roughly speaking, 20 bus routes are inexpensive and profitable, 6 bus routes are inexpensive and unprofitable, 2 bus routes are expensive and profitable, 17 bus routes are expensive and unprofitable.
The paper presented not only the difference of the marginal walking time by passenger, but also the derivation of the bus service determination model by passenger attributes. The marginal walking distance to bus stop is a basic parameter to estimate bus service coverage area in certain area. And the marginal walking distance could be transformed from the marginal walking time, which is the focus of this paper. The result of analysis revealed that the age and income of passenger are strongly related to the marginal walking time. The model suggested in this paper help for the planner to choose optimal alternative in planning or regulating the spacing of bus routes or bus stops in certain area,.
Maritime transportation for Taiwan plays an important role in trade exchange with other countries, especially in the container cargoes. The performance and efficiency of container ports is a critical factor for handling containers on the international market in maritime. However, how to raise operation efficiency and reduce operation cost is a very important issue. Evaluating operation efficiency of ports can reflect theirs status quo and reveal their advantages and disadvantages in the competitive environment. In this study, we are going to apply a new procedure based on DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) called RDEA (Recursive Data Envelopment Analysis) to rank selected container ports in Asia Pacific region. DEA is a mathematical programming skill for measuring the relative performance of decision making units (DMUs). Basically, DEA is a nonparametric approach that does not require any assumption about the function from of the production function. However, it is controversy to rank DMUs based on their relative efficiencies, especially when their efficiencies are less than one. In this study, we will compare the ranks of ports obtained by DEA and RDEA respectively and drill down the result to unveil tactical moves needed to improve their efficiencies.
It is difficult to macroscopically characterize urban transportation network with various traffic operation components. Two-fluid model that was suggested by Herman and Prigogine (1979) is well known as a predominant method based on traffic flow theory, which provides a macroscopic measure of the quality of traffic service in an urban transportation network. The two-fluid model needs individual probe vehicle data such as total travel time, stop and running time per unit distance. Therefore, it is very difficult to collect these input data for practical applications. This paper presents the application of GPS data to the two-fluid model for the “Kangnam” supernetwork in Seoul. The result shows that the GPS data is reliable to estimate the two-fluid model parameters. There are many applications of two-fluid model to urban transportation network in the world, and if more researches are conducted, it is obvious that the two-fluid model would be a useful method to analyze urban transportation network theoretically.
DEA is adopted for evaluating the efficiency of transportation infrastructure systems of nineteen cities and towns in Japan. The cities can be divided into two groups, which are big cities from the whole Japan and small cities and towns in Hokkaido. The decision-making unit here is not a single infrastructure unit, but the whole transportation infrastructure systems in the city which include the road networks and the railway systems. Transportation modes, which serve people mobility, consist of road-using modes (cars and buses) and rail-using modes (JR, private trains, streetcars, subways, monorails, etc.). For comparison purpose, evaluations using various input-output combinations were performed. Furthermore, to achieve robust evaluation, different DEA concepts, including CCR, Inverse DEA, and BCC models, were performed. This study provides a benchmark for cities to improve their infrastructure system management by identifying weak points of each city and suggesting the way to improve efficiency.
The growth of earnings per share is an important goal for running business. The shipping industry experienced dramatic changes in 2003, and the operating revenue increased quickly. But the relationship between the growth of EPS (G) and each of the financial variables remained unknown to managers, otherwise they could use financial variables to increase the growth of the firm. The main purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between G and the financial variables in the shipping industry in Taiwan. Spraakman's growth model is used to help managers to express G of shipping companies in terms of five financial variables. In the study, the model was built to show how financial variables affect the growth of earnings per share. The sensitivity or the change of G in each financial component was quantified. Researchers chose 6 open-market tramp shipping companies to verify the model. The empirical results showed that the sensitivity of earnings per share for shipping companies was a good tool for managers to increase the profit.
This study investigates the effects of speed control on traffic flow processes and develops a control strategy to maximize the efficiency of freeway systems. The basic idea of the speed control is to advise or force drivers to decelerate gradually in order to cope with such operational problems on a freeway or highway as incidents, construction, or geometric changes, etc. Theoretical derivation of optimal speed control scheme for multiple freeway sections is presented based on a macroscopic traffic flow process model. Simulation experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the derived speed control scheme and provide a promising potential for field implementation. These results indicate that the temporal spatial speed limitation helps in maintaining stable freeway traffic conditions.
The Tokyo metropolitan government is studying the possibility of introduction of road pricing. It is considered that road pricing have a large influence on land use, regional economy and transport in the long run. To evaluate these effects, this paper proposes a practical spatial CGE model which can measure impacts of road pricing on location of household and business, regional economy and transport. In the model, businesses are divided into five function categories, and it enables precise estimation of location and trip generation. As results of empirical analyses, it is found that road pricing in central Tokyo decreases road traffic volume in the charge area while it increases traffic on ring roads outside the area. The results also indicate that road pricing increases location of household and business in the charge area, which derives increase in gross regional product in the whole metropolitan area.
This paper proposes an optimisation algorithm for designing an optimal implementation path for a charging cordon scheme. The main incentive for time-dependent design is public acceptability issue. A simple equilibrium based time-dependent model is defined. Different patterns of the implementation path are investigated including (i) evolution of a single cordon, (ii) single cordon and additional screenlines, and (ii) inner cordon and gradual introduction of outer cordon. The optimisation algorithm developed is based on the idea of Genetics Algorithm (GA). The algorithm is tested with a network of the Edinburgh city in UK.
It is a practical exigent problem for short-term flow management when air traffic congestion happens in a control area, and it is also an important subject of academic researches. By far, the good research is to set up dynamic programming model of flow management aiming to obtain optimal benefits. Then a dynamic programming management model is put forward in this paper to meet the practical condition of control, with a farther research having been done. In order to obtain the optimal solution of the model, a fast method is presented to lessen calculation by the setting of a threshold according to the operational demand of practical control. The model can obtain the optimal solution quickly and is fit for real-time dynamic management. The correctness and validity of the model and method is verified by simulation results.