Ionizing radiations have been used for medical care more than 100 years. The types of radiations begin in the X-ray spread to a variety of radiation. Quantum beams such as photon, neutron, pion, proton, and heavy-ion have their each own physical characteristic, especially in the energy distribution in matter. Charged particle beam show a Bragg's peak, give higher energy deposition, and produce unique track structure of energy deposition. These characteristics lead special biological effects on livings and show advantages in cancer therapy. They have become actively use of ion beam in cancer therapy at present. Present status of cancer therapy with those quantum beams in the world and in Japan, and its physical and biological characteristics will be introduced in this paper.
Chemical reaction dynamics on the oxide formation at the Ni(001) surface has been studied via two quantum beams (synchrotron radiation and supersonic molecular beam). It was revealed that NiO layers formation took place at an oxygen coverage less than 0.5 ML depending on translational energy of oxygen molecules. Although dissociative adsorption of oxygen takes place via physical adsorption at lower translational energy than 0.06 eV, direct activated adsorption occurs at higher energy. Potential energy barrier height is 0.3 eV for the first barrier and 1.6 eV for the second one, respectively.
The X-ray radiolysis-induced-synthesis of copper and cupric oxide particles in an aqueous copper sulfate (CuSO4) solution with additive ethanol has been investigated. An X-ray irradiation allows for the synthesis of copper and cupric oxide particles and their aggregation into clusters. The morphology and composition of these particles were characterized by scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction measurement and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The cupric oxides are considered to be consisting of CuO, Cu2O and Cu4O3. The additions of acetone and acetic acid are unable to synthesize any particles. The synthesis of copper and cupric oxide particles sheds light on fabrication of three-dimensional patterning made of composite materials.
To generate continuously repetitive soft X-ray pulses in the water window from laser-produced plasmas, a one-dimensionally translating substrate system with a closed He gas cryostat that can continuously supply various cryogenic targets has been developed. The system was successfully operated at a lowest temperature of 15 K and at a maximum up-down speed of 12 mm/sec. Solid Ar and N2 layers were formed, and the water window spectra from them were studied. The emission intensity from Ar was found to be about 8 times stronger than that from N2. Developed laser plasma source demonstrated high average power of 140 mW in the water window soft X-ray, when a commercial Nd:YAG Q-switched laser was used to irradiate a solid Ar target with energy of 1 J at a repetition rate of 1 Hz. It can be used for various applications, including soft X-ray microscopy, in place of synchrotron facilities.
Transmission secondary ion mass spectrometry (transmission SIMS) of thin films of leucine-enkephalin using MeV C60+ primary ions was performed to examine the advantage of the combination with detection of secondary ions emitted in the forward direction in efficient emission of the intact molecular ions. Leucine-enkephalin thin films deposited on self-supporting SiN membranes were bombarded with 5 MeV C60 ions, and positive secondary ions emitted in the forward and backward directions were mass-analyzed. The yield of fragment ions emitted in the forward direction was remarkably reduced compared to the backward direction, while the yield of intact molecular ions was reduced to a minor extent depending on the thickness of the peptide film. This suggests a potential of forward emission geometry in transmission cluster ion SIMS for less-damage and sensitive analysis of biological materials.
We have developed a 3D Lab-on-a-CD immunosensor based on a competitive/non-competitive assay for small endocrine disruptors and biomolecules. To improve the sensitivity of the 3D Lab-on-a-CD immunosensor, an immobilizing method of capturing-type antibody on the sensor surface was investigated. The method is based on the introduction of a highly reactive amino group to a P(MMA/CEMA) copolymer surface having chlorine, and utilizing a biotin-streptavidin system. The functionality of the 3D Lab-on-a-CD immunosensor was evaluated by measuring mouse IgG. The detection limit was found to be 3 f g/assay (3×10-12 g/assay). After further modification, the 3D Lab-on-a-CD immunosensor, having some characteristics such as a substrate with highly integrated antibodies, is expected to be applicable for highly sensitive immunoassay.
Signal error and residual image due to resistance and capacitance variation of an RC polyphase filter section are analyzed. It is clarified that input components other than quadrature ones of signal generate error on signal and image of signal appears on opposite sign of frequency when element values are not matched. Based on consideration of sensitivity formulation results, a scheme of placement of resistors and capacitors for suppressing image is proposed.
Generally speaking, to confirm that the students truly understand learning to learn, it is necessary to perform Verbal Protocol. The Verbal Protocol is measurement methods which a student has one-on-one communication with a teacher. It involves an immense amount of time and effort to confirm that the students truly understand learning to learn. Therefore, the teacher requires a new measurement method for learning to learn to perform “a large-scale evaluation” and “educational support to a large group of students.”
This paper is intended to provide a possible resolution for learning to learn to university students. One goal is to help them become aware of understanding the importance of learning to learn. In this paper, we bring the students' growth close to more reality by introducing the concept of PID (Proportional-Integral-Derivative) controller in the control theory. The PID Controller expresses that their growth when they allocate of arrival assignments. Then, we validate how much effect their growth has on a property by simulation.
We propose a method that addresses the shortest path problem in estimating network traffic distribution when a network infrastructure is damaged at the time of disaster. It uses link costs that are different from those used prior to the disaster. There are three assumptions: (1) traffic whose source and destination points lie outside the disaster-affected area do not use damaged networks, (2) Traffic that traverses the border of the disaster-affected area uses at most one link, (3) traffic that is related to the disaster-affected area does not exit disaster area. We use different link costs from those used prior to the disaster time, and the shortest paths under the link costs that satisfy conditions (1), (2), and (3) above. In this paper, we introduce a method for setting link costs and adapt it to yield a real networking model. We set traffic patterns and a disaster-affected area and carry out simulations. The simulation results confirm that it is possible to simulate the changes in volume and the distribution of traffic owing on each link.
In this report, we discuss about walker which use for crutch walking exercises for hemiplegia by way of illustration. We developed the new walker which enable person have hemiplegia to crutch walking training in hospital ward without monitoring. The hemiplegia patients need crutch walking training until leaving hospital. Though it is difficult to all patients train enough crutch walking because of limited rehabilitation time. We designed the walker using the human body measurements database. Our walker has three advantages. First, it do not contact with the patients arm, leg and crutch when crutch-walking training. Second, when patient falls, the brake will work automatically. Third, it follows a gait, without using a patient’s hand. We investigated about safety of gait with walker and discuss about issues for implementation.
In this study, we report a method for the measurement of an entire periphery using stereo images and mirrors. Several methods have been proposed to measure the entire periphery, such as surrounding the target with cameras, rotating the target on a rotating table, and reflecting the target using mirrors. The advantages of using mirrors are synchronizing measurement, saving space, and low cost. In the past, we reported a method for measuring the shape of a leg using mirrors. The combination of mirrors and stereo images was unique. However, we confirmed that there is a measurement deficit around the edge of the target. This deficit occurs because of the short distance between the mirrors and the target at the limited area. Therefore, we aimed to improve our technique using additional mirror reflections. We expanded the measurement range using the image reflected twice on the mirrors. As a result, we succeeded in improving the measurement deficit.
The unique high-precision three-dimensional measurement method that can be applied to the disaster prevention is proposed, and its validity is confirmed by experiments in this paper. Concretely, the aim of our research is to detect the sign of land slide. For this aim, the high-precision and wide area measurement are necessary. The conventional methods for the disaster prevention, such as GPS and inclinometer, cannot satisfy these requirements. The measurement of target markers is based on the triangulation, and our unique high-precision method are used. The condition of the experimental study is as follows: the measurement distance between stereo camera and target marker is about 90 m and camera baseline length is 0.95 m. This measurement system can realize maximum error of 10 mm.
Automatic Route Setting (ARS) is a major subsystem of railway traffic management systems. ARS automatically sets routes in accordance with timetables, train descriptions, and facility situations. To develop the ARS system, various conditions have to be considered, such as train operations, track layouts, and equipped facilities. This leads to a huge amount of work in ARS development aimed at dealing with software variations among ARS products. In order to improve the productivity of ARS, this paper proposes a new model for model-based development of ARS. In this model, railway tracks are expressed as a digraph in which a node and an edge, respectively, represent a route and a topological relationship between two routes. Edges are consist of 23 elements and each element is associated with a specific kind of route-setting feature. A trial ARS system based on this model was developed for the feasibility study and was confirmed to work sufficiently in three different areas by inputting modeled track layouts.
Preventing accidents between automobiles and pedestrians is a crucial issue for the realization of a safe society. This paper presents a method to infer whether or not a driver has noticed a pedestrian appearing ahead of the vehicle. Previous studies on inferring whether or not a driver has noticed a pedestrian include a study that estimates the driver's state of attention, as well as a study that estimates the visibility of the pedestrian from the driver's perspective. In this paper, we demonstrate a more direct approach. We assume that once a driver notices a pedestrian, he or she performs different actions than when no pedestrian is noticed. On the basis of this assumption, this paper proposes a method to estimate the probability that a driver has noticed a pedestrian based on the information regarding the driver's behavior, mainly how much he or she has depressed the accelerator. We then present assessment results for this method.
In a conventional microphone, the diaphragm limits the detectable sound frequency range. To overcome this limitation, a laser microphone was developed using the self-coupling effect of a semiconductor laser. In this paper, the supersonic band characteristics of the laser microphone were investigated using a super tweeter. From the experiment results, it was observed that the optimum reflectivity of a reflector is almost 25% when the laser power is 25 mW. Moreover, a flat frequency response is achieved between 40 Hz and 150 kHz when the long diameter of the laser beam is 1.0 mm, and the upper limit of the detectable frequency relates to the long diameter of the laser beam.
We propose a full-body training system for the dance motion in the immersive virtual reality environment. Recently, although there are many studies about motion training with digital technologies, there are few studies with the virtual reality technique. Moreover, several traditional studies of a motion training with HMD are not considered about full-body motion angle and speed. Therefore, we develop a full-body motion training system of the position, angle, and speed of each joints in the immersive virtual reality environment with HMD and optical motion capture system. As a result of evaluation experiment, our proposal system achieved more a high degree of accuracy than a traditional method.
Image segmentation and image recognition are challenging processes, and the methods of merging those two processes like semantic segmentation have been studied. However, it is a lot of labor to construct the processes of segmentation and recognition manually, so automatic construction of those approaches using machine learning or evolutionary computation have been proposed. In this paper, we propose a model of pixel-wise image segmentation and recognition using Cellular Evolutionary Networks (CEN). Our proposed model is composed of a regular array of the identical feed forward networks, represented in Cartesian Genetic Programming (CGP), and each CGP connects with neighbor CGPs. In addition, we also propose a new model of CEN called CELLular Pyramid (CELLP), which operates multi resolution processing for an input image. We applied CEN and CELLP to some images and verified the effectiveness of our method.
Payment after delivery is a distinctive feature in the Japanese mail order system. The customer under payment after delives pays based on the payment form included in the packaging of the product after receiving the product. It gives peace of mind to customers, and so increases the revenue of the mail order operators. On the other hand, it may causes payment delays and irrecoverable debt. The increase of irrecoverable debt is a concern for stakeholders. Mail order operators are required to perform more effective and efficient credit management. They need to know the deposit rate at early stage and manage the cost appropriately. Firstly, this paper investigates the verification of dunning effect to difference in the customer deposit situation depending on whether they make demands. Next, it proposes a method of predicting the deposit rate based on the accumulation of deposits from the customer with actual data.
Elastic resource scaling is a key feature of cloud computing. And Scale-out is the most popular approach to managing elasticity. However, this approach sometime incurs performance problems, especially for service with rapid load change. So we proposed a new auto-scaling mechanism which quickly acquires resource by Scale-up and releases resource by Scale-in without stop. In this paper, we present the design and implementation, and then we evaluated the effect of the mechanism by using workloads based on real access history. Finally we confirmed the mechanism can improve service level.
Most of public organizations and medical institutions make backup copies of their important data, such as residential and medical information, to local servers, remote servers, and cloud systems. However, when a major disaster strikes, it may cause serious damages not only on the local servers but also on network links to the remote servers and cloud systems. In such cases, we lose the local backup data, and besides, we have no access to the remote backup data for a while. The experience of the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake reminds us of the importance of another backup approach which transfers important data to low-risk servers in the neighborhood immediately after a disaster. To realize this backup approach, we propose a novel risk-aware smart routing scheme. For achieving effective data transmission in a time of disaster, the proposed scheme controls data routes dynamically according to the disaster risks of nodes and links in the network as well as the changing status of the network. This paper presents its detailed design and implementation by using Software Defined Network (SDN) technology. We evaluate the effectiveness of our scheme through the simulation experiments and confirm that it can achieve effective data transmission.
Understanding the states or emotions of learners at a lecture is expected to be useful for improving lecture quality. In our work, we tried to recognize two activities of learners by using their brain wave data to estimate their states. While existing analyses of brain wave data for activity recognition used standard bands such as α and β as features, we used other bands with higher and lower frequencies to compensate for the coarseness of simple electroencephalographs. We conducted experiments on recognizing two activities performed by six subjects with brain wave data captured by a simple electroencephalograph. We applied a support vector machine to 8-dimensional vectors corresponding to eight bands of the brain wave data. The results show that using the eight bands yielded higher accuracy compared than that obtained with the standard features based on at most four bands.
In this paper, we discuss estimation method of a nano-satellite (HIT-SAT) spin rate using received power strength data at about 830 km away two locations. The estimation method of received data at a single location was announced. It was difficult to collect a long-term data of a low orbit nano-satellite. It is found that the proposed method by using to collect a shot-term data can estimate HIT-SAT spin rate.
We study a method for automatically generating a masker emitting an interference sound to protect speech privacy. The method synthesized a speech-like masker by segmenting the speech input and recombining them through repeated random sampling. We implement this proposed method using PureData to allow real-time processing and evaluate the subjective annoyance.