We attempted to investigate the effectiveness of instruction programs for learning fundamental movements in sprint based on educational experimental method. Our subjects were 56 of 2nd graders(experimental group 28:boys 12, girls 16. Control group 28:boys 11, girls 17)at Chiba Pref.. We instructed them in Sept. -Oct. 2009 utilizing the program(8 instructions of physical education)"the active play of sprint and jump", that we developed. We considered their sprint activities from three viewpoints. We compared these before and after the program. (1)movements on 50 m sprints:We evaluated their sprint movements on 14 criteria using VTRs recorded from three directions. (2)records of 50 m sprints:We tested records of each 10 m interval, calculated and compared their velocities. (3)We conducted surveys on the changes of feelings on sprints and practice of this program through formative evaluation of instructions.The results are as follows:(1)Sprint movements were significantlly improved in 9 out of 14 criteria. (2)Velocities of interval sprint in each three intervals from 20 m to 50 m speeded up significantlly. (3)The pre-test highest velocity interval was 10-20 m, but the post-test was 30-40 m. It became the part in the 50 m race where their maximum speed was recorded. (4)We compared the velocity in 40-50 m interval with the one in the interval where their highest speed was recorded. The relative velocity increased to 97%(post-test)from 88%(pre-test). This shows the reduction of the deceleration in the last interval.(5)Feelings of the subjects for sprints and practice of this program had became significantlly favorable. However in the control group, the significant change was not found with either the sprint movement or sprint records. A program for lower graders elementary school in physical education"the active play of sprint and jump"utilized in this research was verified effective for learning fundamental movements on a sprint of children.
Recently, bipolarization of physical fitness and motor activity in youth and childhood has been observed. The first purpose of this study was to investigate deviation from the normal distribution of physique and motor competence in preschool aged children. The second purpose was to identify the relationship between distribution and gender, age, movement skills, and physical fitness. In this study, abnormal distributions were defined by skewness and kurtosis. Participants were 1,416 preschool aged children(age range:3-6yr.). Measurements of height, weight, and motor competence(23 items)were collected from each participant. Correspondence analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between distribution and gender, age, and motor performance. After using the Grubbs-Smirnov test to reject outlying scores, skewness and kurtosis were calculated for each gender at four age groups. Distributions that were found to be abnormal according to the Jarque-Bera test were classified into the following four types:"biased poor and intensive","biased poor and gapped","biased good and intensive", and"biased good and gapped". Abnormal distributions were observed for sixty percent of all items. Physique and performance of strength show a normal distribution curve. Locomotion movements that require speed were classified as"biased good and intensive". Manipulation and stability movements were classified as"biased poor and intensive".If bipolarization was defined as deviation from the normal distribution curve, these findings indicate that locomotion performance is low in some children, and a minority of children shows very high ability in manipulation and stability performance.