Understanding post-disturbance reforestation processes could make a valuable contribution towards predicting the impacts of future changes in disturbance regimes on forest ecosystems. In this study, we aimed to estimate biomass dynamics in a wave-regenerated fir forest following blowdown. Three research forest stands at different developmental stages (young, intermediate, and mature; 19, 36, and 59 years-old, respectively) were established in a wave-regenerated Abies forest on Mt. Shimagare in central Japan, where a severe large-scale windthrow event occurred during a typhoon landfall in 1959 (Typhoon “Vera”). For each stand, above- and below-ground biomass was estimated using tree census data measured repeatedly from 2001 to 2008 and size-mass allometric equations developed based on the sample trees’ data. Growth patterns were also examined by tree ring analysis. The estimated biomass was the lowest in the young stand, but reached a similar level in both intermediate and mature stands. During the research period, mean height and estimated mass of trees were increasing in all sites but plot biomass were not increasing in the mature site because of mortalities of canopy trees. In the intermediate stand, tree ring analysis showed that post-typhoon seedlings could grow fast and thus a similar biomass accumulated to that in the mature stand, where trees originated from advanced seedlings that existed in high density prior to the disturbance. Compared to mature wave-regenerated fir forest without disturbance, mature forest in this study had lower biomass and the onset of mortality started earlier. These results suggest that typhoon disturbance affect subsequent forest structures and biomass accumulation.
Decolorization of RBBR, Poly R-478, Poly S-119, and Azure B by 30 wood-rotting fungi was evaluated for screening of wood-rotting fungi for bleaching of unbleached kraft pulp. Decolorization of RBBR was observed for 20 strains, in which 15 strains also showed decolorization of Poly R-478. Among the 15 strains that showed Poly R-478 decolorization, 6 strains decolorized Poly S-119, and in the 6 strains, 3 strains decolorized Azure B.
Decolorization of each dye in vitro by laccase (Lac), manganese peroxidase (MnP), and lignin peroxidase (LiP) were studied. RBBR was decolorized extensively by all of the enzymes. Poly R-478 was decolorized by MnP and LiP, but was not decolorized by Lac. Poly S-119 and Azure B were decolorized effectively by LiP; however, MnP and Lac were not efficient for decolorization of Poly S-119 and Azure B. The results suggested that decolorization of RBBR detected strains that produced only laccase, or strains that showed low ligninolytic activity, and decolorization of Poly S-119 or Azure B was suitable for detection of strains that produce lignin peroxidase. Compared with these 3 dyes, decolorization of Poly R-478 was more appropriate for selection of strains that produce MnP. These results showed that Poly R-478 was most suitable dye for screening of biobleaching fungi of unbleached kraft pulp because MnP was reported to be effective enzyme for bleaching of unbleached kraft pulp.
Sugi, C. japonica D. Don, is the most important commercial forestry species in Japan; it has been widely planted across the whole of the country and constitutes 44% of all plantation forests. Previous large-scale genome wide analysis have detected four phylogeographic groups in this species. These genetic groups have considerable relevance to C. japonica silviculture, for example, in ensuring the use of local seed sources, that are considered to be best adapted to local environments, in afforestation and to reduce the risk of any deleterious gene flow from planted forests into remnant natural stands. In C. japonica, however, thousands of DNA markers are required to reliably detect these phylogeographic genetic groups because of its low range-wide genetic differentiation. The aim of this study was to develop a small set of SNPs, more evenly spread across the genome, which could more efficiently distinguish between the four phylogeographic groups of C. japonica. From the 2500 mapped markers of C. japonica, we selected 288SNP, which were roughly evenly spaced across the C. japonica genetic map. Conversion of these SNPs to a cost-effective and flexible throughput SNP typing system generated successful assays for 257SNPs. In order to test the utility of the resulting SNP set, genotyping was performed to determine levels of polymorphism within 234 trees representing 18 natural populations of C. japonica. The results indicate samples were clustered into the four genetic groups consistent with their geographic origin, and that SNP set developed in this study can successfully identify population structure. Furthermore, we successfully identified the origin of samples of unknown geographic origin from artificial forests in Yakushima islands. We anticipate that the genomewide SNP set reported here will be useful for evaluating the species range-wide genetic structure and identification of the geographic origin of unknown samples.
Urban deer issues are critical in Sapporo, Japan. Deer occurrence is increasing in the Hokkaido Agricultural Research Center located in the tip of a forest shaped like a cape. It may be an important habitat of urban deer in Sapporo. I conducted spotlight count in the Center to monitor the deer population in forty times between 2010 and 2016, and observed a total of 1,675 deer. The observed number increased from 29-32 deer / month to 68.5 deer / month during study periods, resulting locally high density. The number also seasonally increased between early summer and autumn, corresponding to the occurrence to the downtown. The current countermeasure by electric fences is incompetent. It is necessary to control the deer population to prevent this area from being a source of urban deer in Sapporo.
Abies sachalinensis (F.Schmidt) Mast. is a leading species for plantation forestry in Hokkaido, Japan, and one of
main target species in the forest tree breeding. We selected superior genotypes among the population of plus trees, which were selected and tested as the achievement of 60 years of the forest tree breeding program in Japan. The selection was done with the data of growth traits and wood properties obtained from progeny trials, concerning four selection areas dividing the Hokkaido Breeding Region. In each selection area, approximately 30 genotypes have been selected to establish new seed orchards for the selection area. The selected genotypes will be used for the improvement of current seed orchards, the establishment of new seed orchards, and as parents to construct new breeding populations.
Knowledge of the spatial distribution of the soil carbon stock is essential for assessing the productivity, sustainability, and carbon sequestration capacity of agricultural and forested land. To contribute to the development and improvement of soil carbon models of tropical forest regions, we have collected soil carbon data in Cambodian forests since 2002 to facilitate several research projects conducted by the Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute. Our dataset contains meta-data for 66 sites (site data) and data for 309 soil horizons (soil profile data). The data for 36 sites are newly described herein, while the data for the other 30 sites are derived from the synthesis of published documents.
This research record chronologically organizes reports on insect species and ecology in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. The reports are mainly based on fieldworks conducted by the authors since the late 1990s. Brief annotation are added to each report. A list of 45 newly described insect species collected by the authors is shown with images of the 6 new species of Scarabaeidae and the 34 new species of Cerambycidae.
This study aimed to investigate the availability of correspondence analysis for use on text data obtained through interviews using photographs of workplace interiors. The text data, which have already been published, were obtained in the following manner. Twenty photographs of workplace interiors were presented to each participant, and each participant was requested to divide the photographs into groups based on similar impressions. Subsequently, the participants were asked about their impression of the companies and the people working there as well as the reason behind their impression. Morphological analysis of the obtained text data revealed that the nouns "“wood,” “pillar,” “ceiling,” “furniture,” “desk,” “chair,” “picture,” and “plant” were frequently used. These objects determined the impression obtained by looking at the photographs of workplace interiors. The adjectives “warm,” “calm,” “comfortable,” “friendly,” “bright,” “dark,” “cold,” and “stiff” were frequently used and expressed the impression of the photographs on the participants. For these frequently used words and photograph numbers, correspondence analysis was conducted, and the color characteristics of the photographs used in the interview were analyzed. Correspondence analysis distinguished the impressions of the photographs of workplace interiors. Moreover, combining correspondence analysis and color analysis clarified that the participants classified the photographs of workplace interiors based on the bright yellow and red of the wood. This result suggested that correspondence analysis could be used to evaluate the visual effect of wood interiors based on text data.