岩石鉱物科学
Online ISSN : 1349-7979
Print ISSN : 1345-630X
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44 巻 , 1 号
選択された号の論文の12件中1~12を表示しています
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平成 25 年度受賞記念研究紹介
日本鉱物科学会賞第 11 回受賞者
  • 木村 眞
    44 巻 (2015) 1 号 p. 1-9
    公開日: 2015/03/05
    ジャーナル フリー
      Minerals in meteorites give constraints on the formation history of not only meteorites, but the solar system. Here I introduce some characteristic minerals in meteorites. Enstatite chondrites contain abundant unusual sulfide and metallic minerals that were formed under highly reducing conditions. Refractory inclusions were formed in the earliest stage of the solar system. They typically contain Ca-Al-rich minerals. A new mineral, kushiroite, is one of such minerals, and formed under rapid crystallization conditions. Ultrahigh-pressure minerals are commonly encountered both in chondrites and differentiated meteorites, indicative of pervasive impact processes in the early solar system. An eclogitic mineral assemblage encountered in a CR chondrite suggests the possibility that asteroids were primarily larger than previously estimated.
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日本鉱物科学会賞第 12 回受賞者
  • 土屋 卓久
    44 巻 (2015) 1 号 p. 10-24
    公開日: 2015/03/05
    ジャーナル フリー
      Recent progress in theoretical mineral physics based on the ab initio quantum mechanical computation method has been dramatic in conjunction with the advancement of computer technologies. It is now possible to predict stability and several physical properties of complex minerals quantitatively not only at high pressures but also at high temperatures with uncertainties that are comparable to or even smaller than those attached in experimental data. Our present challenges include calculations of high-P,T elasticity to constrain the lower mantle mineralogy, transport properties such as lattice thermal conductivity, and further extensions to terapascal phase equilibria of Earth materials for studying planetary interiors.
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日本鉱物科学会研究奨励賞第 13 回受賞者
日本鉱物科学会研究奨励賞第 14 回受賞者
  • 齊藤 哲
    44 巻 (2015) 1 号 p. 32-44
    公開日: 2015/03/05
    ジャーナル フリー
      Granitic rocks (sensu lato) are major constituents of the upper continental crust. Recent reviews that provide estimates of the composition of continental crust have established that the average composition of the upper continental crust is granodioritic. Although the oceanic arcs are regarded as a site producing continental crust material in an oceanic setting, intermediate to felsic igneous rocks occurring in the modern oceanic arcs are dominantly tonalitic to trondhjemitic in composition and have lower incompatible element contents than the average upper continental crust. Therefore, the juvenile oceanic arcs require additional processes to transform into the mature continental crust enriched in incompatible elements.
      Neogene granitoid plutons are widely exposed in the Izu Collision Zone in central Japan, where the northern tip of the Izu-Bonin arc (juvenile oceanic arc) has been colliding with the Honshu arc (mature island arc) since middle Miocene. The plutons in this area are composed of various types of granitoid ranging from tonalite to trondhjemite, granodiorite, monzogranite and granite (sensu stricto). Three main granitoid plutons are distributed in this area: Tanzawa plutonic complex, Kofu granitic complex, and Kaikomagatake pluton. Tanzawa plutonic complex is characterized by low concentration of incompatible elements and has chemical characteristics of juvenile oceanic arcs. In contrast, Kaikomagatake pluton and Kofu granitic complex have chemical compositions comparable to the average upper continental crust. The petrogenetic models of the Izu Collision Zone granitoid plutons collectively suggest that collision with another mature arc/continent, hybrid lower crust formation and subsequent hybrid source anatexis are required for juvenile oceanic arcs to produce granitoid magmas with compositions comparable to the average upper continental crust. The Izu Collision Zone granitoid plutons provide an exceptional example of the collision-induced transformation of a juvenile oceanic arc into the mature continental crust.
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日本鉱物科学会研究奨励賞第 15 回受賞者
  • 横山 正
    44 巻 (2015) 1 号 p. 45-51
    公開日: 2015/03/05
    ジャーナル フリー
      Chemical weathering (dissolution) rate of rhyolites from Kozushima over 52000 years of weathering determined by a field-based study was lower than those obtained by a laboratory dissolution experiment by a factor of 12-1000. In order to perform a reactive transport modeling to bridge the field and laboratory rates, detailed characterizations of the reaction and transport properties of the rhyolite were conducted. Hydraulic conductivity and diffusion coefficient were significantly affected by the degree at which pores were saturated with water, whereas reactive surface area was relatively unaffected. The modeling revealed the followings: (1) Owing to temporal decrease of dissolution rate associated with a change of solid surface reactivity, whole rock dissolution rate decreased with time and approached to the ‘field rate’ in relatively early stage of weathering; (2) Saturation index (proximity to chemical equilibrium) was large at the initial stage of weathering but became smaller as weathering proceeded.
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日本鉱物科学会応用鉱物科学賞第 7 回受賞者
櫻井賞第 41 回受賞者
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