As well known, endocrine organs including pituitary gland, adrenal gland and pancreatic islet of Langerhans et cetera consist of heterogenous cells, and pathophysiological interplay among hormone-producing cells and non-hormone-producing cells within tissue is crucial, at least in part, for molecular basis of a variety of endocrine diseases. In the February issue, Dr. Ryusaku Matsumoto and Takuya Yamamoto provide a comprehensive, fascinating review article focusing on the update of single-cell and spatial transcriptomics in endocrine research. Our editorial team has a firm belief that this review is a must-read for all dedicating clinicians and scientists on endocrinology.
It is widely recognized that some cases of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) caused by immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) result in life-threatening consequences including adrenal crisis and fatal diabetic ketoacidosis. In this issue, Dr. Tomoko Kobayashi and colleague contribute an insightful and well-organized review article on promising biomarkers to predict the onset of endocrine irAEs, particularly underscoring the mechanism-based management strategies and future prospect for pituitary and thyroid irAEs.
It is well known that both Ca2+ and cAMP play critical roles in ACTH-driven cortisol production by adrenal fasciculate cells. However, the division of role for Ca2+ and cAMP in this paradigm still remains obscure. In the December Issue, Dr. Masahiko Kutsukake and colleague elegantly unraveled such a long-standing enigma via sophisticated cellular experiments, demonstrating that cortisol production under steady state is preferentially mediated by Ca2+, but cAMP also participates under stressful conditions where ACTH demand is increased to adapt exaggerated stress.
As well known, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) sometimes cause immune-related adverse events in the thyroid gland (thyroid irAEs). Dr. Ichiro Yamauchi and colleague conducted an elaborate retrospective cohort study demonstrating that patients with rapid-onset severe thyrotoxicosis as well as with positive TgAbs titers were highly likely to develop subsequent hypothyroidism. This study provides us with a message that expeditious replacement of levothyroxine is a crucial precaution against severely hypothyroid state.
Complexity in action-specific resistance and hypersensitivity of hormones has long been recognized throughout the body. In particular, however, underlying molecular mechanisms of selective insulin resistance in liver are not yet fully elucidated. In the September issue, Dr. Takumi Kitamoto and Professor Domenico Accili provide an elegant, comprehensive review article on such a longstanding enigma.