International Heart Journal
Online ISSN : 1349-3299
Print ISSN : 1349-2365
ISSN-L : 1349-2365
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Showing 1-31 articles out of 31 articles from the selected issue
Editorial
Review Article
  • Takeo Fujino, Teruhiko Imamura, Koichiro Kinugawa
    2020 Volume 61 Issue 3 Pages 424-428
    Published: May 30, 2020
    Released: May 30, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 15, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    An intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) is a device of internal counterpulsation. Inflation of the balloon in diastole results in a potential increase in coronary blood flow and an improvement in systemic perfusion, and deflation at the end of diastole reduces left ventricular afterload, although the hemodynamic effects are relatively small. With its favorable safety profile due to fewer adverse events, IABP has been used for more than 5 decades as the most common mechanical circulatory support device for cardiogenic shock. Recently, however, other short-term devices have become available, and the position of IABP for cardiogenic shock is rapidly changing. Meanwhile, novel improvements in knowledge and technology are pushing the boundaries of this device. In this review, we summarize the basic physiology and current evidence of this device and then discuss the outlook and implications of IABP in the future.

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Clinical Studies
  • Qian Zou, Tian Zheng, Shu-Li Zhou, Xue-Pei Tang, Shu-Hao Li, Wei Zhou, ...
    2020 Volume 61 Issue 3 Pages 429-436
    Published: May 30, 2020
    Released: May 30, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 29, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    To investigate the value of cardiovascular magnetic resonance tissue-tracking (CMR-TT) imaging in the differentiation of subendocardial and transmural myocardial infarction (MI) and determine whether strain parameters are enable to detect adverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling.

    Global peak circumferential, longitudinal, and radial strains (GPCS, GPLS, GPRS) and segmental peak circumferential, longitudinal, and radial strains (PCS, PLS, PRS) in accordance with the 16-segment model were all derived. All positive segments were divided into two groups according to transmural degree. All patients were dichotomized in accordance with the existence of LV remodeling, which was defined as infarct size (IS) > 24%.

    Patients with MI showed significant lower GPRS, GPCS, and GPLS than the control group (16.41% ± 8.92%, −8.77%± 3.51%, −7.54% ± 2.43% versus 32.41% ± 12.99%, −14.92% ± 3.32%, −11.50% ± 2.51%). Lower PRS [3.25% (−5.57, 7.835) versus 19.94% (12.50, 30.75), P < 0.001] and PCS (−3.81 ± 4.60% versus −8.97± 4.43%, P < 0.001) can be found in transmural infarcted segments compared to subendocardial infarcted segments. PLS between transmural and subendocardial infarcted segments (−4.03% ± 4.88% versus −4.34% ± 4.98%), without however statistical significance (P = 0.523). The optimal cutoff value for PRS in the discriminate diagnosis of MI was 8.97% with a sensitivity of 81.8% and specificity of 98.0%. The optimal cutoff value for PCS was −7.56% with a sensitivity of 83.6% and specificity of 72.1%. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed an optimal cutoff GPRS of 15.45%, and GPCS of −6.72% yielded high diagnostic accuracy in the identification of remodeling, which was higher than left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF).

    CMR-TT can differentiate between subendocardial and transmural infarction and detect LV remodeling, and the diagnostic value was superior to conventional functional parameters.

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  • Comparison to Coronary Artery Disease Consortium 1/2 Score, Duke Clinical Score and Diamond-Forrester Score in China
    Ling-yun Zhou, Wen-jun Yin, Jiang-lin Wang, Can Hu, Kun Liu, Juan Wen, ...
    2020 Volume 61 Issue 3 Pages 437-446
    Published: May 30, 2020
    Released: May 30, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 29, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Supplementary material

    Commonly used tools to assess the probability of obstructive-coronary artery disease (CAD) were derived based on Caucasian cohorts, with their performance in China is still unknown. Furthermore, most were established based on non-laboratory variables, contributing to the limited predictive ability to some extent. Thus, we developed and internally validated a laboratory-based model with data from a Chinese cohort of 8963 inpatients, with suspected stable chest pain, referred to catheter-based coronary angiography (CAG) from September 2007 to April 2019, and then compared the present model's performance with the four most commonly used prediction tools, Coronary Artery Disease Consortium 1/2 Score (CAD1/2), Duke clinical score (DCS), and Diamond-Forrester score (DF). The final model was developed by random forest method, including 8 predictors derived from 70 variables. Five-fold cross-validation was performed to evaluate the model's prediction accuracy. In the external validation set, the present model showed a superior area under the receiver-operating curve (0.816), followed by DCS (0.66), CAD2 (0.61), CAD1 (0.59) and at last DF (0.58), respectively. Furthermore, the present model correctly classified 74.4% of obstructive-CAD patients as high-risk, and correctly classified more than one third of non-obstructive-CAD patients as low-risk. The present model's net reclassification improvement (NRI) showed a significant positive reclassification over CAD1 (NRI = 0.60, P < 0.001), DF (NRI = 0.59, P < 0.001), CAD2 (NRI = 0.57, P < 0.001), and DCS (NRI = 0.43, P < 0.001). Decision curve analysis demonstrated that the present model provided a larger net benefit compared with CAD1/2, DCS, and DF. In conclusion, the novel model, using 8 laboratory and non-laboratory variables, performed well in risk stratifying patients with suspected chest pain regarding the presence of obstructive-CAD in the present Chinese cohort.

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  • Hideki Wada, Tomotaka Dohi, Katsumi Miyauchi, Ryota Nishio, Mitsuhiro ...
    2020 Volume 61 Issue 3 Pages 447-453
    Published: May 30, 2020
    Released: May 30, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 15, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Although an elevated neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been associated with the adverse outcomes of coronary artery disease (CAD), less is known about its prognostic value among patients with low high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels. We enrolled 2,591 consecutive patients with stable CAD who underwent elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and had available data on preprocedural hs-CRP and NLR between 2000 and 2016. Of these patients, 1,951 with low-grade hs-CRP levels (< 2.0 mg/L) were divided into quartiles based on the NLR values. The primary endpoint was a composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and nonfatal stroke after the index PCI. Clinical follow-up data were obtained up to 5 years. The median NLR was 1.9 (interquartile range: 1.5-2.5). During the follow-up, 102 events occurred (5.2%), with a cumulative incidence that was significantly higher in the highest NLR group than in the other groups (log-rank, P = 0.02). After adjusting for the other cardiovascular risk factors, the risk for the primary endpoint was significantly higher for the highest than in the lowest NLR group (HR 1.97, 95% CI 1.09-3.54, P = 0.02). Increasing NLR as a continuous variable was associated with the incidence of adverse cardiovascular events (HR 1.85 per log 1 NLR increase, 95% CI 1.19-2.88, P = 0.007). In conclusion, the adverse long-term clinical outcomes of CAD patients with low-grade hs-CRP levels has been independently predicted by increased NLR level. NLR could be useful for risk stratification of CAD patients with increased inflammatory marker levels.

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  • Shohei Yamaya, Yoshihiro Morino, Yuya Taguchi, Ryo Ninomiya, Masaru Is ...
    2020 Volume 61 Issue 3 Pages 454-462
    Published: May 30, 2020
    Released: May 30, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 29, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) can develop in patients with mildly to moderately stenotic lesions. However, the angiographic characteristics of lesions in patients who will later develop ACS have not been systematically investigated. For this reason, we examined the earlier angiographic findings of such patients in a retrospective study.

    The study population consisted of 45 consecutive ACS and 45 stable angina (SA) patients who require revascularization. All of them had received cardiac catheterization within 5 years prior to onset, for different reasons. The detailed parameters of the earlier coronary angiographies at the culprit site the whole culprit vessel, and all three vessels were compared between the two groups.

    Mild-to-moderate stenosis was present exclusively at the culprit site in the earlier angiographies, both in ACS and SA patients. Lesions associated with ACS progression were significantly shorter in length than those associated with SA progression (11.5 ± 5.5 versus 16.1 ± 10.5 mm, P = 0.02) and were more eccentric (eccentricity index: 0.5 ± 0.3 versus 0.7 ± 0.3, P = 0.04). Percent diameter stenosis was similar (42.2 ± 14.5 versus 44.0 ± 13.8%, P = 0.5). The mean grading scores for plaque extension and size (1-3) were significantly lower in ACS than in SA (1.4 ± 0.6 versus 1.8 ± 0.6, P = 0.01, and 1.3 ± 0.6 versus 1.7 ± 0.7, P = 0.01, respectively). Residual SYNTAX scores were significantly lower in ACS (12.5 ± 7.4 versus 16.4 ± 8.6, P = 0.03).

    Despite equivalent degrees of stenosis in previous angiographies, ACS occurred more frequently in patients with more focal and eccentric lesions but with less diseased coronary arteries than SA.

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  • Shinnosuke Sawano, Kenichi Sakakura, Kei Yamamoto, Yousuke Taniguchi, ...
    2020 Volume 61 Issue 3 Pages 463-469
    Published: May 30, 2020
    Released: May 30, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 15, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Recently, we developed a novel acute myocardial infarction (AMI) risk stratification system (nARS), which stratifies AMI patients into low- (L), intermediate- (I), and high- (H) risk groups. We have shown that the nARS shortened the length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay as well as that of hospitalization. However, the incidence of AMI-related adverse outcomes has not been fully investigated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of severe complications requiring ICU care among the 3 risk groups stratified by nARS. We retrospectively reviewed AMI patients between October 2016 and December 2018. A total of 592 patients were divided into the L- (n = 285), I- (n = 124), and H- (n = 183) risk groups. The primary endpoint was in-hospital complications requiring ICU care defined as death/cardiopulmonary arrest, shock, stroke, atrioventricular block, and respiratory failure. Among 592 patients, 239 (40.4%) developed at least 1 complication requiring ICU care, but only 28 (11.7%) developed complications in general wards. Complications requiring ICU care were most frequently observed in the H-risk group (68.9%), followed by the I-risk group (50.8%), and least in the L-risk group (17.5%) (P < 0.001). Complications requiring ICU care that occurred in the general wards were more frequently observed in the H-risk group (8.7%) compared to the I-risk (3.2%) and L-risk (2.8%) groups (P = 0.009). In conclusion, complications requiring ICU care rarely happened in the general wards, and were less in the I- and L-risk groups than in the H-risk group. These results validated the nARS, and might support the widespread use of nARS.

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  • Satoru Suwa, Manabu Ogita, Norihito Takahashi, Hideki Wada, Tomotaka D ...
    2020 Volume 61 Issue 3 Pages 470-475
    Published: May 30, 2020
    Released: May 30, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 29, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Cardiovascular events still occur despite statin-based lipid-lowering therapy in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). LR11, a member of the low-density lipoprotein receptor family, is a novel marker for the proliferation of intimal smooth muscle cells, which are critical to atherosclerotic plaque formation. We evaluated the impact of LR11 on long-term clinical outcomes in CAD patients treated with statins after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

    This study included 223 consecutive CAD patients (age, 64.5 ± 9.6 years; male, 81.2%) treated with statin after first PCI between March 2003 and December 2004 at our institution. Patients were stratified to two groups according to LR11 levels (median). Composite cardiovascular disease (CVD) endpoints that included cardiovascular death, non-fatal acute coronary syndrome and non-fatal stroke were compared between groups.

    The rate of CVD endpoints was significantly higher in the high LR11 group (log-rank, P = 0.0029) during the median follow-up period of 2844 days. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that a higher LR11 level was significantly associated with adverse clinical outcomes (adjusted hazard ratio for composite CVD endpoints, 2.47; 95% confidence interval, 1.29-4.92; P = 0.006).

    Elevated levels of LR11 were significantly associated with long-term clinical outcomes among CAD patients treated with statins after first PCI.

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  • A Systematic Review
    Zesheng Wu, Jinyan Fang, Yi Wang, Fanghui Chen
    2020 Volume 61 Issue 3 Pages 476-485
    Published: May 30, 2020
    Released: May 30, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 29, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Supplementary material

    The purpose of this article is to systematically evaluate the prevalence, outcomes, and risk factors of new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) in critically ill patients.

    Medline, Embase, Science Citation Index, Wanfang, CNKI, and Wiley Online Library were thoroughly searched to identify relevant studies. Studies were assessed for methodological quality using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. Odds ratio (OR) and weighted mean difference (WMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to assess the strength of the association. Heterogeneity, subgroup, sensitivity analyses, and publication bias were conducted.

    A total of 25 studies were included. The prevalence of new-onset AF ranged from 4.1% to 46%.The random-effects pooled prevalence was 10.7%. The pooled result jumped up to 35.8% in patients with septic shock. Pooled analysis showed significant associations between new-onset AF with intensive care unit (ICU) mortality and in-hospital mortality over those patients without AF (OR = 3.11; 95%CI 2.45-3.96 and OR = 1.63; 95%CI 1.27-2.08). The pooled analysis also indicated that both ICU and hospital length of stay are longer in patients with new-onset AF than those without AF (WMD = 1.87; 95%CI 0.89-2.84 and WMD = 2.73; 95%CI 0.77-4.69). Independent risk factors included increasing age, shock, sepsis, use of a pulmonary artery catheter and mechanical ventilation, fluid loading, and organ failures.

    New-onset AF incidence rate is high in critically ill patients. New-onset AF is associated with worse outcomes. Further studies should be done to explore how to prevent and treat new-onset AF in critically ill patients.

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  • Shinsuke Miyazaki, Yoshito Iesaka
    2020 Volume 61 Issue 3 Pages 486-491
    Published: May 30, 2020
    Released: May 30, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 29, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Anatomical atrial distortion during catheter mapping and ablation has not been elucidated in atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation. This study aimed to characterize the regional anatomical distortion in common ablation areas according to different contact forces (CFs) with radiofrequency and cryoballoon catheters.

    Ten patients underwent distortion mapping with low (5-10 g) and high CFs (10-30 g) at the pulmonary vein (PV) antra, left atrial (LA) roof line, mitral isthmus line, cavotricuspid isthmus line, and superior vena cava (SVC)-right atrial (RA) junction. Fifteen patients underwent distortion mapping with a 28-mm second-generation cryoballoon surrounded by a decapolar catheter at each PV antrum following creating the LA geometry. High CFs distorted the PV antra as compared to low CFs and the extent was greater at the anterior PV aspect, and the catheter was located more inside the PVs. The inflated cryballoon stretched the PV surface in the postero-superior direction in the upper PVs and posterior direction in the lower PVs. High CFs as compared to low CFs distorted the LA roof and cavotricuspid isthmus in the postero-inferior and inferior directions, respectively, but not the mitral isthmus line even with deflectable sheaths. High CFs distended the SVC-RA junction as compared to low CFs, and the extent was greatest at the lateral side and smallest at the antero-septal side.

    Human atria significantly distend during radiofrequency and cryoballoon ablation, and there are regional heterogeneities of the extent of the distortion. This information might aid operators in performing safe and effective AF ablation procedures.

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  • A SAKURA AF Registry Sub-Study
    Keiichiro Kuronuma, Yasuo Okumura, Tomoyuki Morikawa, Katsuaki Yokoyam ...
    2020 Volume 61 Issue 3 Pages 492-502
    Published: May 30, 2020
    Released: May 30, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 15, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF) often coexist. The aims of this study were to explore the factors associated with the serum levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and the association between prognosis and a history of HF or the serum NT-proBNP level in Japanese patients with AF.

    The present sub-study was based on the SAKURA AF Registry, a Japanese multicenter observational registry that included 3267 AF patients (median follow-up period: 39 months). All the patients were receiving warfarin or any of four direct oral anticoagulants. Serum NT-proBNP levels were available for 2417 patients, and the median value was 508 (interquartile range 202-1095) pg/mL at the time of enrollment. Log NT-proBNP was associated with non-paroxysmal AF, creatinine clearance > 60 mL/minute, history of HF and ischemic heart disease, antiarrhythmic drug use, anemia, being elderly female, and history of AF ablation. The relative risk of adverse clinical events, except major bleeding, was significantly higher in the highest NT-proBNP quartile as compared to the lowest quartile (adjusted hazard ratios: 2.87 for death, 2.39 for stroke), but a history of HF was associated only with a higher incidence of all-cause death.

    Concomitant HF was associated with a higher mortality, but the high NT-proBNP was associated with higher mortality and stroke events. In Japanese AF patients receiving anticoagulant treatment, high serum NT-proBNP levels predict the risk for both stroke events and deaths, and intensive follow-up is needed in such patients.

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  • A Retrospective Study Using a Novel Mapping Technique
    Mai Tahara, Ritsushi Kato, Yoshifumi Ikeda, Koji Goto, So Asano, Hitos ...
    2020 Volume 61 Issue 3 Pages 503-509
    Published: May 30, 2020
    Released: May 30, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 15, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    High-resolution mapping is useful to identify reconnection gaps in the pulmonary vein after pulmonary vein isolation for atrial fibrillation. However, it is sometimes difficult to differentiate pulmonary vein potentials from far-field potentials because of very low amplitudes. Our purpose was to evaluate the usefulness of a novel differential atrial pacing method to differentiate reconnected pulmonary vein potentials from isolated pulmonary vein potentials. This retrospective observational study included 34 patients with atrial fibrillation (22 men; mean age, 64 ± 14 years; 28 with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation) who underwent radiofrequency or cryoballoon ablation. Following pulmonary vein isolation, we created a high-resolution activation map during pacing from both the coronary sinus and left atrial appendage. We compared the characteristics of the pulmonary vein potentials and the pattern of activation between the reconnected and isolated pulmonary veins. We analyzed 131 pulmonary veins and found reconnections in 41 pulmonary veins (R group); 90 pulmonary veins had no reconnection (NR group). The R group had a significantly shorter distance between the earliest pulmonary vein activation sites in both activation maps, compared with the NR group (5.22 ± 0.53 mm versus 17.08 ± 0.36 mm, respectively; P < 0.0001). The amplitude of the pulmonary vein potentials was higher in the R group versus the NR group (0.61 ± 0.05 mV versus 0.04 ± 0.03 mV, respectively; P < 0.0001). Six gaps (14%) in the R group that were unrecognized using a conventional method were identified using our novel method. In conclusion, differential atrial pacing was useful to identify pulmonary vein reconnection gaps during ablation using a novel high-resolution mapping system.

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  • Masaya Shinohara, Ryou Wada, Shintaro Yao, Kensuke Yano, Katsuya Akits ...
    2020 Volume 61 Issue 3 Pages 510-516
    Published: May 30, 2020
    Released: May 30, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 15, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The transdermal bisoprolol patch (TB) was designed to maintain a sustained concentration of bisoprolol in plasma by a higher trough concentration than oral bisoporolol (OB). We compared the efficacy between TB and OB in patients with idiopathic premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) while considering their duration of action.

    A total of 78 patients with a PVC count of ≥ 3,000 beats/24 hours were divided into groups treated with TB 4 mg (n = 43) or OB 2.5 mg (n = 35). PVCs were divided into positive heart rate (HR) -dependent PVCs (P-PVCs) and non-positive HR-dependent PVCs (NP-PVCs) based on the relationship between the hourly PVC density and hourly mean HR. Twenty-four-hour Holter electrocardiograms were performed before and 1 to 3 months after the initiation of therapy.

    There were no significant between-group differences in the baseline characteristics. Both the TB (from 14.6 [9.9-19.2] to 7.6 [1.7-15.8]%, P < 0.001) and OB (from 13.2 [7.6-21.9] to 4.6 [0.5-17.0]%, P = 0.0041) significantly decreased the PVC density, and there was no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.73). Compared to OB, the TB had similar effects in reducing the PVC density for P-PVCs (P = 0.96), and NP-PVCs (P = 0.71). The TB significantly decreased the P-PVC density from baseline not only during day-time (P < 0.001) but also night-time (P = 0.0017), while the OB did not significantly decrease the P-PVC density from baseline during night-time (P = 0.17).

    Compared to OB, the TB could be used with the same efficacy of reducing idiopathic PVCs. The TB may be a more useful therapeutic agent than OB for P-PVCs during a 24-hour period.

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  • Ting-Yung Chang, Ya-Wen Hsiao, Shu-Mei Guo, Shih-Lin Chang, Yenn-Jiang ...
    2020 Volume 61 Issue 3 Pages 517-523
    Published: May 30, 2020
    Released: May 30, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 15, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Resistin is an adipocytokine that is abundantly secreted from lipid cells and is related to the inflammatory process and cardiometabolic diseases. This study aimed to examine the role of resistin on inflammation and its effect on the clinical outcome of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) following catheter ablation.

    A total of 108 patients (56.9 ± 12.0 years, 76.8% male) with symptomatic and drug-refractory AF undergoing catheter ablation were enrolled. Inflammatory biomarkers and epicardial fat volume by contrast computed tomography (CT) images were assessed in all patients before the procedure. Baseline resistin correlated with epicardial fat volume, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and left atrial (LA) scar area. After the index procedure, the univariate analysis revealed that hypertension, persistent AF, LA diameter, and plasma resistin level were related to recurrent atrial arrhythmia. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that persistent AF, LA diameter, and plasma resistin level all independently predicted recurrent atrial arrhythmia after ablation. Plasma resistin with a level higher than 777 (pg/mL) could predict recurrence following catheter ablation of AF.

    High plasma resistin level is associated with poor left atrial substrate, high epicardial fat volume, and elevated TNF-α level in patients with AF. Plasma resistin may predict the recurrence of atrial arrhythmia after ablation.

    Editor’s picks

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  • Shixiong Wei, Huimin Cui, Shaowei Zhang, Anling Zhang, Yuhai Zhang, Sh ...
    2020 Volume 61 Issue 3 Pages 524-530
    Published: May 30, 2020
    Released: May 30, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 29, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Infectious endocarditis (IE) is a rare disease with high mortality rate. Recently, red cell distribution width (RDW) has drawn special attention for predicting cardiovascular disease. This study aims to explore the relationship between RDW value and postoperative death of IE patients.

    Clinical records of patients with definite IE from Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital department of cardiovascular surgery were collected and analyzed. Clinical, echocardiographic, and biochemical variables were evaluated along with RDW.

    Results: A total of 158 consecutive IE patients (mean age 47.0 ± 16.3 years, male 61.4%) were enrolled in this study. According to receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, the optimal RDW cutoff value for predicting mortality was 15.45% (area under the curve 0.913, P < 0.001). A total of 28 patients (17.8%) died postoperatively; of these, 89.3% had RDW value >15.45%. Binary regression analysis showed that aging, multiple valvular involved, valvular vegetation formation, pulmonary hypertension, and high RDW are strong predictors of postoperative death. Multiple regression analysis revealed that high RDW value was independent predictors of postoperative mortality in patients with IE (β: 3.704, 95% confidence interval (95%CI): 2.729-604.692, P < 0.05).

    IE has a high inhospital mortality rate, and increased RDW is an independent predictor of postoperative death in these patients.

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  • Yuki Saito, Yoshihiro Aizawa, Kiyoshi Iida, Naoya Matsumoto, Akira Sez ...
    2020 Volume 61 Issue 3 Pages 531-538
    Published: May 30, 2020
    Released: May 30, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 15, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Risk stratification of patients with infective endocarditis (IE) is difficult. The Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT) score is an index of immune function and nutritional status. We investigated the prognostic value of the CONUT score in IE and whether its prognostic value differed between IE patients with and without indications for surgery.

    Clinical records were retrospectively evaluated for 92 patients with IE treated at Nihon University Itabashi Hospital and Nihon University Hospital between January 2014 and May 2019. The CONUT score was determined upon admission, and patients were divided into two groups at the median score (≤ 7 [n = 50] and ≥ 8 [n = 42]). The primary outcome was all-cause mortality at 90 days after admission.

    The high CONUT group had significantly higher C-reactive protein and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels, as well as a significantly lower hemoglobin and estimated glomerular filtration rate (all P < 0.05), and considerably more valve perforation (26% versus 8%, P < 0.05). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that mortality was significantly higher in the high CONUT group (P < 0.001). Even after adjusting for the propensity score based on IE risk factors, a higher CONUT score was still associated with mortality. A receiver-operating characteristic analysis revealed that a CONUT score ≥ 8 had a sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 76% for predicting all-cause mortality. A CONUT score ≥ 8 was most strongly associated with mortality in patients with surgical indications (P < 0.001).

    In patients with IE, a higher CONUT score was significantly associated with inflammation, heart failure, renal dysfunction, anemia, valve dysfunction, and short-term mortality, especially in patients with surgical indications.

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  • Anne-Sophie Sillesen, Niels Thue Olsen, Thomas Fritz-Hansen, Peter God ...
    2020 Volume 61 Issue 3 Pages 539-546
    Published: May 30, 2020
    Released: May 30, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 29, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    In studies on left-sided valve disease, patients with combined lesions are generally excluded. We aimed to describe the clinical management and prognosis of patients with combined left-sided valve disease.

    From a single, tertiary care center, a total of 122 patients with combined left-sided valve disease of at least moderate severity were identified and compared with 143 controls with single-lesion valve disease (1VaD) of at least moderate severity. Endpoints were all-cause mortality and the combination of valve intervention and mortality.

    Overall survival for patients with two-lesion valve disease was significantly lower than that for patients with 1VaD (estimated 3-year survival: 52% versus 73%, P < 0.001). Compared with 1VaD, the combination of aortic stenosis and aortic regurgitation (AS/AR) was associated with a similar overall survival (hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval (CI) ): 0.83 (0.47-1.48), P = 0.53), the combination of AR and mitral regurgitation (AR/MR) with an intermediate survival (HR (95% CI): 1.76 (1.03-3.00), P = 0.039) and the combination of AS and MR (AS/MR) with the poorest survival (HR (95% CI): 3.28 (2.16-4.98), P < 0.001). At 2.2 years of follow-up, the majority of patients in all three groups were either dead or had received valve intervention (AS/AR: 72%, AR/MR: 64%, and AS/MR: 80%).

    Combined valve disease was relatively rare but was associated with a decreased overall survival. Survival depended on the specific combination of valve lesions, with AS/MR carrying the worst prognosis. The majority of patients in all groups were either dead or had valve intervention performed within 2.2 years.

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  • Pamela S. Combs, Teruhiko Imamura, Umar Siddiqi, Saeid Mirzai, Robert ...
    2020 Volume 61 Issue 3 Pages 547-552
    Published: May 30, 2020
    Released: May 30, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 29, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The use of opioids during left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support is increasing, but the implication remains unknown. We investigated the association between the use of opioid and morbidities during LVAD supports. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of patients who received LVAD between 2014 and 2017, which were stratified by the use of opioid at post-LVAD 3 months. Among 136 patients, 77 (57%) were in the opioid group. Hemoglobin and albumin were lower, and C-reactive protein was higher at baseline and 3 months later in the opioid group (P < 0.05 for all). The opioid group displayed worse hemodynamics, with higher pulmonary capillary wedge pressure and central venous pressure (P < 0.05 for both). Furthermore, the opioid group had higher incidences of gastrointestinal bleeding (31% versus 17%, P = 0.043) and sepsis (30% versus 13%, P = 0.036) during the 1 year observational period, whereas survivals were not stratified by the use of opioid (83% versus 90%, P = 0.27). Opioid use was associated with morbidities accompanied by poor hemodynamics during LVAD supports. The detailed causality of opioid use on morbidities remains a future concern.

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  • A PRISMA-Compliant Meta-Analysis
    Peng-Fei Liu, Bing Ding, Jun-Yi Zhang, Xiao-Fei Mei, Fei Li, Peng Wu, ...
    2020 Volume 61 Issue 3 Pages 553-561
    Published: May 30, 2020
    Released: May 30, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 15, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Supplementary material

    Many published studies have evaluated the association between the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T (rs1801133) polymorphism and the risk of congenital heart disease (CHD); however, the specific conclusion is still controversial.

    To get a more accurate conclusion, we used a meta-analysis to evaluate the association between the MTHFR gene C677T polymorphism and the risk of CHD.

    Based on the design-based search strategy, a comprehensive literature search was conducted on PubMed, OVID, Cochrane Library, Embase, Wanfang, CNKI, and Web of Science. We selected the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) to assess the quality of the included studies. We performed a heterogeneity test on the results of the study and calculated the combined odds ratios (ORs) and its corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) under a random- or fixed-effect model. Subgroup analyses were conducted by ethnicity, source of controls, sample size, and genotyping method. Sensitivity analysis was used to insure authenticity of this meta-analysis result. Egger's test and Begg's funnel plot were performed to detect publication bias.

    Eventually, our meta-analysis included 15 eligible studies. We observed a significant correlation between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and the development of CHD in the recessive model (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.06-1.71, P = 0.006) for the overall population. In subgroups stratified by ethnicity and source of controls, subgroup analyses indicated similar associations in Asians and hospital-based groups, but not for Caucasians and population-based groups. Egger's test and Begg's funnel plot demonstrated no significant publication bias in our study.

    Our analysis identified that MTHFR C677T allele is a risk genetic for CHD development, especially in Asians compared with Caucasians.

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  • Xiao-Fei Mei, Sheng-Da Hu, Peng-Fei Liu, Fei Li, Xian-Yong Zhou, Ya-Fe ...
    2020 Volume 61 Issue 3 Pages 562-570
    Published: May 30, 2020
    Released: May 30, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 29, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) rs671 G>A polymorphism can influence the activity of ALDH2 and may be associated with the risk of essential hypertension (EH). Although many previous studies have explored such a relationship, the conclusion is still controversial.

    The PubMed, Embase, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were searched on the ALDH2 gene and EH. We used the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale to evaluate the quality of the study. Then we calculated the strength of relationship between ALDH2 rs671 mutation and EH by utilizing odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Besides, subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis were performed and the publication bias was assessed.

    There were 12 studies containing 8153 cases and 10,162 controls. Our meta-analysis showed significant association between ALDH2 rs671 polymorphism and EH in four genetic models (the allele model, the homozygote model, the heterozygote model, and the dominant model), whereas it did not indicate this connection in the recessive model. However, a trend of decreased risk still could be seen. Furthermore, we also found an obvious association between rs671 mutation and the risk of EH in the male group than in the female group in all five genetic models.

    We concluded that ALDH2 rs671 G>A polymorphism may decrease the risk of EH. Furthermore, susceptibility to EH reduced in males but not in females. As a variant in ALDH2, rs671 G>A could be an attractive candidate for genetic therapy of EH. In addition, more case-control studies should be conducted to strengthen our conclusion and evaluate the gene-gene and gene-environment interactions between the ALDH2 gene and EH.

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  • Keita Aida, Kentaro Kamiya, Nobuaki Hamazaki, Ryota Matsuzawa, Kohei N ...
    2020 Volume 61 Issue 3 Pages 571-578
    Published: May 30, 2020
    Released: May 30, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 15, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The simplified frailty scale is a simple frailty assessment tool modified from Fried's phenotypic frailty criteria, which is easy to administer in hospitalized patients. The applicability of the simplified frailty scale to indicate prognosis in elderly hospitalized patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) was examined.

    This cohort study was performed in 895 admitted patients ≥ 65 years (interquartile range, 71.0-81.0, 541 men) with CVD. Patients were classified as robust, prefrail, or frail based on the five components of the simplified frailty scale: weakness, slowness, exhaustion, low activity, and weight loss. The primary endpoint was the composite outcome of all-cause mortality and unplanned readmission for CVD.

    Patients positive for greater numbers of frailty components showed higher risk of all-cause mortality or unplanned CVD-related readmission (P for trend < 0.001). Classification as both frail (adjusted HR: 3.27, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.49-7.21, P = 0.003) and prefrail (adjusted HR: 2.19, 95% CI: 1.00-4.79, P = 0.049) independently predicted the composite endpoint compared with robust after adjusting for potential confounding factors. The inclusion of prefrail, frail, and number of components of frailty increased both continuous net reclassification improvement (0.113, P = 0.049; 0.426, P < 0.001; and 0.321, P < 0.001) and integrated discrimination improvement (0.007, P = 0.037; 0.009, P = 0.038; and 0.018, P = 0.002) for the composite endpoint.

    Higher scores on the simplified frailty scale were associated with increased risk of mortality or readmission in elderly patients hospitalized for CVD.

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  • Age and Gender Dependency
    Miho Kuramoto, Masami Aizawa, Yuki Kuramoto, Masaaki Okabe, Yasushi Sa ...
    2020 Volume 61 Issue 3 Pages 579-584
    Published: May 30, 2020
    Released: May 30, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 15, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) is used for the evaluation of out-of-office blood pressure (BP), however, knowledge concerning the detailed behavior of nocturnal blood pressure (BP) and pulse rate (PR) is limited.

    A total of 190 participants (64 ± 15 years, 46.3% males) underwent ABPM for diagnosis of hypertension or evaluation of hypertensive therapy. BP and PR were measured automatically by the oscillometric method. From the hourly average ABPM values, the nocturnal time courses (0 AM to 6 AM) of SBP and PR were determined and compared to each other.

    In general, SBP fell to the lowest level at around midnight and started to increase progressively towards dawn while PR stayed unchanged until 7 AM. Age and gender affected the time course of SBP, most distinctly in the female patients aged ≥ 60 years. The time course of the increase of SBP was very similar in the patients, with BP dipping and non-dipping. The cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) slightly and renal dysfunction modestly facilitated the increase of nocturnal SBP. The nocturnal increase in SBP was not accompanied by an increase of PR in any group or subgroup. The pathophysiology and clinical significance of the early and exclusive increase in nocturnal BP need to be investigated.

    Average ABPM values in these hypertensive patients showed that BP starts to increase toward dawn without an increase in PR and that this discrepant behavior between BP and RP was most distinct in females 60 or older. The mechanism and clinical significance of such a discordant variation in BP and PR need to be elucidated.

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Experimental Studies
  • Linping Li, Yuanxia Shao, Hongjian Zheng, Heng Niu
    2020 Volume 61 Issue 3 Pages 585-594
    Published: May 30, 2020
    Released: May 30, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 15, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is one of the world's leading causes of human death. Kaempferol (Kae) was proved to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer effects. Such properties suggested that it might play protective roles in IHD. In this study, we have attempted to disclose the potential regulating mechanisms of Kae in primary cardiomyocytes and H9c2 cells.

    Cells were first stimulated by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and then exposed to Kae. CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry were used to examine cell characteristics. Quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction was utilized to test the expression levels of miR-15b and TLR4. Afterward, cell transfection, dual-luciferase activity assay, and western blot were used to explore the potential mechanisms.

    OGD treatment suppressed cell viability, whereas it enhanced cell apoptosis. Besides, OGD treatment enhanced the expression of apoptosis-associated proteins. Kae exposure, however, attenuated the effects that OGD-induced. Further experiments showed that Kae exposure promoted down-regulation of miR-15b, Bcl-2 and TLR4 were a target of miR-15b. Moreover, Kae enhanced the expression of key factors involved in PI3K/AKT and Wnt/β-catenin pathways, whereas miR-15b mimic reversed the Kae-triggered effects.

    This investigation revealed that Kae diminished OGD-triggered cell damage through down-regulating miR-15b expression via activating PI3K/AKT and Wnt3a/β-catenin pathways.

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  • Jiali Wu, Xiangdong Liu, Maohua Wang, Xiaobin Wang, De Luo, Song Su
    2020 Volume 61 Issue 3 Pages 595-600
    Published: May 30, 2020
    Released: May 30, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 15, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Cold ischemic injury in heart storage is an important issue pertaining to heart transplantation. This study aims to evaluate the addition of compound glycyrrhizin (CG) in histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK) solution on chronic isograft injury in comparison to traditional HTK solution.

    Hearts of mouse were stored for 8 h in 4°C cold preservation solution and then transplanted heterotopically into mouse. Five groups were evaluated: HTK, low dose of CG solution (LCG), medium dose of CG solution (MCG), high dose of CG solution (HCG), and hearts without cold ischemia (sham). Survival was assessed. Time to restoration of heartbeat and strength of the heartbeat was measured. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) levels in the preservation solution were determined. The myocardial damage and interstitial fibrosis of transplanted hearts were evaluated. TGF-β1 expression in the transplanted hearts was assessed.

    Addition of CG to HTK solution significantly attenuated cold ischemic injury during cold storage, as evidenced by the lower time to restoration of heartbeat, higher strength of the heartbeat, lower LDH, and CK leakage. After transplantation, hearts stored in HTK solution containing CG had decreased the myocardial damage and interstitial fibrosis, compared with those stored without CG. The percentage of TGF-β1-positive cells and TGF-β1 level in the transplanted hearts were also decreased when stored in CG-containing HTK solution.

    The addition of CG to HTK solution attenuates cold ischemic injury during cold storage.

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Case Reports
  • A Case Report and Review of the Literature
    Tingting Chen, Jing Li, Qing Xu, Xiaoyu Li, Qianzhou Lv, Hongyi Wu
    2020 Volume 61 Issue 3 Pages 601-605
    Published: May 30, 2020
    Released: May 30, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 29, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Giant coronary artery aneurysm (CAA) is a rare disorder, defined as coronary artery dilatation, in which the diameter of the coronary artery exceeds more than 1.5 times of its normal size. The most common cause of CAA is coronary atherosclerosis for adults and Kawasaki disease (KD) for children and adolescents (especially for the giant CAA that occurred in adolescence). CAA complications include thrombus, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), vasospasm, rupture, ischemia, heart failure, and arrhythmia. So, antithrombotic therapy is crucial for patients with giant CAA.

    Although giant CAA has been reported in some cases before, few of these cases described antithrombotic therapy particularly, let alone informed direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) use in these patients. Here, we report a case of a young patient with acute coronary artery disease caused by huge CAA. Rivaroxaban combined with clopidogrel was used for his antithrombotic therapy. Moreover, we reviewed the existing reports to provide an overview of antithrombotic treatment in patients with giant CAA.

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  • Riku Arai, Daisuke Fukamachi, Naotaka Akutsu, Masashi Tanaka, Yasuo Ok ...
    2020 Volume 61 Issue 3 Pages 606-610
    Published: May 30, 2020
    Released: May 30, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 15, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    A 76-year-old man suffering from chest pain was admitted to our hospital with a suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Emergent coronary angiography revealed a totally occluded proximal left circumflex artery (LCX). During primary percutaneous coronary intervention, his blood pressure suddenly fell within seconds, and he developed pulseless electrical activity (PEA). Surprisingly, the 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) findings including the heart rate remained unchanged before and after the PEA, but a heart rate reduction and asystole occurred a few minutes after developing PEA. After tracheal intubation and mechanical assistance by venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO), the sudden onset of PEA appeared to be caused by cardiac tamponade due to a blowout-type left ventricular free wall rupture (BO-LVFWR) diagnosed by transthoracic echocardiography. While pericardiocentesis was performed and the drained blood was directly continuously perfused intravenously to keep the VA-ECMO flow, the patient was moved to the operation room. The surgical findings revealed a solitary BO-LVFWR due to a lateral AMI, and a direct closure was performed. Successful perioperative management, oral medication administration, and rehabilitation lead to the patient being transferred to a rehabilitation hospital without any serious cerebral damage. This case report suggested the detailed onset pattern of a BO-LVFWR followed by a rapid diagnosis by echocardiography and lifesaving treatment.

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  • Toshiko Nakai, Yukitoshi Ikeya, Naotoshi Tsuchiya, Hiroaki Mano, Sayak ...
    2020 Volume 61 Issue 3 Pages 611-615
    Published: May 30, 2020
    Released: May 30, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 15, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Rate-responsive pacing is known to improve quality of life (QOL) in patients with sick sinus syndrome and chronotropic incompetence. However, the sensors for rate response include accelerometers, closed-loop stimulation (CLS), and minute ventilation sensors (MV sensors), each of which has a different mode of action. For this reason, it is important to select appropriate sensors that match the daily habits and behavioral patterns of the patient. For example, young and active patients are expected to have a rate increase when an accelerometer is used, while elderly patients and patients with a physical disability who are only able to move slowly often have a poor response to the accelerometer. MV sensors are therefore better suited to these patients. Furthermore, CLS is considered effective for patients who require an increase in heart rate when at rest, for example, patients undergoing maintenance dialysis.

    We describe a representative case, demonstrating the effectiveness of closed-loop stimulation in a patient with hypotension during dialysis.

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  • Makiko Nakamura, Teruhiko Imamura, Hiroyuki Kuwahara, Masaki Nakagaito ...
    2020 Volume 61 Issue 3 Pages 616-619
    Published: May 30, 2020
    Released: May 30, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 15, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    We experienced a 33-year-old patient with D-looped transposition of the great arteries (D-TGA) and a history of Senning operation who was referred to our institute with cardiogenic shock and subsequently underwent urgent paracorporeal ventricular assist device (VAD) implantation, which was a first in Japan, that was eventually converted to a durable VAD. Central venous pressure was maintained relatively high to obtain VAD filling and recover end-organ dysfunction, given the migration of the inflow cannula due to rich trabeculae carneae of the anatomical right ventricle (systemic ventricle in this case).

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  • Kensuke Oka, Mitsuru Seki, Koichi Kataoka, Tomoyuki Sato, Yasushi Imai ...
    2020 Volume 61 Issue 3 Pages 620-623
    Published: May 30, 2020
    Released: May 30, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 15, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    In Ebstein's anomaly, percutaneous atrial septal defect (ASD) closure for the treatment of hypoxemia due to a right-to-left interatrial shunt remains controversial. We report the case of a 40-year-old woman with Ebstein's anomaly who developed cyanosis and shortness of breath on exercise. Her symptoms improved after percutaneous ASD closure and her clinical course has been good during follow-up. The balloon ASD occlusion test, combined with dobutamine stimulation before the procedure, is useful to confirm treatment indication. A prior electrophysiological evaluation is also important because Ebstein's anomaly is often complicated by atrioventricular recurrent tachycardia.

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  • Sachiko Yoshikawa, Tetsuya Hara, Masataka Suzuki, Miyu Fujioka, Yu Tan ...
    2020 Volume 61 Issue 3 Pages 624-628
    Published: May 30, 2020
    Released: May 30, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 29, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Pulmonary tumor thrombotic microangiopathy (PTTM) is a rare malignancy-related respiratory complication, showing rapid progression of respiratory dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension (PH). Accumulating evidence suggests that imatinib, a platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor, might be effective and improve severe PH in patients with PTTM associated with gastric cancer. However, its efficacy in PTTM with breast cancer is generally believed as very limited. We experienced a rare case of PTTM associated with metastatic breast cancer, a rare case who were treated with imatinib, exhibiting significant improvement of respiratory dysfunction and PH.

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