In order to make clear the thermal status of gases in the force field, the heat flow in gases under the centrifugal force corresponding to 2, 500g was measured. The heat flow was measured by the temperature change in two metal blocks inlaid in plastics placed in the centrifuge separation tube. The face of the blocks is directed to opposite of the center of rotation. Information on the temperature in two metal blocks was received as the frequency of light pulses from the center of rotation of centrifuge. The observed temperature variations in the two metal blocks seem to show the existence of heat flow in gases in the centrifugal force field at uniform temperature. This result supports the view that in gases in the gravitational field, there must be a thermal gradient along the force field in the equilibrium state.
The isotopic composition of cadmium, calcium and magnesium in the Brownfield chondrite have been measured. The measurements on cadmium show that this element is isotopically fractionated with the heavier isotopes relatively enriched to the extent of 2.7‰ per mass unit. This confirms earlier reports by ROSMAN and DE LAETER (1976, 1978). Calcium and magnesium show no evidence of isotope fractionation, indicating that the process responsible for fractionating cadmium does not seem to have affected these more refractory elements.
The insoluble organic matter (young kerogen) in a surface sediment from Lake Haruna was subjected to alkaline permanganate oxidation. The young kerogen was easily degraded under the mild condition and relatively large amounts of CO2 and acid-insoluble material (alkali-soluble but precipitated in acid-solution) were generated at the early stages of the oxidation. The major oxidation products determined by GC-MS were aliphatic α, ω-dicarboxylic acids (C5-C16). Benzene carboxylic acids (mono, di and tri) and aliphatic monocarboxylic acids (C8-C18) were also detected in minor amounts. The yield of polymethylene chains (C5-C18) was 1.6% of the original kerogen. A hypothetical structure of the young kerogen was deduced from results obtained.
Partitioning of cadmium into five fractions (1M CH3COONH4 soluble, 1M CH3COOH soluble, 30% H2O2 soluble, 0.04M NH2OH·HCl soluble and silsicate lattice fractions) of core sediments from the Osaka Bay has been determined by using selective chemical leaching technique. In addition to cadmium, partitioning of copper, manganese and iron has been also examined as a control. Large amounts of heavy metals (cadmium and copper) are contained in the upper parts of the sediment. The cadmium and copper contents of the sediment are relatively large in the Bay near the industrial area. Cadmium is distributed mainly in 30% H2O2 soluble and silicate lattice fractions. Cadmium leached into 30% H2O2 solution may have been partly derived from ferro-manganese oxide fraction as well as pyrite fraction of the sediment. The amount of cadmium contained in silicate lattice fraction of the sediment in the Osaka Bay is larger than that of silicate rocks collected from land area. 1 M CH3COOH soluble fraction is important for the cadmium content near the surface portion of the sediment. Cadmium dissolved in 1 M acetic acid solution may have been partly derived from acid soluble sulfide fraction of the sediment. Some of cadmium contained in 1 M CH3COOH soluble fraction may have heed derived from ferro-manganese oxide fraction of the sediment.
Additional lead isotope measurements have been made on pyrite samples from the Mesozoic and Paleozoic Besshi-type deposits and on a galena sample from the Proterozoic stratiform mineralization in the Flin Flon area, Canada. The supplemented data for the Besshi-type mineralization confirm, on the one hand, the previous observation that leads in this type of deposit are isotopically variable and are consistently deficient in 207Pb relative to the major lead (conformable) ore system, and reveal, on the other hand, that, in some cases, a small but significant isotopic variation exists even within a single deposit. The isotopic pattern of these deposits, which is similar to that of the ocean-ridge basalts, is in striking contrast with a uniform isotopic composition and its conformity with the evolutionary pattern of the major lead orebodies found in one of the Mesozoic deposits examined, and thus reinforces the previous view that the lead in most Besshi-type deposits may have been derived mainly from the mantle. The 207Pb deficiency relative to the major lead ore system and other two remarkable features common to most Besshi-type deposits, close association with mafic magmatism and generally Pb-impoverished nature, are also recognized in the Flin Flon area. Similar examples of stratiform deposits seem to exist in other areas. The Besshi-type and other 207Pb deficient deposits appear to indicate the presence of a mantle-derived ore-lead system. The mineralization of such deposits seems to occur most commonly in Archean to early Proterozoic and late Paleozoic to Mesozoic terrains, but might occur also in other simatic environments, whereas the large Pb-rich orebodies presumably of crustal origin may only be found in Proterozoic to Phanerozoic sialic environments. The current concept of global tectonic history appears to be generally consistent with the view of two major evolutionary systems of stratiform ore leads.
The δD values of molecular hydrogen in soil gases obtained from sites along the Yamasaki fault, one of active faults in Southwest Japan were measured. The δD values were in the range between -770 and -470‰, which suggests that molecular hydrogen is formed by chemical reactions between groundwater and the fresh surface of basement rocks formed by the fault movement.
The fluoride content of skeletal magnesian calcites increases with increasing magnesium carbonate content of the calcites. And the determination of the fluoride content of various carbonate rocks from Daito-jima shows that fluoride tends to be concentrated in protodolomites rather than in calcites. This trend was observed in the laboratory experiment on the coprecipitation of fluoride and magnesium ions with calcium carbonate. The results show that the fluoride content of carbonate sediment is controlled by the concentration of magnesium ions in a parent solution and also by the magnesium carbonate content of carbonate sediment.