The frequency and spatial distribution of past plants at a small site were reconstructed from the spatial distribution of fossil pollen and spores in a local area. Samples were taken from peat of the Last Glacial just below the Aira-Tn ash at the ItaiTeragatani Site. Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. From the frequencies of 26 major pollen types at 29 points, maximum, minimum, average values and coefficients of variation (standard deviation/average) were obtained and the pollen types' distributions were mapped. Based on their abundance and coefficients of variation, pollen types could be classified into five groups : arboreal groups A-I, A-II and A-III and herbaceous groups H -I and H - II. A-I, A-II and H-I were local elements that had high coefficients of variation ; whereas, A-III and H-II were regional elements that had low coefficients of variation. Based on the distribution patterns of the local pollen types (A- I, A-II and H -I), a distribution of the plants in a local area were reconstructed. The site was an open forest with Picea, Salix, Betula, Fraxinus and Alnus shrubs and local herbs such as Lysichiton, Ranunculus, Gentiana, etc.
Plant macrofossil assemblages in the late Holocene that were obtained from the bottom of a dissected valley along the northern part of Tokyo Bay were described, and changes in the sedimentary environment of the plant macrofossil assemblages were discussed. The plant macrofossil assemblages were divided into local plant macrofossil zones I, II, and III. The plant macrofossil assemblages in the sandy layers of Zone I were deposited during the Middle J omon Age (from c. a. 4500 to 4000 y. B. P. ). The paleovegetation reconstructed from the fossil assemblages ranged throughout the upper reaches including the bottom and scarp of the dissected valley. Arboreal members in the fossil assemblage consisted of deciduous broad-leaf trees including Quercus serrata and Alnus japonica, but no evergreen broad-leaf trees. The plant macrofossil assemblages in Zone II were deposited after c. a. 4000 years BP. and were found in the herbaceous peat made from the emergent plants that flourished in the bottom of the dissected valley. Fossils of herbs, Alnus japonica, and Wisteria floribunda were autochthonous, but the other arboreal fossils were transported by birds from the slopes of the dissected valley. The assemblages in the gley soil of Zone III were characterized by the dominance of weeds that now occur in paddy fields. The rare occurrence of Cyclobalanopsis and Cryptomeria macrofossils including woods around the northern part of Tokyo Bay indicated that their distribution was restricted in the Jomon Age.