Galaxea, Journal of Coral Reef Studies
Online ISSN : 1883-3969
Print ISSN : 1883-0838
ISSN-L : 1883-0838
Volume 15 , Issue Supplement
Showing 1-50 articles out of 59 articles from the selected issue
Keynote Speakers
  • Bert W. HOEKSEMA
    2013 Volume 15 Issue Supplement Pages 1-8
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 25, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The highest concentrations of Indo-Pacific reef coral species occur in the Coral Triangle (CT). A large part of the CT is bordering the edge of the Sunda Shelf, with the highest species richness to the north and east of the Sunda Shelf, including parts of Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, Timor Leste, and the Solomons. Within eastern Indonesia also differences in coral reef fauna can be observed, e.g. between Sulawesi and West Papua. There is no relation with Wallace’s Line or with Wallacea, the area in between the Sunda and Sahul shelves, which both relate to terrestrial biogeography. The west-east variation in marine species diversity can be explained hypothetically in four ways. The CT has more species because of (1) plate tectonics; (2) a higher species survival during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM); (3) higher habitat variability, especially from near-shore (shallow, sheltered, murky water) to offshore (deep, exposed clear water); (4) inter-oceanic currents running in north-south direction between the Pacific and the Indian Ocean, such as the Indonesian Through Flow (ITF), preventing connections between west and east. Future research should give more insight in the relative importance of these four factors and whether there are clear-cut lines of division or zones of transition with ever-changing species compositions.
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  • Tuan Si VO
    2013 Volume 15 Issue Supplement Pages 9-15
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 25, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The UNEP GEF Project entitled “Reversing Environmental Degradation Trends in the South China Sea and Gulf of Thailand” was funded by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and implemented by UNEP in partnership with seven riparian states bordering the South China Sea during 2002-2008. It was developed to address the priority concerns and issues identified in the Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis (TDA) and encompas-sing actions under four components: habitat loss and degradation; land-based pollution; over-fishing in the Gulf of Thailand; and regional co-ordination. In the framework of the project, the Regional Working Group on Coral Reefs was established, including focal points from participating countries and regional experts. In collaboration with the National Committees on Coral Reefs, national data were provided to develop a regional database, including meta-database with some hundreds of entries and GIS data providing information of 43 coral reefs sites. A Strategic Action Programme (SAP) was developed through an iterative process with activities at the national level feeding into the regional review process, which in turn provided advice and guidance to the national entities in finalising their draft inputs to the regional SAP. A key element in this process was the development of detailed National Action Plans (NAP) by each country that addressed the specific concerns and issues. In the case of the coral reef sub-component, common goals of NAPs are to sustain coral reefs for biodiversity conservation and wise use. Contents of the NAPs were analysed and the identified national actions and priorities were included in the SAP to enable a shared vision regarding actions needed at the regional level in support of national actions.
    The specific targets for coral reef management developed in the SAP are: (1) By 2015, at least 70% of the existing area of coral reefs in the 83 target coral reef sites (153,000 ha) to be put under an appropriate form of sustainable management; (2) By 2015, reduce the regional decadal rate of degradation in live coral cover from the present rate of 16% to 5%.
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  • Loke Ming CHOU
    2013 Volume 15 Issue Supplement Pages 16-21
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 25, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Rampant destruction of coral reefs throughout the later half of the past century threatens Southeast Asia’s status as the global coral reef hotspot. Increased awareness in the 1990s of the economic value of coral reefs stimulated management responses, but despite implementation of a variety of management practices, these had limited effect considering the scale and intensity of degradation. This paper examines the state of science and management of the region’s coral reefs one decade into the new millennium. Advances in the scientific understanding of coral reef processes are sufficient to support more effective management but if this is not scaled up and strongly implemented, then the region risks losing its rich reef heritage.
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Mini-symposium: Biogeochemical Cycles in Coral Reefs
  • Yuka YANO, Kanjana ADULYANUKOSOL, Makoto TSUCHIYA
    2013 Volume 15 Issue Supplement Pages 22-33
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 25, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Weight loss patterns in the decomposing leaves and sheath of seagrass, Thalassia hemprichii - were studied in relation to their organic carbon and nitrogen dynamics in a seagrass bed of Bise, Okinawa using litter bags - Comparisons were made between seagrass leaves and sheaths at - different seasons; Spring, Summer and Autumn 2007. The weight of sheaths, with low initial N concentration, decreased during the first 2 weeks of the experiment, and then remained relatively constant. On the other hand, the weight of leaves, with a high initial N concentration, decreased gradually throughout the experiment. In addition, the total nitrogen content in the decomposing leaves and sheaths varied seasonally. The weight loss patterns of leaves and sheaths were low in autumn, and high in summer after 1st week of the experiment. The total nitrogen content of leaves was higher in summer than in other seasons. During the experiment, the TN concentration increased and the TOC concentration decreased with time. This caused the C/N ratio to decline also with time. T. hemprichii biomass showed seasonal and spatial variation with regards to density and shoot height. The net losses of both carbon and nitrogen were 12.831 g m-2 and 0.634 g m-2 respectively at St. 3 which had the highest T. hemprichii biomass, and 1.228 g m-2 and 0.057 g m-2 respectively at St. 1 which had the lowest biomass. The estimated amount of TOC and TN from litter differed between plants parts. Therefore, it is necessary to consider not only leaf but also sheath as a nutrient source due to their differing nutrient values and decomposition processes.
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  • Izumi MIMURA, Kousuke IWAHASI, Atsushi YAMASHIRO, Makoto TSUCHIYA
    2013 Volume 15 Issue Supplement Pages 34-38
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 25, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    River water and seawater NH4+ and NO3- concentrations were measured during summer and autumn, 2007, to examine temporal and spatial changes in a pristine river and coastal bay located in the northern part of Okinawa Island, Japan. The river water inorganic nitrogen concentrations ranged from 0.43 to 0.70 μmol NH4+L-1 and 15.06 to 35.38 μmol NO3-L-1 during the summer and from 0.07 to 0.31 μmol NH4+L-1 and 18.48 to 28.13 μmol NO3-L-1 during the autumn. The seawater inorganic nitrogen concentrations ranged from 0.00 to 1.04 μmol NH4+L-1 and 0.00 to 23.35 μmol NO3-L-1 during the summer and from 0.00 to 0.29 μmol NH4+L-1 and 0.00 to 1.15 μmol NO3-L-1 during the autumn. At the same time, the seawater suspended solid (SS) concentrations were up to 10 mgL-1 during the summer and 3.5 mg L-1 during the autumn. The highest NH4+ and NO3- concentrations in the bay were found near the river mouth, which indicates that these materials are probably discharged from the river. The river water NH4+ and NO3- concentrations were higher than the seawater concentrations during both seasons, but the seawater NH4+ and NO3- concentrations were not relatively higher than in other coastal areas of Okinawa Island. NH4+ and NO3- can negatively influence coral growth in this bay, and the corals were absent at the high NH4+ and NO3- concentration sites in the bay. Inorganic nitrogen from seawater may have flown into the bay during rainfall events.
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Mini-symposium: Oceanography and Remote Sensing
  • Pavel TKALICH, My Ha DAO, Jianguo ZHENG
    2013 Volume 15 Issue Supplement Pages 39-44
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 25, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The main objective of this study is to be able to shape man-made coastal protection structures to blend within and support a sustainable ecosystem. To satisfy certain quantitative healthy criteria, we control local flow characteristics using engineering solutions via numerical modelling approach. Several types of coastal structures including solid and permeable breakwaters have been studied. The use of permeable breakwater leads to certain advantages: at the lee side, a gentle reduction in downstream current magnitude results in a vorticity reduction; permeable structures are subjected to smaller hydrodynamic force than the solid structures; permeable structures could be built from nature materials and are therefore more environmentally friendly.
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Mini-symposium: Reef Monitoring and Assessment
  • Norman John QUINN, Hussein ZAHIR
    2013 Volume 15 Issue Supplement Pages 45-53
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 25, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Percent coral cover is examined from a geographically diverse set of lagoonal, shallow reefs in the Maldives from 7°N to 1°S in surveys conducted in 2009. Data collected by the National Coral Reef Monitoring Survey (NCRMS) of the Maldivian government’s Marine Research Centre (MRC) provided an historical, along with other outside agency studies, for assessing the recovery of Maldivian coral reefs in the past 12 years to coral bleaching and a tsunami. Coral cover at study sites in the northern Haa Dhaalu Atoll was nearly 0% after the 1998 bleaching event. Subsequent reef recovery was slow with coral cover only achieving 3-5% in 2005. In 2009, coral cover ranged from 14%-29%. This was collectively the lowest coral cover for all the atolls surveyed. The shallow reefs of study sites in Ari Atoll, in the central part of the Maldives, exhibited exceptional resilience. In 2005, most of these reefs had coral cover <11%. Fesdhoo reef exhibited exceptional resilience since the bleaching recovering to 10% coral cover in 2000 and then by 2005 >30% coral cover. In 2009, it was among the most luxuriant reefs surveyed with ~65% coral cover. After the 1998 bleaching, the study reefs at Addu-Gaafu Alifu (AGA) Atoll in the southern hemisphere still had some living coral. AGA Atoll had the greatest recovery of live coral cover in sites distant from anthropogenic influences. The Vilingili reef is of particular note as it had only ∼4% coral cover in 1998, increasing to 13% in 2002. In 2009, in spite of its proximity to the development of resort water bungalows the coral cover had increased to 55%. There is considerable variation in the recovery among reefs and among habitats within reefs.
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  • Tanuspong POKAVANICH, Takahiro YAMAMOTO, Kazuo NADAOKA, Ariel C. BLANC ...
    2013 Volume 15 Issue Supplement Pages 54-59
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 25, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This work presents some field data analyses of two long-term sensor deployments, obtained from a coastal lagoon named “Puerto Galera,” in the Philippines. The lagoon ecosystems compose of coral reef patches, seagrass beds and mangroves. Due to the topographic features of the lagoon, the water exchange between it and the outer sea is limited by tidal driven currents. However, it is found that the exchange is maintained by the lagoon’s interaction with the outer sea through massive intrusions of outer sea water. There are two different proposed triggering mechanisms of the intrusion in the present study. The mechanisms are related to mainstream fluctuating strong tidal currents and the upwelling of deep cool water brought about by a prevailing east wind. The latter factor has strong seasonality and therefore affects the water quality of the inner-most part of the lagoon as evidenced by apparent seasonal differences in overall chlorophyll-a and dissolved oxygen concentrations.
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  • Christine PARFITT, Glen WHISSON
    2013 Volume 15 Issue Supplement Pages 60-65
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 25, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Understanding changes in marine biodiversity relies on monitoring programmes that give accurate indications of the biological response to natural and anthropogenic drivers. Historic approaches have provided poor indications of nocturnal macro-invertebrate assemblages, particularly fisheries-independent methods that rely on visual assessments of transects, or video collection devices deployed for fixed time periods. Permanent artificial habitats, specifically designed for monitoring all invertebrate species, including those that are cryptic or nocturnal, could provide an ideal solution to this critical knowledge gap. Marine Invertebrate Collection Equipment (MICE) are artificial habitats that have been designed in Western Australia over a period of five years and are now deployed in many coastal locations where they are regularly sampled. The present study was conducted in Geographe Bay, Western Australia where replicate MICE units were deployed to determine the impact of placement on seagrass versus the standard protocol of deployment on a sandy substrate. A total of 4,403 individual macro-invertebrates were collected and categorised into 104 Parataxonomic Units (PTUs), which were then aggregated into 21 intermediate classification groupings, and again into 7 broader groupings. At the intermediate level of identification, gastropods dominated the community composition, followed by worms, bivalves, sponges and amphipods. At the broader level of identification, molluscs were the most prevalent, followed by crustaceans, worms and sponges. Placement of MICE on a seagrass substrate resulted in a significantly lower abundance of invertebrates than those placed on sand (p<0.05). These differences were adequately explained using broad and intermediate levels of identification and no significant additional information was gained by identifying organisms to the level of PTU.
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  • Mustafa M, Zailani MS, Zaidi MZ
    2013 Volume 15 Issue Supplement Pages 66-71
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 25, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    As common practices, evaluation process is done by special dive task force unit to conduct diving activity to observe on how Artificial Reefs (AR) growth. This evaluation for effectiveness and efficiency of AR development is quite difficult and troublesome. In this paper, the framework architecture for databases integration process using location coordinate data (longitude and latitude) of AR will matches with the fish catches data from identified fish landing port that using SIDIF. With SIDIF, the data of fish catches will be mapped with data on location coordinate of AR as a whole via mapping and integration of these two different databases. Using this methodology, the effectiveness and efficiency of AR development will be achieved as well as the evaluation will be measured.
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  • Glen WHISSON, Alexandra HOSCHKE
    2013 Volume 15 Issue Supplement Pages 72-78
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 25, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The significant economic benefits accruing from Western Australia’s expanding offshore oil and gas industry come with increasing risks and pressures to the marine environment. Ningaloo Reef, a marine biodiversity hotspot of global importance, requires effective monitoring of reef condition beyond ad hoc snapshots of biological, physical and chemical components. A long-term approach to monitoring should be underpinned by integrated, and preferably, continuous programs that develop comprehensive baselines for biodiversity assessment. Piercam is a system of remote underwater video cameras permanently installed under the Point Murat Navy Pier, which is located near Exmouth, within the Ningaloo Marine Park. The Piercam project has been operating since 2005 and has recorded and archived over 10,000 hours of underwater footage, with over 90% of all vision containing observable finfish activity. In addition to permanent recording, the footage is uploaded onto the World Wide Web, which enables real-time analysis by students from Curtin University’s Coastal Zone Management program. To date, 165 fish species from 50 families have been positively identified. Current investigations are focussing on the determination of suitable indicator species for Ningaloo Reef, in addition to the identification of species at risk, like the vulnerable grey nurse shark (Carcharius taurus), which has been repeatedly observed by Piercam over successive years.
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  • Nguyen Van LONG, Tuan Si Vo
    2013 Volume 15 Issue Supplement Pages 79-83
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 25, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Monitoring of coral reefs in Vietnam have been conducted at 42 permanent sites in seven key areas in the coastal waters of Vietnam, including Cu Lao Cham, Van Phong Bay, Nha Trang Bay, Ninh Hai — Ninh Thuan, Ca Na Bay, Con Dao and Phu Quoc, using SCUBA diving. The numbers of reefs in excellent and good conditions decreased from 7.4% and 33.3% in the period of 1994-1997 to 2.9% and 11.6% in the period of 2004-2007 respectively. The number of coral reefs in bad and very bad conditions increased from 14.8% (1994-1997) to 50.0% (2004-2007). The percentage of coral reefs in fair condition remained relatively stable, averaging 44.5% (1994-1997) to 40.6% (2004-2007). The quality of most coral reefs has been significantly decreasing between 1994-2007, with annual degradation rate averaging 1.14% for live corals, 0.93% for hard corals and 0.27% for soft corals. Total density of fish significantly increased over time, with mainly increasing density of small fish at size class of 1-10 cm. Density of large fish (>20 cm), mainly target and predatory fish decreased over time. The target indicators of macro-invertebrates are extremely rare with the exception of sea urchins and crown of thorn starfish. Density of top shells, edible sea cucumbers and crown of thorn starfish slightly increased while giant clams and sea urchins significantly decreased over time. Ratio of reefs with active outbreak of crown of thorn starfish in the central of Vietnam increased from 0% in 1998 to 45.5% in 2002 and 35.7% in 2007. This indicates that coral reefs in the coastal waters of Vietnam are not in good condition and have been degrading over time.
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  • Karen A. VILLARTA, Wilfredo L. CAMPOS, Pacifico D. BELDIA II
    2013 Volume 15 Issue Supplement Pages 84-91
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 25, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study was conducted to provide information necessary for deriving indicators in reef MPA sites by means of characterizing spatial trends in benthic community structures in an attempt to provide traces requisite in understanding coral reef dynamics and ultimately, determining supplemental site-specific management approaches. This is part of a 7-year program aimed at conserving biological diversity in four focal areas in the Philippines situated at different geographic locations in the country. A total of 126 transects were surveyed in two focal areas, 60 in Surigao del Sur and 66 in Danajon Bank, Bohol, surveyed in June and August 2008, respectively. For both areas, live hard coral cover showed variability among transects within MPA sites (200-400 m apart) as well as between MPA sites (10-60 km apart), although MPA sites located within only a few kilometers from each other tend to be similar in terms of live hard coral coverage. However, a significant degree in variation was observed between MPAs in Surigao del Sur, which have exposed reef systems, compared with those observed in Danajon Bank, Bohol, which are all within a double barrier reef system. In Surigao del Sur, variability in LHC cover between inshore MPAs and island MPAs was also found to be significantly different. Results of spatial correlation between live hard coral and total algal cover between the two focal areas is discussed further.
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  • Anchalee CHANKONG, Vipoosit MANTHACHITRA
    2013 Volume 15 Issue Supplement Pages 92-100
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 25, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Scleractinian corals, genus Acropora, are the dominant group within coral assemblages in the Gulf of Thailand. The purpose of this study is to investigate the diversity, species composition, and community structure of Acropora in the Gulf of Thailand. A 30×1 m belt transect with 3 replicates were employed in each of 80 stations at 30 islands along the Gulf of Thailand. The overall diversity indices at all stations were between 0.5-2.0 while the evenness indices between 0.5-1.0. Community structure of Acropora, based on coverage area, varied significantly between habitats depending on location. Based on the surveys, community structure could be divided into 4 groups. The first group was the station at Klang Island on the winward-reef slope (kl12) and the station at Kra Island on the winward-reef slope (kr12), having A. aculeus as a dominant species and at station Kra Island on the leeward-reef slope (kr22), having A. nana as a dominant species. The second group was the station at Klang Island on the leeward-reef slope (kl22), which had A. formosa as the dominant species. The third group was the station at Kra Island on the leeward-reef flat (kr21), which had A. cf. copiosa, A. longicyathus, A. tenuis and A. microphthalma as the dominant species. The last group of the stations had common species and rare species of Acropora. This study showed that the current condition of Acropora in the Gulf of Thailand showed recovery after the bleaching phenomenon in 1998.
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Mini-symposium: Database and Information System
  • Man MUSTAFA, Mohammad Zakaria ZAIDI, Mohd Mohd Rahim SHAFRY, Mat Amin ...
    2013 Volume 15 Issue Supplement Pages 101-106
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 25, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Fish length is very important to the fishery research to identify fish population. In many fisheries, sample of fish length is a main parameter to identify fish reproduction, recruitment, growth and mortality. Currently in Malaysia, researchers have to measure the fish length one by one using measurement tools. This method is highly cost as we require buying fish first for measuring purposed. Moreover, manually measurement of fish length is time-consuming. Therefore, a method to measure the length of a fish automatically using image processing and formula optic is greatly needed to solve these problems. In this paper, we will discuss on the details of FLUDI framework. The FLUDI framework is a combination between Hsiu’s method and Serkan’s method. The accuracy of measuring the fish length was 99.81%.
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Mini-symposium: Biology and Ecology of Coral Reef Organism
  • Helen G. BANGI, G. CUARESMA, Fra-an T. QUIMPO, Camillia J. BOLLOZOS, H ...
    2013 Volume 15 Issue Supplement Pages 107-114
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 25, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla is an economically important resource found along reef flats in many areas in the Philippines. Monthly field monitoring was conducted in three marine biogeographic regions in the Philippines: Northwestern Luzon, Northern Mindanao and Southern Mindanao, to determine and compare the density and size frequency distribution of T. gratilla benthic recruits (40 mm test diameter) from July 2009 to May 2010. Preliminary results showed that the mean density of recruits was significantly higher in the Southern Mindanao (9.41 individuals/ 100 m2) and Northern Mindanao (5.42 individuals/ 100 m2) compared to Northwestern Luzon (only 0.28 individuals/ 100 m2). On the other hand, most of the larger-sized urchins (up to 92 mm) were recorded in the Northwestern Luzon, and adults (>60 mm) comprised up to 66% of the total density. The observed variability in the density and size frequency distribution of T. gratilla recruits is discussed based on the biophysical profiles of the three regions. Southern and Northern Mindanao seem more favorable for sea urchin recruitment compared to Northwestern Luzon. Our ability to repeatedly induce spawning every month and the prevalence of mature stages (up to 100%) of egg samples in the three regions so far indicate the possible regular supply of larvae in all the regions, however, the vulnerability of the recruit stage to the changing environment may differ across biogeographic regions.
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  • Reiko N. TAMAI, Kazuhiko SAKAI
    2013 Volume 15 Issue Supplement Pages 115-122
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 25, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Overharvesting of herbivorous fishes is assumed to be one of the causes for phase shift on coral reefs from coral- to macroalgal-dominated communities by reducing inhibitor of algal growth. In order to reveal the effect of herbivorous fishes on algae and juvenile acroporid corals, field experiment was conducted in Okinawa, southern Japan. Grazer-exclusion cages were established where small (2 cm in length) coral branchlets of Acropora tenuis were transplanted both inside and outside the cages. During the exclusion experiment, algal biomass, survival and growth of the transplanted corals were monitored. The cages effectively excluded herbivorous fishes that resulted in significantly greater algal biomass inside the cages than outside. While algal biomass continued to increase within the cages, algal species composition has changed drastically at the middle of the experimental period. During the first half period (3 months) when encrusting turf algae covered substrate adjacent to coral branchlets inside the cages, coral branchlets could not expand their attachment area on the substrata. In contrast, during the second half period (3 months) corals started rapid growth after turf algae disappeared and frondose macroalgae dominated. We conclude that turf algae may prevent the growth of juvenile acroporid corals especially in the early stages of horizontal expansion prior to the vertical growth.
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  • Serapion N. TANDUYAN, Ricardo B. GONZAGA, Virginia D. BENSIG
    2013 Volume 15 Issue Supplement Pages 123-132
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 25, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Caulerpa lentillifera has been reared traditionally cultured in bottoms of fishponds and was first reared in Mactan Island, Cebu, Philippines. Conversion of mangroves into ponds has been banned in the Philippines and the off bottom culture of this alga was studied in order to find its growth in an open and natural body of waters cultured at three different water levels and culture sites. This study used the Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four culture media as treatment. Treatment 1, use plastic screen cage; Treatment 2, tubular plastic screen; Treatment 3 nylon screen cage and Treatment 4 tubular nylon screen. The culture media were placed in bamboo raft where this was divided into three layers representing the surface, midlayer and bottom layer and placed in different sites which are muddy, rocky and sandy bottom. Sampling was done every 15 days for three months taking wet weight of the plant as factor. Results showed that as to the efficiency of each culture medium based on the water level it was found out that on the surface level the C. lentillifera placed in plastic screen cage has the highest growth rate in Site 1 (muddy site) and tubular nets ranked first in site 2 (rocky) and site 3 (sandy). For the middle layer based on the mean weight of the plant showed that tubular nets has the highest in site 1 (muddy) and plastic screen cage got the highest in site 2 (rocky) and 3 (sandy). For the bottom layer the tubular plastic screen dominates the highest growth rate of all the culture media used from site 1, 2 and 3. Middle layer is the best layer for the off- bottom culture of lato using the plastic screen cage based on the highest mean growth of the plant. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) revealed that there is no significant difference on the growth rate of Caulerpa lentillifera placed in plastic screen cage, tubular nets with the different water levels in the three culture sites.
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  • Mei Ling KHOO, Ghaffar Abdul MAZLAN
    2013 Volume 15 Issue Supplement Pages 133-137
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 25, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    One of the means to measure photosynthetic health in corals and cnidarians is through measuring the chlorophyll fluorescence. In this study, the photosynthetic performance in three individuals of Heteractis magnifica was being evaluated using a submersible pulse modulated amplitude fluorometer (Diving PAM). The effective quantum yield of each individual was monitored for three consecutive days in five different times (0600, 0900, 1200, 1500, 1800) throughout the whole day. The photosynthetic rate during the diurnal changes showed an opposite pattern to photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) light intensity, being the lowest at 1200-1500 hours and recovered in the evening as the PAR light intensity declined. There were no significant differences in the yield values of the light adapted (ΔF’/Fm’) and the dark-adapted (Fv/Fm) anemones (ANOVA, p>0.05), with 0.75±0.08 and 0.74±0.11, respectively. This information can be used as the baseline data for further guidance of monitoring stress in the corals and cnidarians in the surrounding waters in Pulau Tioman.
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  • Hilly A. ROA-QUIAOIT, Fra-and T. QUIMPO, Camillia J. BOLLOZOS, G. CUAR ...
    2013 Volume 15 Issue Supplement Pages 138-142
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 25, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper provides preliminary notes on the vulnerability of selected Tripneustes gratilla populations in the Philippines to climate-induced increase storminess. Typhoons in the Philippines are frequent in the north and less in the south. The abundance and size structure of T. gratilla were gathered over nineteen months (July 2009-January 2011) in three sites across the storminess gradient, from northernmost (Ilocos Norte), mid-southern (Zamboanga del Norte) and southernmost (Davao del Sur). The different scenarios of vulnerability to climate change were based on their exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. The high exposure to storms in the northern site puts the population of T. gratilla vulnerable to climate change with its low density (6 individuals/100 m2), less juveniles (0.4 individuals/100 m2) and narrow reef habitat. These lower their adaptive capacity because of weak support to natural resilience (e.g., poor recruitment). The southern sites, less expose to storms, are less vulnerable and sensitive with its higher abundance (15 individuals/100 m2 Murcielagos Bay and 42 individuals/ 100 m2 Sta. Cruz), more juveniles (12 individuals/100 m2 in Murcielagos and 14 individuals/100 m2 Sta. Cruz) and extensive reef habitats that support natural resilience (e.g. good recruitment) and increases their adaptive capacities although active fisheries and overexploitation is seen as the controlling factor. There is a need for adaptive measures more to increase its natural resilience (e.g., marine protected areas) to both natural and man-made disturbances.
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  • Genibeth GENITO, Wilfredo CAMPOS
    2013 Volume 15 Issue Supplement Pages 143-153
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 25, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The inclusion of macroinvertebrates in the characterization of coral reef community structures is a common practice in reef assessment. More often than not however, data on this component is relegated to rudimentary analysis and poor utilization, as priority is given to the keystone species, the corals, or to the reef fish assemblage. Macroinvertebrates, being relatively sessile, are vulnerable to current fast-paced environmental changes and it is imperative for a more comprehensive and holistic approach to examine changes in the assemblages of this biota in relation to changes in habitat structure. In an attempt to address this, temporal changes in the reef macroinvertebrate communities of Tawi-Tawi, Philippines were examined in relation to changes in the benthic structure.
    Macroinvertebrates in Tawi-Tawi were consistently dominated by ascidians, mollusks and echinoderms which showed close affinity to changes in the reef structure. The shift in the reef framework from living coral structures to dead coral and algae were corresponded by a significant decrease in abundances of macroinvertebrates. The increase in species richness however showed that macroinvertebrates have the adaptive capacity to buffer impacts, and slow down the rate of community change by becoming generalists and opportunists, but only for a transitory period before species-specific impacts eventually sets in.
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Mini-symposium: Coral Biology and Physiology
  • Yeong Shyan YUEN, Seitaro S. YAMAZAKI, Andrew H. BAIRD, Takashi NAKAMU ...
    2013 Volume 15 Issue Supplement Pages 154-159
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 25, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Coral skeletons harbor diverse assemblages of endolithic microorganisms that often have a profound influence on the ecology and physiology of the coral host. While the cyanobacterial and eukaryotic microalgal components of these endolithic assemblages are well characterized, information on the other components remains scarce. Here, we characterize the endolithic microbial assemblages in the skeleton of the massive coral Goniastrea aspera in both oligotrohic and eutrophic environments. In addition to the green bands typically found in massive coral skeletons, multiple black bands were observed in skeletons from oligotrophic waters. Sequence analysis of the dsrB (dissimilatroy sulfite reductase beta-subunit) gene revealed that colonies with black bands harbor a diverse assemblage of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). In contrast, SRB were not detected in skeletons from eutrophic waters. We conclude that increases in nutrients may have an important effect on the microbial assemblages residing within coral skeletons.
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  • Takashi NAKAMURA, Hideo YAMASAKI
    2013 Volume 15 Issue Supplement Pages 160-165
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 25, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Faster water-flow conditions mitigates photosynthetic stress on zooxanthellate coral species Acropora digitifera, especially under excessive light and high water temperature conditions. Until now, it has remained yet unconfirmed that the effect can be seen on coral species inhabiting similar environments. Here we report on the presence of differential effects of water flow among shallow-inhabiting scleractinian corals in Okinawa, Japan. Using Diving-PAM (pulse amplitude modulation) chlorophyll fluorometers, we compared the dynamics in maximal photochemical efficiencies of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) of five coral species under two flow conditions (<3 cm s-1 and 20 cm s-1). Surprisingly, two out of five coral species showed almost no effects, while water flow exhibited significant mitigating effects in three species such as in A. digitifera. Our results imply that the period of limited water motion (e.g. doldrums-like periods) with strong light conditions would result in variable responses among shallow-inhibiting coral species. We suggest that the presence of water flow allows the coexistence of stress-susceptible corals together with more tolerant ones in similar habitats.
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Mini-symposium: Disturbances on Coral Reefs
  • David J.W. LANE, Geraldine P.C. LIM
    2013 Volume 15 Issue Supplement Pages 166-171
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 25, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The South China Sea coast of Brunei is located near the edge of the Sunda shelf with deep water offshore and very few islands, but numerous submerged bank reefs on the shelf. The inshore coastal waters of this part of northwest Borneo, like much of the shallow Sunda shelf waters of the rest of this large island, are affected by high river runoff and associated plumes of suspended particulates. Consequently nearshore waters are characterized by soft sediments, an inshore turbid zone and very few natural reef coral formations. However, at the fringe of Brunei Bay, human intervention in the form of marine engineering works to create a channel access to Muara port has provided a rock bund substratum that, at one partly wave-sheltered location, has permitted the development of a high cover of a wide range of hard coral colonies. These corals exist in a normal salinity environment (min. 30.3 ppt); apparently the rocky bund protects them from the direct influence of the estuarine plume that emanates from the harbour channel. However, this coral community has colonized, persisted and grown under a high sedimentation regime >70 mg cm-1 day-1, a rate of sedimentation that is comparable to that reported elsewhere for sediment-tolerant Scleractinia but which is considered high for Acropora species. This artificial coral community is of interest in the context of natural reef coral communities near estuaries and, additionally, this particular site has a potentially high bio- monitoring value given present and planned land use changes in the hinterland of Brunei Bay.
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  • Dativa J. SHILLA, Izumi MIMURA, Kimberly K. TAKAGI, Makoto TSUCHIYA
    2013 Volume 15 Issue Supplement Pages 172-181
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 25, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Excess nutrient discharge from river has negative impacts on coral reef ecosystems. On Okinawa Island, the reefs that are particularly at risk from changes in nutrient levels are those in inshore regions, especially those close to river mouths. In this paper, we present the results of a preliminary survey of water quality and nutrient (ammonium, nitrate, and phosphate) data collected from river mouths on Okinawa Island in December 2009 and January 2010. The water quality results were correlated with human population density within the catchment and with previous reef-edge coral cover survey results for Okinawa Island.
    The water quality results showed that nutrient concentrations were above threshold limits for the healthy growth of corals. Elevated nutrient concentrations were recorded from most southern rivers and from some rivers in central and Motobu peninsular areas. Most northern rivers exhibited very low nutrient concentrations. The results imply that spatial variations in nutrient concentrations are mainly influenced by human activities within the catchment, as proven by strong positive correlations between inorganic nutrient concentrations and human population density. For southern and central rivers, nutrient concentrations were strongly correlated with coral cover. However, this relationship was not significant for northern rivers, indicating that apart from inorganic nutrients, other environmental stressors affect the health of the inshore coral reefs of Okinawa Island. The decline of the reef has been repeatedly noted during the last decade. It is likely that reef condition may deteriorate further as nutrient loads increase due to rapidly increasing land clearance for agriculture and coastal development. To monitor further developments in nutrient distribution from Okinawan rivers, to investigate the influence of these nutrients on coastal coral reefs, and to establish causal relationships, long-term investigations are strongly recommended.
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Mini-Symposium: Coral Reef Genetics And Genomics
  • Thadsin PANITHANARAK, Sarawut SIRIWONG, Sumaitt PUTCHAKARN, Saharath D ...
    2013 Volume 15 Issue Supplement Pages 182-188
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 25, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Soft corals of the family Alcyoniidae are the most abundant and ecologically important members of coral reef communities in the Indo-West Pacific. However, fundamental knowledge of these animals is still lacking. The study of genetic diversity will greatly improve the identification and classification of these species and it will give us essential knowledge for future conservation and management of octocoral species. This study is aimed at investigating genetic variations of soft corals of the family Alcyoniidae along Nang-Rong Beach, Jorake Island and Juang Islands, Amphur Sattahip, Chonburi Province (Thailand), and derived from the analysis of the msh1 gene in mitochondria. Preliminary analysis found 83 samples of soft corals of the family Alcyoniidae, which were expected to be Cladiella (55 samples), Sinularia (13 samples), Lobophytum (7 samples), Klyxum (3 samples) and Sarcophyton (5 samples). The results showed that the msh1 gene was variable enough to distinguish Alcyoniid genera. Phylogenetic analyses comparing Alcyoniid soft corals in the current study and the published ones revealed 5 phylogenetic clades resembling differentiation at the generic level or higher. Klyxum and Cladiella clearly differed from other Alcyoniids. Sinularia was the most speciose genus among Alcyoniid soft corals in this study, in contrast to others (i.e. Klyxum, Cladiella, Sarcophyton and Lobophytum) which consisted of a single species/genus.
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Mini-symposium: Biodiversity of Reef Organism
  • Se SONGPLOY, Wimon HEMACHANDRA, Suchana CHAVANICH, Voranop VIYAKARN
    2013 Volume 15 Issue Supplement Pages 189-194
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 25, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Fish assemblages at 3 different coral communities at Chao Lao Beach, Chanthaburi province, Thailand were investigated using fish visual census and line intercept transect techniques. Three different coral communities were surveyed; included Ai Lao Nai reef, Ai Lao Klang reef and Ai Lao Nok reef, which were located from the nearshore to outward respectively. At Ai Loa Nai reef, 53% of the area was covered by live massive coral form and 10% was sand, while at Ai Lao Klang reef, 35% was live massive and submassive corals and 25% was sand. For Ai Lao Nok reef, 57% was live corals, which were tabulate and branching forms. The results showed that the dominant fish families were Pomacentridae and Labridae. Ai Lao Nok reef had higher fish diversity and abundance compared to other areas because this area had more habitat complexity. In addition, there was a correlation between fish species and coral forms. Small size fish tended to be found on branching and foliose coral forms. Thus, coral structures can influence the diversity and density of reef fish species.
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  • Michael P. JANES
    2013 Volume 15 Issue Supplement Pages 195-200
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 25, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The Xeniidae are a major component of benthic coral reef communities in Lembeh, Indonesia. A two-week survey of the xeniids from this region was conducted. Scuba collections were carried out to a depth of 25 meters. A total of 48 samples were examined, encompassing a variety of species found in Lembeh Strait. Representatives of the genera Anthelia, Cespitularia, Heteroxenia, Sansibia, Sympodium, and Xenia were recorded using microscopic analysis. Visual estimates were made of the underwater abundance and distribution of these genera. Three habitats containing xeniids were identified. Sand slopes, which were limited to the genera Anthelia, and Xenia. Hard substratum patch reefs supported the greatest diversity, which included communities of Anthelia, Cespitularia, Heteroxenia, Sansibia, Sympodium, and Xenia. The genera Cespitularia, Heteroxenia and Xenia were found to colonize reef walls. Only one colony of Sansibia and one colony of Sympodium were recorded in this survey. Abundant assemblages of Xenia were found to occur at depths of 3-25 meters, primarily on sand slopes. Interestingly, most colonies of Cespitularia and Heteroxenia were observed below 10 meters on both patch reefs and reef walls.
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  • Serapion N. TANDUYAN, Panfilo E. CIRIACO, Ricardo B. GONZAGA, Wilfredo ...
    2013 Volume 15 Issue Supplement Pages 201-207
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 25, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Species diversity of holothurians in Camotes Islands, Cebu Philippines were studied as baseline data for resource and ecological management. A 150 meter transect was laid in sandy, muddy and rocky substrates of the coastal barrios during the day and night assessments of the four municipalities of Camotes Islands which are San Francisco, Poro, Tudela and Pilar. Physico-chemical instruments were used and actual collection of specimen and other data was done in every 10 meter distance in the transect where a 1m quadrat was used. Results showed that there are 20 species of holothurians belonging to 3 families namely Holothuriidae, Stichopodidae and Synaptidae. Results further show that there are 13 common species of Holothurians found in the four municipalities. The most diverse municipality is San Francisco which has 18 species followed by Poro (15); Pilar (14) and Tudela (13). For the distinct species, Holothuria rigida is found only in San Francisco followed by Pearsonothuria graffei (in Tudela and Pilar);
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Mini-symposium: Reef Fish Biology and Ecology
  • Cristy S. ACABADO, Wilfredo L. CAMPOS, August S. SANTILLAN
    2013 Volume 15 Issue Supplement Pages 208-214
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 25, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study examined the abundance and diver-sity of fish larvae passing through the Taklong Island National Marine Reserve, Southern Guimaras in relation to moon phase (full vs. new) and time of day. The reserve is dominated by mangrove, seagrass and coral reef hab-itats. These were monitored during the full and new moon phases in August and September 2007, respectively, us-ing near-bottom and the sub-surface 335μm mesh nets moored in the two major channels that open to waters adjacent to the reserve. The direction of the current in the northern channel (Nabinbinan) reverses with change in tides, while water current in the central channel (Taklong-Tandog Pass) constantly flows outside of the reserve. A total of 16,387 larval fish from 69 families was caught during the two sampling periods with the highest contribution com-ing from Gobiidae, Pomacentridae, Engraulidae and Blen-niidae. Fewer larvae were collected during the full moon compared to the new moon. For both moon phases, highest larval catches were observed at night coinciding with the incoming tide. Larval concentrations decreased towards dawn and no significant changes were observed during the day. Lower flux rates were observed in the bottom compared to the surface. The influx of larval fish and eggs in the area reflects the importance of the reserve as a nursing ground for young stages of fish. Higher abundances observed in the Nabinbinan channel may be attributed to the coral reefs located further north. Densities were expressed as individuals per hour and plotted with tidal cycles to examine the periodicity of the influx of eggs and larval fish.
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  • Wilfredo L. CAMPOS, Pacifico D. BELDIA II, Karen A. VILLARTA
    2013 Volume 15 Issue Supplement Pages 215-220
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 25, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Diversity is among the various aspects of reef fish assemblages that are expected to change with protective management. Reef fish diversity in terms of richness (number of species per 500m2), abundance (ind/500m2) and biomass (g/m2) were determined for six (6) reef sites in Tawi-Tawi, at the southwestern tip of the Sulu Archipelago, and in Danajon Bank, Bohol, in central Philippines in 2006 and 2008. At each reef site, reef fish within a 500m2 area were censused (identified, counted and their sizes estimated) in 6-12 stations following standard methods. Changes in reef fish assemblages in the two areas were examined and observed patterns were compared. The results are related to patterns in reef habitat structure and to local fisheries and are discussed in the context of recovery potential of reef fish assemblages in protected areas.
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  • Keita KOEDA, Takanobu FUKAGAWA, Taiki ISHIHARA, Katsunori TACHIHARA
    2013 Volume 15 Issue Supplement Pages 221-228
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 25, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Reproductive characteristics of Pempheris sp. were studied in 233 specimens collected from May 2006 to October 2010 on Okinawa Island, Japan. The main spawning season was estimated during April to June, but spawning occurred year round. Standard length at first maturity occurred at ca. 110mm in both sexes. Batch fecundity of Pempheris sp. was ca. 2,000-19,000 per female, and was higher in the main spawning season than in other seasons. No relationship between spawning and lunar periodicity was observed. The spawning interval of Pempheris sp. was estimated to be ca. 2 days, with spawning occurring shortly after sunset.
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  • Jerry KOJANSOW, David SOMPIE, Djonlie EMOR, A. B. RONDONUWU
    2013 Volume 15 Issue Supplement Pages 229-237
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 25, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Reefballs are internationally patented (1995) and/or copyrighted technologies that allow nearly all natural reef features to be mimicked (Barber, 2000). It is used in over 56 countries for a range of applications including fishing reefs (recreational and commercial), diving reefs, mitigation of dredging and blast fishing, enhancement of coastal develop-ments and multipurpose breakwaters. The rehabilitation of coral reef ecosystem have been broadly acted in Indonesia and even worldwide. Various models and structures of artificial reefs have been made in many countries from different materials. Many of those artificial reefs do not get good attention on their condition after locating them on the sea basin. In 1999, the gold mine operator PT Newmont Minahasa Raya initiated an artificial reef program to provide an incentive to protect local marine resources from bomb fishing, cyaniding and other unsustainable practices. Monitoring program was conducted annually from 2001 to 2009 in 3 locations both in reefball area and adjacent natural reef in 3m and 10m depth at Buyat Bay and surroundings, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Monitoring was conducted specific for Target and Indicator species with ‘visual census’ method. The survey in 2009 identified 13 families, 29 genera, 81 species and 2,025 individuals inhabiting the reefballs at 3m depth whereas at 10m depth, 14 families, 36 genera, 106 species and 3883 individuals were found. After 9 years monitoring, it was found that one location of Reefball have better fish settlement compared to the adjacent natural reef. One location was in progress to recovery and the location still under the natural reef.
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Mini-symposium: Reef Associated Fisheries
  • Abigail MOORE, Samliok NDOBE
    2013 Volume 15 Issue Supplement Pages 238-242
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 25, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The Banggai cardinalfish Pterapogon kauderni (Koumans, 1933) is an ornamental reef-associated fish endemic to the Banggai Archipelago in Central Sulawesi. Introduced populations have become established at several sites along trade routes, including Luwuk and Palu Bay in Central Sulawesi, Lembeh and Tumbak in North Sulawesi and several locations in North Bali. This attractive small fish, with an unusual reproductive cycle (paternal mouthbrooder, no pelagic phase), has potential as a “flag-ship” species to drive conservation efforts involving local stakeholders (including P. kauderni fishers). Local research and conservation efforts began in 2004-2006 and were presented at the 1st APCRS. When international concern prompted a proposal for CITES listing at CoP 14 in 2007 (and the subsequent listing of P. kauderni as Endangered in the IUCN Red List), local research data supported the position of the Indonesian Government, who were committed to an alternative approach to the con-servation of P. kauderni populations and habitats. The multi-stakeholder multi-year Banggai Cardinal Fish (BCF) Action Plan drawn up in 2007 covers 3 main aspects: Conservation, Management and Trade. While there is still a long way to go to ensure the long-term conservation of P. kauderni populations and habitats, the implementation to date includes the establishment of the Banggai Cardinalfish Centre (BCFC) as an umbrella organization; the drafting of legislation; the establishment of protected areas; habitat conservation/restoration activities; improvements in fishing methods and post-harvest handling; monitoring of the trade; the development of more efficient and equitable trading; ongoing research and seeking/developing partnerships with national and international organisations.
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  • Samliok NDOBE, Abigail MOORE, NASMIA , MADINAWATI , Novalina SERDIAT ...
    2013 Volume 15 Issue Supplement Pages 243-252
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 25, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The Banggai cardinalfish Pterapogon kauderni (Koumans, 1933) is a reef-associated fish endemic to the Banggai Archipelago in Central Sulawesi. Considered endangered due to exploitation for the marine aquarium trade, introduced populations have become established along trade routes, including in Palu Bay. A national action plan has been developed to ensure P. kauderni conservation with a sustainable use approach. Over the period 2007-2009 research aiming to support the plan was conducted into the biology and ecology of both endemic and introduced P. kauderni populations. Aspects covered include micro-habitat use; feeding habits; reproduction; the effects of salinity on juvenile P. kauderni growth and survival rates. Ontogenetic shift in micro-habitat use was observed in both endemic and introduced populations. Sea anemones, threatened in both the endemic and introduced habitat, may play an important role in recruit survival. The presence of juvenile urchins (Diadema sp.) in P. kauderni stomach contents indicates that the relationship may be more complex than was previously thought and an ontogenetic shift in diet is indicated. Unlike other Apogonidae, observed P. kauderni gonads were single lobed. Female gonad development indicated a peak in reproductive activity around the full moon continuing into the third quarter. Males may mature slightly earlier than females and observations made raised questions relating to sex ratio and sex determination. Juvenile P. kauderni growth was highest at 27ppt salinity, with a significant reduction in long term survival rates at salinities below 24ppt. The results have implications for the sustainable management of Banggai cardinalfish populations and habitat.
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  • Serapion N. TANDUYAN, Berenice T. ANDRIANO, Panfilo E. CIRIACO, Ricard ...
    2013 Volume 15 Issue Supplement Pages 253-259
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 25, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Camotes Islands is noted of its Camotes Sea as one of the fishing grounds in the Philippines. Extraction of the marine resources including holothurians in this fishing ground has been felt by the fishermen; hence, this study was conducted in order to find out its gleaning methods used, species gleaned, extraction rate and perception on the distribution of holothurians in the four municipalities of Camotes Islands which are San Francisco, Poro, Tudela and Pilar. Interview guide and actual field visits in the areas were used to gather the data. Results show that gleaning methods of gathering holothurians in Camotes Islands were handpicking, using bolo, water goggles, pointed wood, iron bars and by spears both in day and night operations. Frequently gleaned sea cucumber spe-cies are Stichopus hermanni, Bohadschia paradoxa, Bohadschia marmorata, Stichopus horrens, Holothuria nobilis, Stichopus variegatus and Holothuria pulla which are also the species that were caught throughout the year. The size of the Holothurians gathered measures from 5-10cm and the perceived distribution distance of gleaned holothuria in the site is 1-5m. The amount of catch is 1/2 kilo per 1-2 hours gleaning time followed by “no catch” and the third is 0.51 to 1.0kg and the gleaning frequency of holothurians in the entire Camotes Islands is 2-4 times a week.
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  • Roza YUSFIANDAYANI
    2013 Volume 15 Issue Supplement Pages 260-268
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 25, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The use of rumpon, a type of Fish Aggregating Device (FAD), has been traditional in Indonesia, particularly in eastern Indonesia waters since long time ago (Reuter 1938; Nasution et al. 1986; Monintja 1976). The traditional tuna fishermen in Mamuju waters in the Province of South Celebes have used rumpons for a long time, although there is no record when the device was first used (Nasution et al. 1986). There are a variety of structures designed or made to attract free schooling fishes: rumpon (Indonesia), correct space tendak (West Java), uncang (Sumatera), rompong (Sulawesi), payaos (Philippines). Local fishermen claimed that they learned how to construct the rumpon from their ancestors, but did not apply the device extensively until 1985 because of the low profitability of catching the swift swimming fishes. The use of rumpon for fishing activities has improved the effectiveness and efficiency if compared with other fishing gear. However, the fast increasing of rumpon utilization has raised a great concern on the sustainability of the fish resources. The rumpon management for a responsible fisheries policy should consider aspects of biology, location, environment, fishing techniques, social and economic. The existing condition of rumpon has been not fully understood and its usage in a responsible manner require further elaboration. Therefore, the information of the past and present situation of rumpon in Indonesia will be important for further management.
    The main data were collected and compiled from various references, annual report of the Directorate General of Fisheries and research report of Central Research Institute for Fisheries. Additional data were obtained from local fisheries agencies or related institutions.
    Structure of the rumpon installed in the Provinces of North Sumatera, West Sumatra, Lampung, West Java, East Java, North Celebes, Central Celebes, South Celebes, Maluku Islands and Papua are given in detail. There are 2 types of rumpon: the deep sea rumpon and shallow water rumpon. Differences among the rumpons in those areas are mostly found in the material of the mooring line, shape and material of the float and the structure of attracting components. The mooring line is mostly made of polyethylene of 12-25mm in diameter or nylon of 5-10mm in diameter. There are wide variations of shape of floats. Generally they are divided into pontoon type or box shape made of steel and raft type made of bamboos. Attractors are made of coconut leaves, nipah leaves and pine leaves. Some attractors are attached to the mooring line and the others are hung down from the float. They are operated a wide range of water depth from 20 to 1500m. The fishing ground conditions, bottom topography and bottom con-figuration are among the factors considered for the rumpon design and construction. The differences in construction are mainly due to the rumpon location, target species in each area and the fishing gear applied.
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  • Irfan YULIANTO, Budy WIRYAWAN, A. A. TAURUSMAN
    2013 Volume 15 Issue Supplement Pages 269-276
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 25, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The reef fish known as ‘Grouper’ from the Family Serranidae is a favoured food in seafood restaurants around the world, especially in the Asian region. High grouper demand directly leads to increased fishing efforts around Indonesian’s coral reefs. Weh Island is located in the most western part of Aceh Province, Indonesia, and is characterised by a high diversity of corals and reef fish. Reef fisheries are important sources of protein and income on Weh Island, and a main target group are reef fishes in the Family Serranidae. The objectives of this study were (1) to examine the current ecological status of groupers, (2) to identify the fishing gear used in grouper fisheries, and (3) to determine and quantify the fishing gear that is used sustainably in the grouper fishery of Weh Island. We used fish catch surveys, underwater visual censuses, and focus group discussions to collect information on the grouper fishery. Fish catch surveys were conducted at five fish landing sites, and underwater visual censuses were conducted at 20 sites around Weh Island. The data from the visual censuses were analysed using multi criteria analyses and linear goal programming. The input variables used in multi criteria analyses were the number of boat crews, fishing methods, social impact, and fish. Twenty five species of grouper were caught by six types of fishing gear; gillnets, encircling gillnets, handlines, purse seines, spearguns and troll lines.
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  • E. Muttaqin, I. Yulianto, A. Mukminin, H. A. Susanto, S. J. Campbell
    2013 Volume 15 Issue Supplement Pages 277-284
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 25, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Artisanal fishing on coral reefs in Weh Island, Aceh is an important livelihood activity, and most people there have a high dependence on the coral reefs. Spear gunshave become one of the most effective itemsto be used in this area because of itscheap, easy to use and no by catch dynamics, and has also evolved to become a recreational activity. The objective of this study is to examine aspects of spear gun fishing activities in the shallow and deeper waters of this area and its impact on the reef fisheries in Weh Island, Aceh. Data were collected from 13 fish landing sites in seven villages. Fish catch analyses, thecorrelation between fish lengths and trophic levels and the comparison of fish catch and biomass were among various methods used in this study. Fish catch data, such as the total of catch (kg), species name and measured fish lengths by photo and fishing grounds were collected using photographs during October-November 2008 and May 2009. In addition, fish size structure and biomass estimations were sampled using visual census methods. There are two kinds of spear fishing operated in Weh Island. These was spear gun fishing with a snorkel which was operated in shallow waters and spear gun fishing with a compressor which was operated in deeper waters. From the total of spear gun fishing trips in Weh Island, 60 % was dominated by spear gun fishing with a hookah compressor. The total of fish caught from both spear gunswith a hookah compressor and a snorkel was 100 species within 20 families, with evidence for the dominant family Serranidaeat 55.48%. A total of 1004 individuals were collected. The total number of individual that were caught by all spear guns was dominated by groupers, where Cephalopholisminiatawas the highest proportion with 24.4% and followed by Epinephelusfasciatus 5.98%, Cephalopholisargus 4.68% and Cephalopholissonnerati 4.38%. The total weight of species was dominated by groupers as well, especially for Cephalopholisminita with 13.4%. There was a significant difference of catch per unit efforts between spear guns operated by a snorkel and spear guns operated by a hookah compressor (P<0.5). Beside from the total 100 species caught by spear guns, 75% was caught by spear guns with a compressor and 50% were carnivores.
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Mini-symposium: Marine Protected Areas
  • Budy WIRYAWAN, Amiruddin TAHIR
    2013 Volume 15 Issue Supplement Pages 285-294
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 25, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The expansions of coastal and small islands’ resources utilization and the increasing needs to meet international and national commitments to biodiversity conservation have led to an enhanced interest in zonation plan as a tool for integrated coastal management. The Berau Regency in East Kalimantan, Indonesia, with a local initiative and driven by National Law No. 27/2007 has taken global leadership in implementing of Berau Marine Protected Area (Berau MPA). This paper will discuss the Berau MPA experiences in zonation planning process. It will give a short historical overview based on legal developments and review the implementation process of a ‘Zonation Plan’ as a spatial management policy for the Berau MPA. In addition, this paper will review the research that has been carried out in the study area to apply a spatial and conservation planning approach to the coastal and small island environment. The zonation planning process in Berau shows that a spatial approach to coastal and small islands management is a possible entry point despite the lack of a legal zoning framework. However, it concludes that a legal basis for zonation plan in the future would provide a more strategic and integrated framework for ecosystem-approach for fisheries, coastal and small islands management.
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  • Kota ASHIKAWA, Tanuspong POKAVANICH, Aditya R. KARTADIKARIA, Kazuo NAD ...
    2013 Volume 15 Issue Supplement Pages 295-299
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 25, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Seasonal characteristics of larval dispersal originating from a reef and sediment discharge from a river are presented through results of hydrodynamic and particle tracking analysis simulations calibrated with field data at the Lingayen Gulf, Philippines. It is found that the seasonality was due to the prevailing monsoon system in the area as affected by local wind system and the spatial variation of mean sea level in the South China Sea. Results also suggested that only during the wet season (Southwest monsoon), there is a strong one-way connectivity between the reefs in the western to the eastern side of the gulf. Many coastal ecosystems on the western side of the gulf are more vulnerable to the environmental threats from excessive sediment and nutrient load discharged from Agno River during the dry season (North-East monsoon). Preliminary results from this study also revealed significant influences from offshore prevailing current to the gulf circulation which should not be neglected in the future studies in this area.
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  • Gregorio E. dela ROSA, Jr., Don Geoff E. TABARANZA
    2013 Volume 15 Issue Supplement Pages 300-308
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 25, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Participatory marine protected area monitoring has evolved over the years. The increase in the number of marine protected areas (MPAs) in the Philippines in the last decade alone has prompted the utilization of methodologies that improve accuracy and decrease bottom-time for SCUBA divers. Standardization of results aside from improving participatory approaches for non-technical personnel has been given emphasis in the Philippines. There are over 1,169 MPAs with varying degrees of benthos and reef fish monitoring data. This sheer number of MPAs highlights the importance of sustained and participatory monitoring. Haribon Foundation has been conducting participatory monitoring of MPAs in Lanuza Bay in Southeastern Philippines in partnership with local government units and community-based organizations. Through the funding support of several projects so far nine MPAs have been monitored since 2002. Results showed that there was no significant increase or decrease in the live coral cover of the MPAs in Lanuza and Cortes from 2002 to 2009 (p<0.05). Average hard coral cover of the nine (9) MPAs varied from 41.25% to 57.58%, and reef fish abundance ranged from 3,835 to 10,938 individuals per hectare. Current participatory monitoring methods may need improvements to provide a more accurate picture of the MPAs in Lanuza Bay. Some of the recommendations include increasing the number of transects per MPA, choosing a more accurate representative of the MPA and using phototransect method, making a composite team composed of representatives from community-based organizations, keeping technical persons at least one from the local government, and the institutionalization of the monitoring activity at the local government unit level.
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  • Cleto L. Jr. NAOLA, Celsa Margarette PLASABAS, Arturo Sagut BALLESTERO ...
    2013 Volume 15 Issue Supplement Pages 309-322
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 25, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The performance of two marine protected areas (MPAs) in Samal Island, Coral Garden and Aundanao MPAs were evaluated after more than 10 years of existence. The evaluation tools used were fishery dependent (i.e. focus group discussion) and independent (i.e. fish census, benthic assessment and crown-of-thorns density) samplings. All sampling was conducted at least twice for one year. In all sites, COTs densities were just above the alarming stage (∼1 individual.250m-2). Aundanao MPA showed a positive feedback system by supporting the spillover effect. There is high density of sexually mature fish (<30cm Total length and significantly higher fish biomass estimates of target species (16mt km-2) inside than outside the MPA. The relatively small catch (20mt year-1) from fishing adjacent to the MPA is attributed to the limited capacity of the core zone (only 3ha) to support the fishery. It also serves as a refuge site for small pelagic fishes (i.e. ox-eye scad, Selar boops) that aggregate along the slope. In contrast, the Coral Garden MPA had very low fish biomass (4.0mt km-2) and only a couple of sexually mature individuals both inside and outside the sites. Intermittent guarding which have resulted to occasional poaching in the no-take area was one of the reasons. Further, a newly introduced fishing gear bintol (modified lift net), for subsistence targeting damselfishes has started to operate near the area. This is an evidence of a lesser density of targeted food fish to catch. Coral Garden MPA has shown that the rate of extraction exceeded the presumed turnover rate of the associated reef fish standing stock suggesting an overfishing of the area.
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Mini-symposium: Reef Restoration
  • Kazuyoshi KIHARA, Hiroki TANIGUCHI, Yukio KOIBUCHI, Satoru YAMAMOTO, Y ...
    2013 Volume 15 Issue Supplement Pages 323-329
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 25, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Considerable interest has been generated by the potential application of electric-fields to promote settlement of coral larvae and enhance growth rates of coral juveniles. Also, it has been reported that when an electric current is run through an attached iron base, coating by the resultant accretion of minerals through electrochemical processes, promotes the growth and survival of transplanted coral fragments. However, further investigations are required due to currently very limited scientific evidence.
    In the present study, the optimal range of electric current density for coral growth was investigated through field observations in Okinawa. It was found that naturally settled reef-building corals on the surface of a floating pontoon, on which an electrical treatment was applied to prevent corrosion, grew faster in the areas where the actual electric current density was greater than 10mA/m2. An in situ experiment was, then, carried out on coral fragments that were attached to four iron-framed structures installed on the seabed with different feeble current densities. As a result, the coral fragments with the current density of 20∼100mA/m2 showed relatively, but not always, faster growth than others. It was suggested that adverse effects might occur under strong electric currents. On the other hand, larvae exhibited far greater settlement affinity for the mineral accreted substrates without electric current than for the unglazed ceramic plates.
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  • Shubun ENDO, Rahmadi PRASETYO, Susumu ONAKA
    2013 Volume 15 Issue Supplement Pages 330-335
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 25, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In order to find effective methods for coral restoration, we conducted experimental coral Transplantation on 20 limestone substrates set in the moat of Kuta in Bali Island, Indonesia, in September 2003. Coral fragments of about 5 cm length were prepared by cutting branches from colonies of Acropora sp., Pocillopora sp. and Montipora sp. growing in the moat. After one day of acclimation in the moat, these coral pieces were attached to both the horizontal and vertical surfaces of the substrates. We used 3kind of materials on the substrate to attach the coral, a steel plate with 1 fixed point, fishing line with 2 fixed points and a wire spring with 2 fixed points. We monitored the transplanted coral intermittently for more than 2 years, by photographing with a digital camera, recording the retention and survival of corals, their attachment to the substrates and the width and height of the coral pieces. We found that: 1) the cumulative self-attachment to the substrate for Acropora sp. was the highest among the 3 species. The proportion of fragments that had self-attached was more than 85% on average after two month of transplantation for Acropora sp., whereas it was between 49% and 64% after three month for Pocillopora sp. and Montipora sp. 2) The retention of corals using the wire spring was the highest in Acropora sp. 3) The retention and survival were almost the same for those fragments between the horizontal and vertical surfaces of substrate. 4) Acropora sp. of 5 cm in length reached in average 39.4 cm in width and 28.8 cm in height in 24 months. 5) 30 to 50% of the whole colony of Acropora sp. bleached due to high water temperatures around March 2005, but they recovered after the water temperature lowered below 30°C.
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  • Susumu ONAKA, Rahmadi PRASETYO, Shubun ENDO, Ichiro YOSHII
    2013 Volume 15 Issue Supplement Pages 336-342
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 25, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    One Large-scale coral transplantation using coral fragments has been implemented at the shallow lagoon in Kuta Beach, Bali Island, Indonesia. Monitoring and maintenance works after fixing coral fragments were continued for 1.5 years to observe the coral growth and survival conditions. The high survival rate and significant growth of transplanted corals were observed for branching and foliose type coral species, which were brought from the same coral reef area. The present results were mainly due to favourable environmental conditions of Kuta Lagoon, such as appropriate water temperature for coral growth ranging from 24 to 30°C, absence of storm disturbances and natural predators, etc.
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  • Mathinee YUCHAROEN, Suppachai THAMMACHOTE, Anupong JAROENPON, Suwit LA ...
    2013 Volume 15 Issue Supplement Pages 343-350
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 25, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Dredging for marina construction has affected shallow water reef of Rad Island, Phuket. The experiments on coral transplantation were set up to select appropriate coral species for transplanting in turbid environment. Ten species of coral, Turbinaria peltata, Favia pallida, Favia speciosa, Favites abdita, Favites halicora, Favites pentagona, Platygyran verweyi, Cyphastrea serailia, Porites lutea and Goniopora sp. were transplanted to shallow waters at the southeast side, and their survival and growth were monitored every 6 months. Two years after trans-plantation, survival rates of transplanted species were as follows: F. pallida (70.1%), F. speciosa (56.5%), F. pentagona (56%), T. peltata (54.8%), Goniopora sp. (50%), C. serailia (45.4%), F. abdita (42.8%), F. halicora (35.7%), P. lutea (24.3%) and P. verweyi (22.6%). Growth rate of transplanted corals were measured from colony height increase that ranged from 0.8±0.8cm・y-1 to 1.4±1cm・y-1 and approximate volume increase that ranged from 88.1±140.7cm3・y-1 to 312±467.8cm3・y-1. In addition, colonies of Acropora pulchra, Acropora aspera and Acropora formosa, which were obtained from mid-water nursery at Cape Panwa were transplanted to the northern side for one year. After one year, survival and linear extension were 38.6% and 5.9±1.8cm・y-1. A. formosa from local reef were also collected and transplanted in an adjacent area. After one year, survival and linear extension were 4.3 % and 1.1±0.5cm・y-1. It is concluded, that all species can survive in high turbid environment and coral from mid-water nursery can be transplanted from less stress environment.
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  • Piyawat SUJIRACHATO, Thon THAMRONGNAWASAWAT, Nalinee THONGTHAM, Pattan ...
    2013 Volume 15 Issue Supplement Pages 351-358
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 25, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The survival rates of the staghorn coral Acropora muricata and the branching coral Pocillopora dami-cornis were examined using 6 transplantation techniques to evaluate the effectiveness of direct transplantation of coral fragments vs. fragments grown in nurseries before transplantation. (n=150 fragments per technique). The study was conducted at Sungwan beach, Koh Laan, Pattaya City, Chonburi Province for a period of 33 weeks (September 2009 to May 2010). In A. muricata, the high-est survival rate (82.0%) was shown by those fragments which were nursed on the mid-water nursery before transplanted on iron plate, followed by those which were directly transplanted on iron plate (survival rate of 64.7%), and those nursed on iron fish home nursery before trans-planted on iron plate, (survival rate of 59.3%). In P. damicornis, the highest survival rate (72.7%) was shown by those fragments which were nursed on the iron fish home nursery before transplanted on iron plate, followed by those which were nursed on mid-water nursery before transplanted on coral ball (survival rate of 64%), and those directly transplanted on coral ball, (survival rate of 46.7%). According to survival rate, budget, time frame and manpower, the most effective method was direct transplantation on iron plate.
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Mini-symposium: Climate Change and Reef Resilience
  • Vera HORIGUE, Wilfredo Y. LICUANAN
    2013 Volume 15 Issue Supplement Pages 359-365
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 25, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The Verde Island Passage (VIP) is located at the center of marine shorefish biodiversity in the Philippines. It is under tremendous amount of stress from natural and anthropogenic impacts. A vulnerability assessment of the VIP’s coral reef areas to climate change, particularly elevated sea-surface temperatures (SST), increased storminess and sea-level rise (SLR) is presented. Potential impacts on live hard coral cover due to increasing SST ranged from 3% to 22% loss. These projections were based on the high percentage covers of thermally sensitive coral families such as acroporids and pocilloporids. Potential impacts on diversity attributed to high SST ranged from 0.8% to 1.6% based on species-area curves and 10% to 49% based on sensitivities of coral genera from available literature. Estimated live hard coral cover and diversity loss due to the impact of storms ranged from 12.5% to 37.5% and 7% to 22%, respectively. Sea-level rise had the lowest impact on reef cover and diversity, resulting to an estimated loss of 4% to 7% in coral cover and 0.60% to 0.80% in coral diversity. Impact on reef fishes was measured based on their dependence and association with corals. Percentage loss of reef fish species richness and abundance ranged from 9% to 16% and 12% to 54%. These projected impacts on the health and biodiversity of the coral reefs of the VIP are conservative but still significant. The towns and communities surrounding the passage should not be complacent and should increase their efforts to protect and manage their coral reef areas.
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  • Andrew H. BAIRD, Takashi NAKAMURA, Hideo YAMASAKI
    2013 Volume 15 Issue Supplement Pages 366-372
    Published: 2013
    Released: June 25, 2014
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A major research question for reef scientists is whether the accelerating rate of environmental change associated with global warming will exceed the capacity of coral species to adapt. While many authors claim that the genetic capacity of corals is exhausted, estimates of phenotypic variation and heritability in traits associated with thermal tolerance are rare. Here, we estimate variation in critical thermal maxima (CTmax) in two coral species: Porites cylindrica and Stylophora pistillata. We then use published estimates of generation times and per generation evolutionary rates to explore the capacity of these species to adapt to rising sea surface temperatures (SST). We estimate that between two and 7 decades will be required for these species to increase CTmax by 1.5°C. This range suggests these species can adapt to projected rises in SST of 2.0°C by the end of this century. However, more research is needed to determine empirically the heritability of these traits and generation times in coral species.
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