The low-dose dexamethasone suppression test (DST) is one of the commonly used initial tests for endogenous Cushing’s syndrome (CS). However, there are two loading dose regimens (0.5-mg and 1-mg), which may cause some confusion in daily practice in Japan; furthermore, there are no reports regarding whether 0.5-mg DST is a better loading dose for detecting adrenal subclinical CS (SCS) based on the plasma dexamethasone (DEX) levels. Therefore, the aims of this study were (a) to develop a novel assay to measure DEX by using liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and (b) to compare between the 0.5-mg and 1-mg DST for SCS diagnosis based on the DEX levels. The study retrospectively analyzed 52 consecutive subjects hospitalized for diagnosis of adrenal incidentaloma but who did not exhibit an overt CS phenotype; eight (15.4%) patients were affected with adrenal SCS. Inter-individual variability of DEX levels after the DST was high, but intra-individual variability was low. DEX levels after 1-mg loading in each patient was around two times higher than those after 0.5-mg loading (ρ = 0.853 and p < 0.001). There were 45 (86.5%) and 17 (32.7%) subjects with DEX levels ≤2.2 ng/mL after the 0.5-mg and 1-mg DST, respectively (p < 0.001). Twenty-eight (93.3%) of 30 subjects and four (21.1%) of 19 subjects with detectable ACTH levels after the 0.5-mg and 1.0-mg DST, respectively, did not exhibit DEX levels >2.2 ng/mL. These results clearly indicate that the 1-mg DST is superior to 0.5-mg loading for the diagnosis of adrenal SCS.
We report three cases of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma-like thyroid carcinoma as a novel clinicopathologic entity possibly associated with tuberous sclerosis complex. A 15-year-old female, a 19-year-old male, and a 21-year-old male presented with primary thyroid carcinoma. Two of the patients had associated tuberous sclerosis complex. Macroscopically, the carcinomas showed invasive growth. Histologically, the carcinoma cells showed a trabecular pattern with thin vascular stroma, and were characterized by abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm with perinuclear clearing, a prominent cell border, a wrinkled nuclear membrane, and binucleation, which are all features of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemically, the carcinoma cells were positive for thyroglobulin, TTF1, and PAX8, and negative for CD10, calcitonin, and carcinoembryonic antigen. Vascular invasion was visible in all cases, but distant metastasis was not detected during follow-up. The original pathological diagnoses of the three cases were widely invasive follicular thyroid carcinoma, poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma, and oxyphilic variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Thus, the cases were similar to chromophobe renal cell carcinoma associated with tuberous sclerosis complex as they were characterized by histologic findings consistent with chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, occurrence in an adolescent or young adult, and favorable prognosis regardless of the presence of vascular invasion and an infiltrating growth pattern resembling poorly differentiated carcinoma. The etiopathogenesis also seemed to suggest the presence of the tuberous sclerosis complex genetic abnormality.
Growth hormone (GH) treatment for children with GH deficiency (GHD) is effective in improving adult height. To achieve favorable effects, GH treatment before puberty is very important, because prepubertal height gain is highly correlated with total height gain. However, no report has studied the effects by analyzing a nationwide data from recent GHD patients in Japan. We investigated the response to GH treatment using data compiled in the Foundation for Growth Science in Japan, and compared the effects between the 1990s and 2000s using analysis of covariance. We analyzed 534 prepubertal GHD subjects treated in the 2000s with three consecutive years of data from the start and investigated predictive factors for the effects. The cumulative height standard deviation score (SDS) change over three years of GH treatment was 0.91 ± 0.57 and 1.20 ± 0.62 in the 1990s and 2000s, respectively. Subjects in the 2000s were divided into three groups by severity, and the cumulative height SDS was 1.60 ± 0.93, 1.20 ± 0.54, and 1.00 ± 0.40 indicating severe, moderate, and mild GHD, respectively. Age and height SDS at the start and severity were identified as independent predictive factors. We also found a significant difference in the effects between the two cohorts after adjusting for the different factors (regression coefficient: -0.069, 95% confidence interval: -0.11 to -0.030, p = 0.0006), which might be due to the GH dose effect. We conclude that the effects of GH treatment in the 2000s had improved compared with those in the 1990s.
The aims of this report were to clarify the diagnostic significance of ultrasound (US), fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), and flow cytometry for primary thyroid lymphoma, and to establish a preoperative diagnostic algorithm of primary thyroid lymphoma. We retrospectively examined US, FNAC, and flow cytometry in 43 patients with benign lymphoproliferative lesions and 32 patients with primary thyroid lymphoma, who underwent US, FNAC, and flow cytometry at Kuma Hospital between May 2012 and December 2015. Primary thyroid lymphomas included 27 mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas, 4 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, and 1 follicular lymphoma. Flow cytometry had the highest specificity (88.4%) and sensitivity (75.0%). The specificity of US was the lowest (32.6%). Both the positive predictive value (90.5%) and negative predictive value (94.7%) were the highest for FNAC. A scoring system was defined as follows: US, low suspicion 0, intermediate suspicion 1, and high suspicion 2; FNAC, benign 0, undetermined 1, malignant 2; and flow cytometry, 0.33< κ/λ ratio <3 0, κ/λ ratio ≤0.33 2, and κ/λ ratio ≥3 2. We propose that a score ≥4 indicates the need for thyroid resection for diagnosing primary thyroid lymphoma. In such a situation, the case of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, which was aggressive, was not excluded. Approximately one-fifth of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas may be overlooked, but the patients could be followed up with because of an indolent course.
Octreotide, a long-acting somatostatin analog, has been used for treating hypoglycemia caused by congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI). However, octreotide has not been evaluated in clinical trials and has not been approved in any developed country. We aimed to test the efficacy and safety of octreotide for diazoxide-unresponsive CHI through a combination of a single-arm, open-label clinical trial (SCORCH study) and an observational study to collect data on the clinical course of patients treated off-label in Japan (SCORCH registry). In the SCORCH study, 5 patients were stabilized (blood glucose > 45 mg/dL) by hypertonic glucose infusion, and treated by continuous subcutaneous octreotide infusion at a dose of 5-25 μg/kg/day. Continuous blood glucose monitoring was performed between -24 and +48 hours. In 3 patients, a clinically meaningful rise in blood glucose was achieved and therapy was continued. The glucose infusion was gradually decreased and stopped after 5, 11, and 174 days, respectively. In one case, remission of CHI was reached after 606 days and octreotide was discontinued. The SCORCH registry included 19 diazoxide-unresponsive patients treated by subcutaneous octreotide, by continuous infusion or multiple daily injections. Of the 17 patients treated with hypertonic glucose infusion, the infusion rate was reduced after 4 weeks to less than 50% in 11 patients (64.7%) and stopped in 9 (52.9%). During the combined observation period of 695.4 patient-months in both studies, no severe adverse events related to octreotide were observed. In conclusion, subcutaneous octreotide injection was effective and well tolerated in the majority of patients with diazoxide-unresponsive CHI.
The aim of this study was to determine the effective waist circumference (WC) reduction rate in avoiding the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in <55 years and ≥55 years Japanese men with abdominal obesity. The study subjects were 795 men with WC ≥85 cm, fasting plasma glucose <126 mg/dL, 2-hr plasma glucose on 75 g of oral glucose tolerance test <200 mg/dL, and HbA1c 5.6-6.4 % (38-40 mmol/mol) at baseline who underwent general health checkups more than twice between April 2007 and May 2015. They were divided into 5 groups based on the change in WC during the observation period (WC gain group, and four groups stratified according the rate of WC loss). The subjects were also divided into the <55 years and ≥55 years (at baseline) subgroups. The cumulative incidence rate of T2DM was analyzed and compared among the groups. The cumulative incidence rates of the largest WC loss quartile (≥5.45 %) in all age, of the largest WC loss quartile (≥5.60 %) and second largest WC loss quartile (3.44-5.59 %) in the <55 years subgroup, and of the largest WC loss quartile (≥5.37 %) in the ≥55 years subgroup were significantly lower than that of the gain group (p<0.001, p=0.009, 0.012, and 0.012, respectively). WC reduction rate of at least about 3 % in the younger (<55 years) and at least about 5 % in the older (≥55 years) non-diabetic Japanese men with abdominal obesity can effectively reduce the chance of development of T2DM.
The mechanism of pituitary tumorigenesis remains largely unknown. Lynch syndrome is an autosomal, dominantly inherited syndrome caused by a defective mismatch repair (MMR) mechanism involved in the development of various tumors at an early age. In this case study, we showed the occurrence of pituitary tumors associated with Lynch syndrome for the first time and performed genetic and immunohistochemical analysis to evaluate the genetic aberrations that might be related to the tumorigenesis and proliferation. A 68-year-old female patient with Lynch syndrome due to mutL homolog 1 (MLH1) gene mutation suffered from hypersecretion of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), hypercortisolism and a rapidly progressive pituitary tumor. We performed genetic analysis by whole genome sequencing with genomic DNA of the pituitary tumor and peripheral blood leukocytes, as well as immunohistochemical analysis of MMR proteins. Genetic analysis revealed that the tumor had homozygous gene mutation of MEN1 associated with pituitary tumorigenesis and mutS homolog 6 (MSH6) gene. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis showed that MLH1 and MSH6 immunoexpression were negative. We reveal for the first time that MMR abnormality could cause somatic mutation of MEN1 and pituitary tumor occurrence is associated with Lynch syndrome. We suggest that the identified gene mutations, especially those of MSH6 and MLH1 genes, may be involved in the pathogenesis and proliferation of pituitary tumor. The knowledge obtained from our case study is important to elucidate the pathogenesis and proliferation mechanisms of pituitary tumors.
Diabetes-associated male sexual dysfunction and fertility impairments are both common clinical complications with limited therapeutic options; hence it seriously affects the quality of life of the patients, in particular, the patients of reproductive age. Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) has long being believed to maintain and to promote reproductive functions in the traditional medical practice in China. The current study was to investigate if LBP may contribute to recovery of male sexual dysfunction and fertility impairments in diabetic individuals. The effects of LBP on sexual behaviors and histological changes of testis were studied in the type-1 diabetes male mice induced by intra-peritoneal (i.p.) injection of streptozotocin (STZ). After oral administration of LBP (10, 20 or 40 mg/kg), sildenafil citrate (SC, 5 mg/kg) or saline for 62 consecutive days, the typical abnormal changes in the sperm parameters, in relative weight of reproductive organs and in morphology of testis were observed in diabetic mice. LBP treatment of the diabetic mice considerably reversed those changes and Johnsen’s testicular score, serum testosterone (T), follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) level were also increased to different degrees. Moreover, our data have also shown that a marked improvement in sexual behavior and fertility level after administration of LBP (40 mg/kg) compared to the diabetic group. These results suggested that LBP can exert functional recovery of male sexual dysfunction and fertility damages induced by diabetes in male mice, which is likely to be mediated through regulating the hypothalamus- pituitary-gonadal axis endocrine activity.
Canagliflozin has a robust inhibitory effect on sodium glucose transporter (SGLT)-2 and a mild inhibitory effect on SGLT1. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of canagliflozin on circulating active glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. Patients were randomly divided into a control group (n =15) and a canagliflozin-treated group (n =15). After hospitalization, the canagliflozin-treated group took 100 mg/day canagliflozin for the entire study, and after 3 days both groups took 20 mg/day teneligliptin for an additional 3 days. In a meal test, canagliflozin significantly decreased the area under curve (AUC) (0-120 min) for plasma glucose (PG) after 3 days when compared with that at baseline, and addition of teneligliptin to the canagliflozin-treated group further decreased it. A significant decrease in the AUC (0-120 min) for serum insulin by canagliflozin was obtained, but the addition of teneligliptin elevated the AUC, and thus abolished the significant difference from baseline. A significant increase in the AUC (0-120 min) of plasma active GLP-1 by canagliflozin-treatment compared with that at baseline was observed, and the addition of teneligliptin resulted in a further increase. However, canagliflozin-treatment did not change the AUC (0-120 min) of plasma active glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP). In conclusions, canagliflozin-administration before meals decreased PG and serum insulin, and increased plasma active GLP-1 levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. Canagliflozin did not greatly influence plasma active GIP levels.