It is suggested that the human in the medieval and modem times in the Japanese history had become to exploit lots of wild plant species as food resources, based on the evidence of literatures and plant remains. The human-plant relationship characterized by a exploitation of not only cultivated plants but also wild plants as food resources during the time from 13th to 19th -century has relations with a climatic deterioration in "Little Ice Age". This thesis propose the necessity of study on the wild plant remains in the historic times.
Fossil woods obtained from the natural creek sediments deposited in the Earliest Jomon Period (ca. 9500 years ago) at Awazu-kotei Site were anatomically identified to 12 taxa of the deciduous broad-leaved trees. The wood fossil assemblages were characterized by a predominance of Quercus sect. Prinus trunk or shoot and a small amount of Quercus sect. Prinus and Maackia amurensis var. buergeri roots. The specific composition and occurrences of the wood fossil assemblages showed a temperate broad-leaved forest composed of mainly Quercus sect. Prinus, Magnolia, Salix, Picrasma quasioides, Maakia amurensis var. buergerii, and Castanea crenata. It was suggested that the reconstructed forest vegetation in and around the Awazu-kotei Site was fruitful in fagaceous nuts as a food for J omon people.