Many patients with allergic rhinitis have accompanying laryngeal symptoms such as persistent cough and/or globus. Chronic laryngeal allergy is suspected to be an important cause of these laryngeal symptoms. We have been working toward establishing the concept of a new pathological condition termed “laryngeal allergy” since 1988. In Japan, the first diagnostic criteria for laryngeal allergy were established in 1995. However, these early criteria were inadequate because there was inadequate distinction between laryngeal allergy and other causes of persistent cough and globus. Therefore, more advanced criteria were reconstructed from a completely different viewpoint in 2005 to correctly distinguish laryngeal allergy from other similar diseases. The criteria established in 2005 were modified slightly in 2011 to improve the diagnostic accuracy based on the results of fundamental and clinical investigations. The Japanese Respiratory Society (JRS) included chronic laryngeal allergy in the diagnostic flowchart of the JRS guidelines for the management of cough and sputum in 2019, and chronic laryngeal allergy has recently gained wider recognition in Japan. The accurate diagnosis of conditions resembling laryngeal allergy is important in controlling cough and/or globus and preventing the unnecessary use of medical resources. Therefore, further investigations are warranted to better understand laryngeal allergy and similar diseases.
Objectives: There are benefits of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) in patients with heart failure (HF), but their underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. The effect of CR on the expression profile of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs), which are short noncoding RNAs that regulate posttranscriptional expression of target genes, is unknown. If miRNAs respond to changes following CR for HF, then serum profiling of miRNAs may reveal cardioprotective mechanisms of CR.
Methods: This study enrolled three hospitalized patients with progressed systolic HF and three normal volunteer controls. In patients, CR was initiated after improvement of HF, which included 2 weeks of bicycle ergometer and resistance exercises. Genome-wide expression profiling of circulating miRNAs was performed using microarrays for the patients (mean±SD age, 60.0±12.2 years) and controls (58.7±0.58 years). Circulating miRNA expression profiles were compared between patients with HF before and after CR and the controls.
Results: Expression levels of two miRNAs were significantly different in patients before CR compared with controls and patients after CR. The expression of hsa-miR-125b-1-3p was significantly downregulated and that of hsa-miR-1290 was significantly upregulated in patients before CR.
Conclusions: When performing CR, expression of certain circulating miRNAs in patients with HF is restored to nonpathological levels. The benefits of CR for HF may result from regulation of miRNAs through multiple effects of gene expression.
Objectives: Erroneous use of inhalers is a serious problem. Given the multitude of devices currently available, it can be difficult to convey the correct methods for their efficient use to patients. We previously generated an educational DVD that visually and audibly explains the proper use of all inhaler types available in Japan to provide inhalation guidance to patients. Herein, we report the 1-year follow-up of patients who received or did not receive the DVD guidance.
Methods: Sixty-nine bronchial asthma patients undergoing outpatient treatment who received inhalation guidance from a pharmacist using a standard package insert were randomly allocated to a DVD group (n=35) or a no-DVD group (n=34). Their current oral or inhalant drug regimens were unchanged. Various parameters were measured 12 months later. Frequencies of aggravation during the 12-month period were also determined.
Results: Compared with the no-DVD group, there were significant improvements in asthma control test scores, forced vital capacity, FEV1, impulse oscillometry, resonant frequency, induced sputum eosinophil count, and FeNO in the DVD group after 12 months. Pulmonary function and inflammation parameters improved significantly with the use of the instructive DVD in addition to the package inserts. The frequency of asthma aggravation significantly decreased in the DVD group during the 12-month study period, likely because inhalation procedures were performed accurately.
Conclusions: A DVD that provides accurate inhalation guidance enhances the quality of life of asthma patients and has substantial clinical ramifications. Thus, this tool would be beneficial for patients in Japan and worldwide.
Objectives: We determined the efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) and subsequent changes in fecal microbiota and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), Crohn’s disease (CD), and recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (rCDI).
Methods: A filtered solution of Japanese donor feces was endoscopically administered. The efficacy of FMT was evaluated after 8 weeks using the Mayo score, Crohn’s Disease Activity Index (CDAI), and the absence of diarrhea with stool toxin negativity in patients with active UC, CD, and rCDI, respectively. For fecal microbiota analysis, the 16S ribosomal RNA gene was sequenced, and fecal SCFA levels were measured.
Results: Clinical response was achieved in 5/20 (25%), 3/4 (75%), and 4/4 (100%) patients with UC, CD, and rCDI, respectively. Clinical remission was achieved in 4/20 (20%) and 1/4 (25%) patients with UC and CD, respectively. Linear discriminant analysis illustrated that UC responders had lower counts of Clostridium cluster XIVa before FMT and higher counts after FMT. Higher Fusicatenibacter saccharivorans counts in donors were significantly correlated with 8-week clinical remission. Patients with CD exhibited lower Blautia, Dorea, and Eubacterium counts before FMT and higher Collinsella, Dorea, and Eubacterium counts after FMT, accompanied by functional profiles predictive of SCFA fermentation and elevated fecal butyrate concentrations. Patients with rCDI displayed significantly lower abundances of Clostridium clusters IV and XIVa before FMT and higher abundances after FMT accompanied by elevated fecal propionate concentrations.
Conclusions: FMT exhibited various efficacy against UC, CD, and rCDI by altering the gut microbiota and SCFA production.
Objectives: Patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) due to sepsis often develop cerebral infarction; but the frequency, mechanism of onset and prognosis have not been fully elucidated. We reported courses and characteristics of septic DIC cases hospitalized in our hospital in the present study.
Methods: Patients with septic DIC who underwent brain imaging were selected. Vital signs, disorders of consciousness and blood test results at the time of onset were compared between cases that developed cerebral infarction (cerebral infarction group) and those that did not (non-infarction group).In cases of cerebral infarction, the site and the size of the infarct lesion were also described.
Results: In 27 septic DIC patients who underwent brain imaging, eight patients had cerebral infarction. Although the percentage of patients who survived in the cerebral infarction group (2/8, 25%) was lower than that in the non-infarction group (7/17, 37%), , no significant difference was observed as both group showed poor prognoses. Those two patients who survived in the cerebral infarction group had severe consciousness disturbance and poor functional prognosis. Although the body temperature was significantly lower and the blood pressure was higher in the cerebral infarction group, no significant difference was found in general blood tests, so we thought it would be necessary to look for other markers that could be indicators for the risk of cerebral infarction.
In the cerebral infarction group, two cases had a single lesion, and six cases had multiple lesions. Of the latter, two cases had massive lesions with a diameter of 1.5 cm or greater, four cases had only small lesions with a diameter of less than 1.5 cm, and two cases had a mixture of both. Most of the patients had lesions in the vertebrobasilar artery, which suggested that the pathogenesis involves not only embolism due to microthrombi, but also vasculitis and intravascular inflammation.
Conclusions: Cerebral infarction was observed highly frequently; eight out of 27 cases (29.6%) when brain imaging was undergone in septic DIC patients. The prognosis of patients with cerebral infarction was poor, but no difference from the non-infarction group was observed. In addition to embolism, the presence of inflammation is considered to be important for the onset. In order to predict the prognosis and determine a suitable treatment, it would be recommended to undergo brain imaging when patients with septic DIC have consciousness disturbance or elevated blood pressure, and do not have fever.
Objectives: We compared the effects of sub-Tenon’s capsule anesthesia (STA) and trans-Tenon’s capsule retrobulbar anesthesia (TTRBA) in 68 patients with epiretinal membrane.
Methods: Either STA or TTRBA was induced with 3 mL of lidocaine (2%) before vitrectomy combined with phacoemulsification and aspiration (phacovitrectomy). Akinesia was evaluated by range of eye movement (ROEM) in upward, downward, nasal, and temporal directions at 4, 10, and 30 minutes after injection. Analgesia was evaluated with a visual analogue pain score, which ranged from 0 to 10.
Results: The mean cumulative ROEMs were 1.44±1.02 corneal diameters (CDs) at 4 minutes, 0.55±0.76 CDs at 10 minutes, and 0.26±0.33 CDs at 30 minutes in patients who received STA; these values were 0.39±0.35 CDs at 4 minutes, 0.22±0.30 CDs at 10 minutes, and 0.13±0.29 CDs at 30 minutes in patients who received TTRBA. At both 4 and 10 minutes, the cumulative ROEMs in all directions, as well as the temporal ROEMs, were significantly larger in patients who received STA than in patients who received TTRBA. Pain scores did not significantly differ between groups at any time point.
Conclusions: STA and TTRBA produced identical degrees of analgesia, but akinesia was slower in patients who received STA. TTRBA might be preferable for patients undergoing brief vitrectomy.