Increasing evidence has indicated that postprandial hyperglycemia affects coronary artery disease (CAD). The serum 1,5-anhydro-d-glucitol (1,5-AG) value is a useful clinical marker to evaluate short-term glycemic status and reflects glycemic excursions with greater sensitivity when compared with hemoglobinA1c (HbA1c), especially for patients in the postprandial state. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of 1,5-AG for CAD in patients without diabetes mellitus. This study included 729 consecutive patients who had undergone their first coronary angiography. A total of 284 patients (246 diabetic patients and 38 patients with stage 4 or 5 chronic kidney disease) were excluded. The predictive values of 1,5-AG and HbA1c for CAD were evaluated by multivariable logistic regression analysis. Patients with CAD demonstrated significantly lower 1,5-AG values and higher HbA1c values than did patients without CAD (18.6 μg/mL [12.0, 23.3] versus 19.2 μg/mL [14.4, 25.2], P = 0.036, and 5.7% [5.5, 5.9] versus 5.6% [5.4, 5.8], P = 0.016, respectively). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, the HbA1c values did not indicate a predictive value for the prevalence of CAD. In contrast, the 1,5-AG levels were still an independent predictor of CAD (adjusted odds ratio 0.96, 95% confidence interval 0.93-0.99, P = 0.0097). Serum 1,5-AG is superior to HbA1c for predicting CAD prevalence in patients without diabetes mellitus.
Chronic total occlusion (CTO) in a non-infarcted-related artery was reported to worsen immediate clinical outcome in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. However, the prognosis of such patients with preserved left ventricular function after successful primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has not yet been clarified. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the presence of CTO contributes to a worse prognosis even in patients with preserved left ventricular function after primary PCI. We retrospectively analyzed 353 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction, whose left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was not less than 40% in the echocardiography performed 1 day after primary PCI. We divided the patients into two groups according to the presence (n = 25) or absence (n = 328) of CTO in the non-infarct-related coronary artery, and compared the clinical outcome of patients between the two groups. The LVEF estimated by echocardiography after primary PCI was similar between patients with and without CTO (55.1 ± 8.6% versus 58.0 ± 9.4%; P = 0.07). The peak creatine kinase value was also similar between the two groups (1539 versus 1921 U/L; P = 0.33); however, CTO patients were significantly more likely to undergo intra-aortic balloon pumping (56.0% versus 12.5%; P < 0.001) during primary PCI, and 30-day mortality was significantly higher in CTO patients (12.0% versus 0.9%; P < 0.001). By multivariate analysis, cardiogenic shock at arrival was significantly correlated with 30-day mortality. Even though the LVEF of AMI patients with CTO was preserved after successful PCI, a high mortality rate was observed.
The present study aimed to determine the effects of phase II (PII) comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation (CR) on coronary plaque volume in patients after acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We assigned 46 patients with ACS who had undergone standard phase I CR into groups who proceeded with PII-CR (PII-CR; n = 21) and those who did not (non-PII-CR; n = 25). We then measured anthropometric parameters and daily physical activity using a pedometer for up to 60 days. The isokinetic strength of the knee extensor and flexor muscles and exercise tolerance were tested and non-culprit lesions were analyzed using volumetric intravascular ultrasound at baseline and 6 months later. Baseline characteristics did not significantly differ between the two groups and exercise tolerance was significantly improved in both. Waist size and fat weight were significantly decreased, and muscle strength was significantly increased in the PII-CR group but not in the non-PII-CR group. The percent change in plaque volume (primary endpoint) did not differ significantly between the two groups. The percent change in plaque volume was significantly and negatively correlated with daily physical activity. Although risk factors, muscle strength, and exercise tolerance were improved by PII-CR, plaque regression did not differ significantly between the two study groups. A significant correlation between percent change in coronary plaque volume and physical activity was observed. A comprehensive phase II-CR, including frequent supervised exercise sessions and a program encouraging an increase in daily physical activity, may reduce plaque volume in patients after ACS (UMIN000006038).
Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a soluble glycoprotein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily and is linked to vascular atherosclerosis and calcification. The carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) correlates with carotid atherosclerosis and is a significant predictor of cardiovascular events. The OPG levels are associated with the CIMT in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this pathway remain unclear. We investigated 114 CAD patients (89 men, 25 women; mean age: 68.7 ± 10.3 years) and measured the Gensini score (a marker of the extent of coronary atherosclerosis), the mean CIMT and the plasma levels of OPG and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA; a marker of endothelial function). Early carotid atherosclerosis was defined as a mean CIMT > 1.0 mm. Only 33 of the 114 patients (28.9%) had early carotid atherosclerosis. Patients with early carotid atherosclerosis had higher OPG levels than those without. The OPG levels were found to be significantly associated with ADMA (r = 0.191, P = 0.046) and the mean CIMT (r = 0.319, P = 0.001), but not with the Gensini score. A receiver operating curve analysis revealed the optimal cut-off value of the OPG levels for predicting early carotid atherosclerosis to be 100 pmol/L. A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed OPG ≥ 100 pmol/L to be significantly and independently associated with early carotid atherosclerosis (odds ratio: 2.98, 95% confidence interval: 1.22-7.20, P = 0.017). These data indicate that OPG is significantly associated with endothelial function and predicts early carotid atherosclerosis in patients with CAD.
Several studies have demonstrated that oral intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, specifically eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), prevents ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VT) with ischemic heart disease, but the underlying mechanisms still remain unclear. Thus, we examined the relation between the serum EPA/arachidonic acid (AA) ratio and electrophysiological properties in patients with ischemic heart disease. The study subjects consisted of 57 patients (46 males, mean age, 66 ± 13 years) with ischemic heart disease. T-wave alternans (TWA) and heart rate variability were assessed by 24hour Holter ECG, and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was determined by echocardiography. Fasting blood samples were collected, and the serum EPA/AA ratio was determined. Based on a median value of the serum EPA/AA ratio, all subjects were divided into two groups: serum EPA/AA ratio below 0.33 (Group-L, n = 28) or not (Group-H, n = 29). We compared these parameters between the two groups. LVEF was not different between the two groups. The maximum value of TWA was significantly higher in Group-L than in Group-H (69.5 ± 22.8 μV versus 48.7 ± 12.0 μV, P = 0.007). In addition, VT defined as above 3 beats was observed in 7 cases (25%) in Group-L, but there were no cases of VT in Group-H (P = 0.004). However, low-frequency (LF) component, high-frequency (HF) component, LF to HF ratio, and standard deviation of all R-R intervals were not different between the two groups. These results suggest that a low EPA/AA ratio may induce cardiac electrical instability, but not autonomic nervous imbalance, associated with VT in patients with ischemic heart disease.
Defibrillation threshold (DFT) testing is performed routinely in patients undergoing implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation to verify the ability of the ICD to terminate ventricular fibrillation (VF). However, neither the efficacy nor the safety of DFT testing has been proven; thus, the necessity of such testing is controversial. We conducted a retrospective study of the efficacy of DFT testing, particularly with respect to long-term outcomes of ICD implantation. The study included 150 patients (125 men, 25 women, aged 59.0 ± 17.6 years) who underwent ICD or cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator implantation, with (n = 73) or without (n = 77) intraoperative DFT testing, between June 1996 and September 2007. VF was induced by delivery of a T-wave shock, and a 20–25-J shock was then delivered. If the 20–25-J shock failed to terminate VF, 30 J was delivered. We assessed whether undersensed VF events occurred during DFT testing and/or during patient follow-up and checked for any association between undersensing and delayed shock delivery. During DFT testing, fine VF was sensed, and shocks were delivered in a timely manner. Nevertheless, 2 patients in the DFT testing group died from VF within 3 years after device implantation. DFT testing, in comparison to non-DFT testing, appeared to have no influence on the long-term outcomes of our patients, suggesting that DFT testing at the time of ICD implantation is limited.
Previous reports have suggested that right ventricular apical pacing may lead to cardiac dysfunction. Septal pacing is thought to be superior to apical pacing in the prevention of cardiac dyssynchrony, however, there have been no reports on the contribution of septal pacing to improving clinical outcome. We retrospectively evaluated factors associated with cardiac events in patients with right ventricular pacing. The study population consisted of 256 consecutive patients newly implanted with permanent pacemakers and followed-up for 29 ± 18 months. Cardiac events, consisting of cardiac death or heart failure requiring hospitalization, occurred in 22 patients. Kaplan-Meier curves revealed that patients with a high percentage of ventricular pacing (> 90%, n = 101, group H) had a higher incidence of cardiac events than patients with a low percentage of ventricular pacing (< 10%, n = 83, group L) (P = 0.002). In group H, multivariate analysis showed that age (HR: 1.174, 95%CI: 1.066-1.291, P = 0.001), ejection fraction (EF) (HR: 0.898, 95%CI: 0.836-0.964, P = 0.003), QRS duration during cardiac pacing (HR: 1.059, 95%CI: 1.017-1.103, P = 0.006), and existing basal cardiac diseases (HR: 13.080, 95%CI: 2.463-69.479, P = 0.003) were significant predictors of cardiac events, although pacing site had no significant association with prognosis (P = 0.56). Higher age, lower EF, longer QRS duration during cardiac pacing, and existing basal cardiac diseases are associated with poor prognosis in patients with a high percentage of ventricular pacing.
Reduced expressions of plakoglobin and connexin 43 have been reported in the myocardium of patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). However, the relationships between these expression abnormalities and the clinical features of ARVC remain unknown. The expressions of plakoglobin and connexin 43 in myocardial biopsy specimens from 10 patients with confirmed ARVC, and 13 control patients without ARVC (non-ARVC; hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, n = 7; dilated cardiomyopathy, n = 6), were examined by immunostaining to evaluate the relationships between these expressions and the clinical characteristics of ARVC. The ratios of plakoglobin/N-cadherin and of plakoglobin/connexin 43 expressions were significantly lower in the ARVC group than in the control group. Significantly more patients had decreased plakoglobin expression in the ARVC group than in the control group (9/10 versus 7/13; P = 0.0376). Sustained ventricular tachycardia occurred more frequently in patients with ARVC and with decreased expressions of both plakoglobin and connexin 43 than in those with decreased expression of plakoglobin alone (5/5 versus 1/4, P = 0.048). Decreased expressions of both connexin 43 and plakoglobin in the myocardium might be associated with the development of arrhythmia in ARVC.
Buerger disease is a rare disease of unknown etiology and cannot be treated by bypass surgery or percutaneous re-endovascularization. Although the need for effective limb ischemia prevention strategies is increasingly being recognized, effective preventative strategies are insufficient. The aim of this study using a new pulsed ultrasound device, SX-1001, is to determine whether treatment using SX-1001 can mitigate rest pain and improve blood supply to ischemic legs in patients with Buerger disease. This study is a multicenter, double-blinded, parallel randomized clinical trial testing the efficacy and safety of SX-1001. Treatment using SX-1001 is expected to result in reduction of the visual analog scale score for pain in Buerger disease patients who have Fontaine stage III. A total of 44 patients from 20 hospitals in Japan will be enrolled. The primary endpoint of the trial is a change in rest pain intensity on the visual analog scale score from baseline to 24 weeks. This trial will be the first to show the safety and efficacy of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound using SX-1001 for clinical symptoms in patients with Buerger disease. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound may be a new therapy for limb ischemia. Ethical approval has been obtained from each of the participating institutes. Study findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals and at scientific conferences. This study is registered at UMIN Clinical Trial Registry (UMIN000014757).
Patients with periodontal disease exhibit exacerbated atherosclerosis, aortic stiffness, or vascular endothelial dysfunction. However, in a recent scientific statement, the American Heart Association noted that neither has periodontal disease been proven to cause atherosclerotic vascular disease nor has the treatment of periodontal disease been proven to prevent atherosclerotic vascular disease. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the correlation between periodontal condition and arteriosclerosis in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), which is usually accompanied by systemic arteriosclerosis. We measured levels of gingival crevicular fluid lactoferrin (GCF-Lf) and α1-antitrypsin (GCF-AT) in 72 patients (67 ± 8 years, 56 men) with CAD. Furthermore, we evaluated the maximum intima–media thickness (max IMT) and plaque score of the carotid arteries as well as brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery, each of which is a parameter for determining arteriosclerosis status. The average level of GCF-Lf was 0.29 ± 0.36 µg/mL and that of GCF-AT was 0.31 ± 0.66 µg/mL, with significant correlation between the two (r = 0.701, P < 0.001). No significant difference in GCF-Lf and GCF-AT levels was observed between patients with single-, double-, and triple-vessel CAD. There were no significant correlations between the arteriosclerosis parameters (ie, max IMT, plaque score, baPWV, and FMD) and GCF-Lf or GCF-AT. No correlation between the GCF biomarkers and the severity of arteriosclerosis was detected. This result may suggest that worsening of the periodontal condition assessed by GCF biomarkers is not a major potential risk factor for arteriosclerosis.
The association of psychosocial stress with cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still inconclusive. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between arteriosclerosis and various work-related conditions among medical employees with various job titles. A total of 576 medical employees of a regional hospital in Taiwan with a mean age of 43 years and female gender dominance (85%) were enrolled. Arteriosclerosis was evaluated by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). Workrelated conditions included job demands, job control, social support, shift work, work hours, sleep duration, and mental health. The crude relationship between each of the selected covariates and baPWV was indicated by Spearman correlation coefficients. A multiple linear regression model was further employed to estimate the adjusted associations of selected covariates with arteriosclerosis. The mean baPWV of participants was 11.4 ± 2.2 m/s, with the value for males being significantly higher than that for females. The baPWV was associated with gender, age, medical profession, work hours, work type, depression, body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, fasting glucose, and cholesterol. After being fully adjusted by these factors, only sleep duration of less than 6 hours and weekly work hours longer than 60 hours were significantly associated with increased risk of arteriosclerosis. The conditions of job demands, job control, social support, shift work, and depression showed no significant association with baPWV. Longer work hours and shorter sleep durations were associated with an increased risk of arteriosclerosis. These findings should make it easier for the employer or government to stipulate rational work hours in order to avoid the development of cardiovascular disease among their employees.
Adriamycin (ADR) is a potent antineoplastic agent, but long-term treatment is limited by its cumulative, life-threatening cardiomyopathy. Recently, a few reports have shown that pentoxifylline (PTX) might produce cardioprotection in cardiac dysfunction. Here, we investigated the protective effects of PTX on ADR-induced cardiomyopathy in rats. Male rats were randomly assigned either to saline, ADR (adriamycin, 5 mg/kg/week), or A (adriamycin, 5 mg/kg/week) + PTX (pentoxifylline, 50 mg/kg/day) groups. After 3 weeks, these animals were sacrificed and the heart tissue was harvested for histological analysis and assessment of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and caspase-3 expression. Histopathological findings showed that PTX can alleviate myocardial damage caused by ADR. Cardiac fibrosis was significantly suppressed in the A+PTX group compared to that in the ADR group. The HGF gene expression was decreased significantly in the ADR group compared with the control group, but was increased in the A+PTX group. Caspase-3 was up-regulated in the ADR group, and down-regulated in the A+PTX group. These results show that treatment with PTX exerts a protective effect against ADR-induced myocardial fibrosis via regulation of HGF and caspase-3 gene expression. PTX may thus represent a useful new clinical tool for the treatment of ADR-induced cardiomyopathy.
While physiological levels of nitric oxide (NO) protect the endothelium and have vasodilatory effects, excessive NO has adverse effects on the cardiovascular system. Recently, new NO-releasing pharmacodynamic hybrids of angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 (AT1) receptor blockers (ARBs) have been developed. We analyzed whether olmesartan with NO-donor side chains (Olm-NO) was superior to olmesartan (Olm) for the control of blood pressure (BP). Although there was no significant difference in binding affinity to AT1 wild-type (WT) receptor between Olm and Olm-NO in a cell-based binding assay, the suppressive effect of Olm-NO on Ang II-induced inositol phosphate (IP) production was significantly weaker than that of Olm in AT1 WT receptor-expressing cells. While Olm had a strong inverse agonistic effect on IP production, Olm-NO did not. Next, we divided 18 C57BL mice into 3 groups: Ang II (infusion using an osmotic mini-pump) as a control group, Ang II (n = 6) + Olm, and Ang II (n = 6) + Olm-NO groups (n = 6). Olm-NO did not block Ang II-induced high BP after 10 days, whereas Olm significantly decreased BP. In addition, Olm, but not Olm-NO, significantly reduced the ratio of heart weight to body weight (HW/BW) with downregulation of the mRNA levels of atrial natriuretic peptide. An ARB with a NO-donor may cancel BP-lowering effects probably due to excessive NO and a weak blocking effect by Olm-NO toward AT1 receptor activation.
A 46-year-old woman on hemodialysis due to end-stage renal disease was admitted for repeated thrombus formation in previously implanted drug-eluting stents in the right coronary artery. We could successfully aspirate this thrombus, and histopathology revealed a calcified thrombus comprising multiple microcalcifications and fibrinous materials. This is the first report showing how a calcified thrombus is visualized in vivo by intracoronary imaging modalities including intravascular ultrasound, optical coherence tomography, and angioscopy.
A 45-year-old hypertensive Japanese woman presented with epigastric pain on inspiration, fever, complete atrioventricular block and polyarthritis. Her antistreptolysin O levels were markedly elevated. A diagnosis of rheumatic fever was made according to the modified Jones criteria. She was prescribed loxoprofen sodium, which was partially effective for her extracardiac clinical symptoms. However, she had syncope due to complete atrioventricular block with asystole longer than 10 seconds. Consequently, we implanted a permanent pacemaker. Although we prescribed prednisolone, the efficacy of which was limited for the patient’s conduction disturbance, the complete atrioventricular block persisted. In our systematic review of 12 similar cases, the duration of complete heart block was always transient and there was no case requiring a permanent pacemaker. We thus encountered a very rare case of adult-onset acute rheumatic fever with persistent complete atrioventricular block necessitating permanent pacemaker implantation.
Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) are at risk of cardioembolism.1,2) Atrial thrombus formation associated with AF typically occurs in the left atrial appendage (LAA);3) therefore, transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is important for detection of such a thrombus and measurement of LAA flow velocity.4,5) LAA closure is routinely performed during mitral valve surgery in patients with AF to prevent cardiogenic stroke.6) We report the case of a 65-year-old woman with severe mitral regurgitation (MR) and AF in whom a giant thrombus formed almost immediately after mitral and tricuspid valvuloplasty and concurrent LAA resection. No atrial thrombus or spontaneous echo contrast (SEC) was detected by TEE before the surgery. However, a giant intramural thrombus was detected in the left atrium 7 days after surgery. It was thought that the atrial dysfunction as well as the change in morphology of the left atrium resulting from the severe MR complicated by AF and congestive heart failure produced a thrombotic substrate. This case suggests that careful surveillance for thrombus formation and careful maintenance of anticoagulation therapy are needed throughout the perioperative period even if no SEC or thrombus is detected before surgery.
Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has been shown to be effective for heart failure. However, as outlined in the AHA/ACC/HRS Appropriate Use Criteria, CRT is not strongly recommended for patients with a narrow QRS complex. We describe a case of dilated cardiomyopathy and narrow QRS complex in which we obtained a dramatic response to CRT by optimizing the atrioventricular (AV) delay. The patient was a 61-year-old man with intractable heart failure. Echocardiography showed a low ejection fraction of 22% but no dyssynchrony. Because he had been hospitalized many times for congestive heart failure despite β-blocker and diuretic treatment, we decided to use CRT. However, after implantation of the CRT device, the QRS complex widened abnormally, and his symptoms worsened. He was re-admitted 2 months after CRT implantation. We examined the pacemaker status and optimized the AV delay to obtain a “narrow” QRS complex. The patient’s condition improved dramatically after the AV delay optimization. His clinical status has been good, and there has been no subsequent hospitalization. Our case points to the effectiveness of CRT in patients with a narrow QRS complex and to the importance of AV optimization for successful CRT.
Although post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is one of the major fatal complications encountered several years after heart transplant (HTx), little is known about early-PTLD emerging within the first year. We here describe the rare case of a 24-year-old female patient who suffered from early-PTLD (DLBCL: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma) associated with an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, that developed around the jejunum at 7 months after HTx. She suffered from acute abdominal peritonitis due to perforation of the jejunum soon after the first chemotherapy. She was treated successfully by emergent partial resection of the jejunum and colostomy after the discontinuation of everolimus (EVL) and successive low-dose chemotherapy under careful monitoring and adjustment of intravenous immunosuppressant including cyclosporine (CyA) and prednisolone to avoid a rejection reaction. Prophylactic strategies for early-PTLD in HTx recipients should be undertaken with caution.
Acute graft rejection in patients after heart transplantation can cause arrhythmias and acute angina pectoris with electrocardiographic ST-segment elevation. We report a case of a 53-year old female patient who had undergone cardiac transplantation 8 years previously. She developed bradycardia with co-existent ST-segment elevation caused by a histologically proven acute graft rejection. After administration of methylprednisolone and immune absorption leading to initial clinical improvement, the patient died unexpectedly. The reasons remain unclear, but a degeneration of the conduction system as well as impaired blood flow in the right coronary caused by cellular and humoral rejection most likely have both contributed.
Afterload is considered to be an important factor regulating heart failure. Aortic structure or pathology may affect afterload to various extents. However, the contribution of aortic diseases, such as aortic aneurysm or aortic dissection, to heart failure status has not been completely elucidated. Here we describe a 78-year-old patient with severe heart failure who made a dramatic recovery from cardiac decompensation following endovascular thoracic aortic aneurysm surgery. He previously underwent graft replacement for impending rupture of the descending aorta and replacement of both the mitral valve and aortic valve to address valve regurgitation. Subsequently, his left ventricular (LV) function became severely depressed (13%) and serum brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) level remained high (approximately 880–3520 pg/mL). Conversely, his aortic arch was dilated to 70 mm and required surgical intervention. Despite his extremely high vascular surgery risk due to severely depressed cardiac function, stent grafting for thoracic aortic aneurysm was successfully performed. Furthermore, the severity of his depressed cardiac function and heart failure dramatically improved following stent grafting. The left ventricular ejection fraction improved from 13% presurgery to 55% postsurgery and the serum BNP level had significantly decreased to 70– 240 pg/mL. These improvements helped to alleviate the patient’s heart failure symptoms, including shortness of breath. This case suggests a possible beneficial effect of aortic aneurysm repair for improving cardiac function and heart failure; our study presents a new concept of another extrinsic factor that can affect cardiac function through modulation of afterload.
We are pleased to announce that the following 3 articles have been selected for the the UEDA Heart Awards for the Year 2015.
First Place Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Polymorphisms and 5-Year Mortality in Survivors of Acute Myocardial Infarction Masahiko Hara, Yasuhiko Sakata, Daisaku Nakatani, Shinichiro Suna, Masaya Usami, Sen Matsumoto, Toshifumi Sugitani, Kouichi Ozaki, Masami Nishino, Hiroshi Sato, Tetsuhisa Kitamura, Shinsuke Nanto, Toshimitsu Hamasaki, Toshihiro Tanaka, Masatsugu Hori, Issei Komuro, on behalf of the OACIS Investigators Int Heart J 2014 ; 55(3) : 190-196
Second Place Efficacy of Intrathoracic Impedance and Remote Monitoring in Patients With an Implantable Device After the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake Hitoshi Suzuki, Shinya Yamada, Yoshiyuki Kamiyama, Yasuchika Takeishi Int Heart J 2014 ; 55(1) : 53-57
Third Place Urine Sodium Excretion After Tolvaptan Administration Is Dependent Upon Baseline Serum Sodium Levels Teruhiko Imamura, Koichiro Kinugawa, Shun Minatsuki, Hironori Muraoka, Naoko Kato, Toshiro Inaba, Hisataka Maki, Masaru Hatano, Atsushi Yao, Issei Komuro Int Heart J 2014 ; 55(2) : 131-137
November 2015 International Heart Journal Association