The Horticulture Journal
Online ISSN : 2189-0110
Print ISSN : 2189-0102
ISSN-L : 2189-0102
Current issue
Displaying 1-11 of 11 articles from this issue
SPECIAL ISSUE: ORIGINAL ARTICLES
  • Tomohiro Kondo, Hirokazu Higuchi
    Article type: Original Articles
    2024 Volume 93 Issue 1 Pages 1-5
    Published: 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: January 27, 2024
    Advance online publication: October 11, 2023
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    Passion fruit has edible arils with a complicated structure. Each aril has three different membranes; an external membrane, an internal membrane with a fimbriate structure at the basal area, and a transparent membrane that completely envelops the seed. It was reported that juice quality, including organic acid and sugar contents, varied depending on the extraction method. So, organic acid and sugar are potentially localized inside the aril. In this study, using three cultivars (purple passion fruit, yellow passion fruit, and ‘Summer Queen’, a hybrid variety between the two), juice qualities of different aril parts were determined. The aril was separated into three parts, that is, the outer pulp (OP), the distal part of the inner pulp (DIP), and the basal part of the inner pulp (BIP). The OP included the external membrane and the juice held by this membrane. The DIP surrounding the seed and the BIP was a fimbriate structure attached to the internal membrane. In all varieties, titratable acidity (TA) and citric acid content at DIP were higher than those at OP and BIP, although there were some differences among the varieties. Malic acid content did not vary among the parts. Total soluble solid content (TSS) at BIP was the highest among the parts, and glucose, sucrose, and fructose contents at DIP were lower than those at BIP. Purple passion fruit had a high juice content at OP and the yellow cultivar had high juice content at DIP, while the hybrid between the two showed intermediate characteristics. Organic acid and sugar were localized inside the aril in the passion fruit cultivars; the citric acid content and TA at DIP were higher than those at OP and BIP, and TSS at BIP was higher than those at DIP and OP. Therefore, adjusting the juice extraction intensity may be needed depending on the required juice quality.

  • Toshihiko Sugiura, Makoto Takeuchi, Takuya Kobayashi, Yuta Omine, Itar ...
    Article type: Original Articles
    2024 Volume 93 Issue 1 Pages 6-14
    Published: 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: January 27, 2024
    Advance online publication: November 02, 2023
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    The growing-degree-days (GDD) model for pineapple was developed to predict flowering and harvest dates; however, it has not been adapted to the climate in Japan’s growing regions, where air temperatures fluctuate over a wide range, and the prediction accuracy is low. The present study aimed to develop models for predicting flowering and harvest dates with high accuracy by analyzing a large phenological dataset from Japan’s main (Nago) and warmer (Ishigaki) production areas. The number of days between budding and flowering decreased at air temperatures of up to approximately 25°C and remained constant above 25°C. The number of days between flowering and harvest decreased until approximately 23°C. The effect of day length on both days to flowering and harvest was small. The relationship between air temperature and the developmental rate after budding to flowering and after flowering to harvest was modeled using the GDD and exponential function models, both with upper limits. The GDD model with an upper limit temperature was more accurate at predicting flowering and harvest dates compared to the conventional GDD model. In particular, the prediction accuracy of the harvest date was dramatically improved. Because the relationship between the developmental rate until flowering and the air temperature was exponential rather than linear, the exponential function model provided a more accurate prediction of the flowering date. The root-mean-square errors of the most accurate models were 3.7–6.1 days for predicting the flowering date and 6.1–10.2 days for the harvest date. We believe that these models will be useful for planning shipments of pineapple in regions with wide temperature ranges, such as Japan, and for cultivation management in response to climate change.

  • Chairat Techavuthiporn, Amnat Jarerat, Chonlada Singhkai, Hataitip Nim ...
    Article type: Original Articles
    2024 Volume 93 Issue 1 Pages 15-22
    Published: 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: January 27, 2024
    Advance online publication: November 02, 2023
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    The effects of UV-C treatment on physicochemical quality, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) during storage were investigated. Okra pods were exposed to UV-C irradiation dose at 1.5, 3.0 or 6.0 kJ·m−2 before storage at 10 ± 2°C for 12 days. The results showed that UV-C treatment had a significant effect on okra bioactive compounds, such as ascorbic acid, total phenolic, flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity. The highest values of these compounds were observed in okra treated with 6.0 kJ·m−2 UV-C irradiation. A statistical analysis of the data demonstrated that mucilage had a favorable association with antioxidant capabilities and bioactive substances in response to UV-C treatment. Moreover, UV-C treatment also effectively maintained the quality of okra during storage, as evidenced by lower weight loss and higher firmness without incidence of decay. Therefore, postharvest UV-C treatment can be a potential approach to enhance bioactive compounds and maintain the quality of okra during storage.

  • Nurainee Salaemae, Nutthachai Pongprasert, Surisa Phornvillay, Samak K ...
    Article type: Original Articles
    2024 Volume 93 Issue 1 Pages 23-32
    Published: 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: January 27, 2024
    Advance online publication: November 28, 2023
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    Electrostatic atomized water particles (EAWPs) treatment was applied to investigate its effect on chlorophyll (Chl) degradation and ripening delay in ‘Namwa’ bananas. Banana fruits were pretreated with EAWPs generated from a device (Panasonic F-GMK01) for 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 3.0 h in a closed 50 L container, and then kept in perforated polypropylene plastic bags and stored at ambient temperature (25 ± 2°C) under dark conditions. The results showed that 1.0 h-EAWPs treatment best retained peel greenness with a significantly higher hue angle and lower L* value than other treatments on day 6. Also, the 1.0 h-EAWPs treatment maintained the total Chl content, firmness, total soluble solids (TSS), and delayed the ripening index (RI) of fruit accompanied by a delayed climacteric rise in ethylene and respiration rate compared to the control. It was found that the 1.0 h-EAWP treatment induced accumulations of nitric oxide (NO) in peel tissues and suppressed the activities of Chl-degrading enzymes (chlorophyllase, Mg-dechelatase, Chl-degrading peroxidase, and pheophytinase) in the peel. Furthermore, Chl derivatives levels (chlorophyllide a, pheophobide a, 132-hydroxychlorophyll a, and pheophytin a) were higher in fruits treated with EAWPs than the control fruits. The results suggest that EAWPs technology could be an alternative approach to delay Chl degradation and ripening in ‘Namwa’ bananas.

ORIGINAL ARTICLES
  • Kazuma Okada, Masato Wada, Taku Shimizu, Shigeki Moriya, Kazuyuki Abe
    Article type: Original Articles
    2024 Volume 93 Issue 1 Pages 33-41
    Published: 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: January 27, 2024
    Advance online publication: October 14, 2023
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    Supplementary material

    The Tall Spindle apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) planting system achieves high early and sustained yields and excellent fruit quality. This system requires high-density planting (1,000–1,500 trees/acre) of highly branched (feathered) nursery trees, which increases the total cost of nursery trees purchased. To supply large quantities of highly feathered nursery trees at low prices, the nursery cycle should be shortened to one year. However, it is difficult to naturally obtain one-year-old nursery trees with sufficient feather number and length. Repeated spraying with 6-benzyladenine (BA) has been used as a conventional method to induce feather formation in apple nursery trees. We recently demonstrated that gibberellin A3 (GA3) treatment also increases the feather number on young apple trees. Here, we investigated the effects of GA3 (0, 100, 500, and 1,000 μM) and BA (0, 75, 150, and 300 mg·L−1) combinations on the production of well-feathered trees over a one-year cycle. Among the 16 GA3 and BA combinations, repeated (7 or 9 times) spraying with 1,000 μM GA3 + 300 mg·L−1 BA solution (3 or 5 mL) was the most effective method for producing highly feathered nursery trees of ‘Fuji’/JM7 over a one-year cycle. In two trials, trees treated with 1,000 μM GA3 + 300 mg·L−1 BA had 0.9–1.0-fold greater terminal shoot lengths, 1.5–1.9-fold greater feather numbers (≥ 1 cm), 2.0-fold greater feather numbers (≥ 5–< 50 cm), 1.1–1.2-fold greater feather lengths, and 0.9-fold greater trunk diameters than those treated with 300 mg·L−1 BA (conventional method). The feathers of trees treated with 1,000 μM GA3 + 300 mg·L−1 BA were predominantly 1–30 cm long (≥ 94.5%), and only few large feathers were observed. Thus, compared with the conventional method, treatment with 1,000 μM GA3 + 300 mg·L−1 BA facilitated the production of highly feathered nursery trees over a one-year cycle. It also reduced the time and labor cost required to obtain a large number of well-branched nursery trees needed for high-density plantings such as in the Tall Spindle system.

  • Masahiko Fumuro
    Article type: Original Articles
    2024 Volume 93 Issue 1 Pages 42-48
    Published: 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: January 27, 2024
    Advance online publication: October 31, 2023
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    Supplementary material

    To investigate the practicality of using own-rooted trees in pot culture, the growth, yield, and fruit quality of pot-planted ‘Irwin’ mango trees, propagated by air layering versus grafting, over an 11-year period after planting were measured. The trunk diameter of the own-rooted trees propagated by air layering was significantly smaller than that of the grafted trees propagated by conventional methods until six years of age, after which there was no significant difference between the two tree types. The trunk diameter of the own-rooted trees was significantly greater than that of the scion diameter of the grafted trees after seven years of age. The total length of green branches was significantly longer in the own-rooted trees than in the grafted trees after nine years, and the number of leaves was significantly greater on the own-rooted trees than the grafted trees after six years. The height of the own-rooted trees was 35 cm shorter than that of the grafted trees. The fresh and dry weights of the leaves, green branches, thick branches, scaffold branches, and fine roots of the own-rooted trees were significantly greater than those of the grafted trees. However, the fresh and dry weights of the trunks and thick roots of the own-rooted trees were significantly smaller than those of the grafted trees. The weights (fresh and dry) of the aboveground parts of whole own-rooted trees were significantly greater than those of the grafted trees, but the weights of the underground parts did not differ significantly between the two tree types. The T-R ratio (the weight of the aboveground part of the tree excluding the leaves/the weight of the underground part of the tree) of the own-rooted trees was significantly greater than that of the grafted trees. The yield per tree of the own-rooted trees was significantly lower than that of the grafted trees for two years after fruiting; however, this difference resolved after 10 years. The average yield per unit land area over nine years was 2.46 kg·m−2 for own-rooted trees and 2.32 kg·m−2 for grafted trees. The numbers of fruits per tree did not differ significantly between tree types, except during years 4 and 5. The average fruit weight did not differ significantly between the tree types up to nine years, with one exception in year 5. However, the average fruit weight of the own-rooted trees was significantly greater than that of the grafted trees after 10 years. Fruit quality did not differ significantly between the two tree types. Since the height of the own-rooted trees was shorter, and their growth and yield were equal or greater than those of the grafted trees, pot culture using own-rooted trees of ‘Irwin’ mango appears to be highly beneficial.

  • Akira Yamazaki, Ao Takezawa, Kazusa Nishimura, Ko Motoki, Kyoka Nagasa ...
    Article type: Original Articles
    2024 Volume 93 Issue 1 Pages 49-57
    Published: 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: January 27, 2024
    Advance online publication: October 17, 2023
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    Supplementary material

    Chili pepper is cultivated in the absence of fruit-promoting treatments or insect pollinators. The fertilization ability of both males and females, as well as natural self-pollination ability under high temperatures, are necessary for autonomous set fruit under high temperatures. The reproductive traits related to autonomous self-pollination ability and fertilization ability of both males and females after pollination under control (CK) and high temperature (HT) treatments were investigated in this study. ‘Takanotsume’ (TK) showed a significantly higher percentage of autonomous fruit set than ‘Peruvian Purple’ (PP) in both CK and HT treatments, suggesting that TK has a strong autonomous fruit set regardless of temperature. On the other hand, the percentage of autonomous fruit set of PP was 0% in the HT treatment, while autonomous fruit set was observed in the CK treatment. Therefore, TK had autonomous fruit set ability even at high temperatures when PP did not have any. TK had more pollen on the stigma than PP, suggesting that TK has a higher ability for autonomous self-pollination. Flower morphology was not considered a factor in the autonomous self-pollination of TK. In contrast, TK tended to release more pollen than PP. One factor that can support autonomous self-pollination is pollen dispersion. A significant difference was observed in the fruit set rate during artificial pollination between the treatments (CK and HT) of the pollen parent and the cultivars (TK and PP) of the seed parent. In fact, female fertility in TK was higher than that in PP, regardless of the temperature condition. Almost no fruit set of PP was observed via autonomous self-pollination in the HT treatment, but fruits were set by artificial pollination using both the pollen and pistil of PP in the HT treatment. This result is consistent with the finding that PP exhibits decreased autonomous self-pollination at high temperatures. The higher autonomous fruit-set ability of TK than PP under high temperatures may be attributed not only to superior female fertility, but also to its autonomous self-pollination ability under high temperatures. Therefore, pollen dispersal ability under high temperatures was considered a key factor for autonomous fruit-set.

  • Yuya Mochizuki, Ryuta Ninohei, Manato Ohishi, Yukio Yonezu, Tsuyoshi O ...
    Article type: Original Articles
    2024 Volume 93 Issue 1 Pages 58-67
    Published: 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: January 27, 2024
    Advance online publication: October 18, 2023
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    Strawberries can be categorized into June-bearing and ever-bearing depending on the environmental conditions that determine flower bud initiation. In Japan, the harvest yield and distribution of strawberry fruits during summer and autumn are low because of high temperatures and heavy fruit load. Therefore, cultivation of ever-bearing strawberries is limited to areas with cool summers such as Hokkaido and Tohoku. In this study, we investigated whether air treatment before liquefied carbon dioxide (CO2) application within the strawberry plant canopy could improve CO2 absorption efficiency and increase dry matter production. Four treatments were investigated: application of air within the plant canopy, application of CO2, application of CO2 after air application, and a control. We investigated the CO2 concentration, dry matter production, yield characteristics, individual leaf photosynthesis characteristics, projected leaf area, cumulative light interception, light use efficiency, and fruit quality. The results showed that the local application of only CO2 or Air and, application of CO2 after air application (Air/CO2) treatment within the plant canopy considerably increased the dry matter production. Total fruit yield of Air/CO2 was the highest among all treatments. This is probably because the application of CO2 and air expanded the leaf area, increased cumulative light interception, and improved light use efficiency. In addition, the photosynthetic rate of Air, CO2 and Air/CO2 treatments was higher than that of the control because of higher stomatal conductance. This suggests that local application of liquefied CO2 after air application can effectively increase fruit yield, and that air treatment will improve plant vigor, further increasing strawberry production in summer and autumn.

  • Miyu Yamaguchi, Amane Yamazaki, Masako Akutsu
    Article type: Original Articles
    2024 Volume 93 Issue 1 Pages 68-75
    Published: 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: January 27, 2024
    Advance online publication: November 28, 2023
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    Strawberries, the most economically well-known berry crop, are known for their taste, nutritional value, and antioxidant compounds. Various spatiotemporal or seasonal factors are known to affect the strawberry pollen germination rate; however, determinating which factor most influences the variation in the pollen germination rate remains challenging. This study aimed to determine the optimal pollen germination media and pollen short-term storage methods in the Japanese strawberry cultivars ‘Shindai SUS-1’ and ‘Shindai BS8-9’. Each strawberry pollen was incubated for 3 h in the dark on a solid medium with 1.5% agar and different sucrose and boric acid concentrations. The pollen germination rate was then investigated. The optimal pollen germination medium for both cultivars was 1.5% agar, 10% sucrose, and 0.1% boric acid. The small amount of strawberry pollen used in this study was collected immediately after flowering in the morning. Therefore, we also investigated a method for collecting a large amount of pollen while maintaining pollen activity. For both cultivars, the pollen germination rate for dry pollen, incubated for 24 h with silica gel after the petals and calyx were removed, was the same as that of the fresh pollen collected immediately after flower collection. In addition, dry pollen was more efficient in terms of short-term storage than fresh pollen. For ‘Shindai BS8-9’, the germination rate for dry pollen was also higher than that of the fresh pollen when stored in vacuum at −25, 4, 15, 20, and 25°C for 3 and 7 days.

  • Kazuki Yamazaki, Rika Kitamura, Tomohiro Suzuki, Takeshi Kurokura, Ken ...
    Article type: Original Articles
    2024 Volume 93 Issue 1 Pages 76-88
    Published: 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: January 27, 2024
    Advance online publication: October 14, 2023
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    Supplementary material

    Gladiolus (Gladiolus spp.) florets exhibit low ethylene sensitivity. Accordingly, the wilting of their tepals is an ethylene-independent process. Both trehalose and cycloheximide can extend the vase life of gladiolus florets. Floral senescence is probably regulated by programmed cell death. However, senescence-related genes have not been thoroughly investigated, except in ethylene-sensitive species. In this study, we analyzed the expression of senescence-associated genes by conducting transcriptome (RNA-seq) analysis. First, we examined the effects of 0.1 M trehalose (Tre), 300 μM cycloheximide (CHI), and 50 μM chloramphenicol (CAP) treatments on postharvest quality and senescence-related gene expression in gladiolus ‘Fujinoyuki’ cut florets. The Tre and CHI treatments extended the vase life of gladiolus florets by about 1 day, i.e., 30% of Cont. Tepals were sampled at 0 days (0d) and 2 days (2d) post-treatment. The RNA-seq analysis of floret tissues generated 81,136 unique sequences. Moreover, 2,892, 4,670, and 57 differentially expressed genes were identified from the 0d_Control (Cont) vs 2d_Cont, 2d_Cont vs 2d_CHI, and 2d_Cont vs 2d_Tre comparisons, respectively. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis suggested that cysteine-type endopeptidase activity was significantly higher for 2d_Cont than for 0d. Additionally, the 0d vs 2d_Cont comparison showed the cell wall-related GO terms were more enriched for 2d_Cont. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis revealed an increase in the expression of sucrose synthesis-related genes in the 2d_Cont samples. Among the genes involved in starch and sucrose metabolism, the genes mediating cell wall degradation were more actively expressed in the 2d_Cont samples than in the 2d_CHI samples. The fragments per kilobase per million reads (FPKM) values were used to select candidate senescence-related gene families, including the cysteine protease, invertase, peroxidase, pectinesterase, and transcription factor (NAC [no apical meristem (NAM), Arabidopsis transcription activation factor (ATAF), and cup-shaped cotyledon (CUC)] and WRKY) families. The expression levels of transcription factor genes, including NAC 048, 68, 073 and WRKY 6, 11, 24, were validated by qPCR. The expression of these NAC and WRKY transcription factor genes was upregulated by CHI, suggesting their involvement in senescence or side reactions in gladiolus tepals. This study revealed several candidate genes and associated GO terms for senescence of cut florets, but further study is needed, especially on key genes, including transcription factors.

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