Although improved long-term outcomes obtained with the use of arterial grafts for coronary revascularization in comparison with the traditional association of a single arterial and saphenous vein grafts have been demonstrated in the overall population, the efficacy of this newer technique in the elderly is difficult to prove because their shorter life expectancy due to advanced heart disease, associated with severe comorbidities. Moreover, more widespread use of this technique is limited by the concerns on the potential morbidity, particularly the longer time required to perform the operation and the possibility of deep sternal wound infection in case of bilateral internal thoracic artery harvesting due to the decreased blood supply to the sternum and surrounding tissues.
The review of the recent literature indicates that the use of bilateral internal thoracic arteries in very elderly patients should not be considered routinely. It seems reasonable to avoid it in octogenarians in the presence of well-known predictors of sternal complications such as diabetes, morbid obesity, and severe chronic lung disease.
There is also still controversy about the superiority of the radial artery over the saphenous vein graft as a second or third conduit for surgical myocardial revascularization, although the majority of recent studies seem to support more liberal use of the radial artery as second arterial conduit in the elderly. Although a clinical benefit of arterial graft revascularization cannot be formally excluded for elderly patients, the increased complexity of this technique suggests that careful clinical judgment is necessary to select grafts for individual patients.
The cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPX) is an essential examination for detecting pathophysiological derangement and determining treatment policy because it clarifies not only the changes of hemodynamics but also abnormality in the whole body during exercise where heart disease patients often feel symptoms.
To utilize CPX effectively, we must understand each parameter, such as peak oxygen uptake (peak VO2), peak VO2/HR, and VE/VCO2. In addition, comparison of each parameter, for example, peak VO2 and VE/VCO2, and peak VO2 and peak VO2/HR, is useful to detect the pathophysiological abnormalities.
In this article, I will describe how CPX should be used in clinical settings.
The risk of cardiovascular disease increases with age, causing chronic disability, morbidity, and mortality in the elderly. Cardiovascular aging and disease are characterized by heart failure, cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury, cardiomyopathy, hypertension, arterial stiffness, and atherosclerosis. As a cell ages, damaged organelles and abnormal proteins accumulate. A system for removing these cytoplasmic substrates is essential for maintaining homeostasis. Autophagy assists tissue homeostasis by forming a pathway by which these substances are degraded. Growing evidence suggests that autophagy plays a role in age-related and disease states of the cardiovascular system, and it may even be effective in preventing or treating cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, overexpression of autophagy in the heart and arteries can produce detrimental effects. We summarize the current understanding of the close relationship between autophagy and cardiovascular senescence.
This study aimed to evaluate the clinical prognostic implications of postprocedural Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow in acute myocardial infarction patients. A total of 2796 ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and 1720 non ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) patients treated in 8 hospitals affiliated with the Catholic University of Korea and Chonnam National University Hospital were analyzed. The study populations were divided according to the final TIMI flow. The primary outcome were the major adverse cardiac events (MACE), defined as a composite of cardiac deaths (CD), nonfatal myocardial infarctions (MI), and target lesion revascularization (TLR). Over a median follow-up of 3.3 years (minimum 2 to maximum 5 years), MACE and CD occurred more frequently in STEMI patients with TIMI ≤ 2 group than those with TIMI 3 (MACE: adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.962; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.513 to 2.546, P < 0.001, CD: aHR, 3.154, CI 2.308 to 4.309, P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference between the two subgroups in NSTEMI (aHR, 0.932; 95% CI 0.586 to 1.484, P = 0.087). In STEMI patients, good postprocedural TIMI flow after PCI was associated with favorable clinical outcomes. And the effect of poor TIMI flow in STEMI was on death, not the components of MACE. Meanwhile, postprocedural TIMI flow had no effect on long-term outcomes in NSTEMI patients.
This study tested the therapeutic impact of double-loading dose (i.e., 600 mg) versus standard-loading dose (i.e., 300 mg) of clopidogrel on ST-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction (STEMI) patients undergoing primary-coronary-intervention (PCI).
Between January 2005 and December 2013, a total of 1461 STEMI patients undergoing PCI were consecutively enrolled into the study and categorized into group 1 (600 mg/clopidogrel; n = 508) and group 2 (300 mg/clopidogrel; n = 953). We assessed angiographic thrombolysis-in-myocardial-infarction (TIMI) flow in the infarct-related-artery, 30-day mortality and upper-gastrointestinal-bleeding (UGIB) within 30 days as primary-endpoints and later incidents of UGIB as secondary-endpoints.
The results showed that the incidences of advanced Killip score (defined as ≥ score 3) upon presentation (23.8% versus 24.6%) and advanced heart failure (defined as ≥ NYHAFc-3) (10.2% versus 10.4%) did not differ between groups 1 and 2 (all P > 0.4). Primary-endpoints, which were final TIM-3 flow (91.3% versus 91.7%) in the infarct-related-artery, incidences of 30-day mortality (5.8% vs. 7.1%), and UGIB ≤ 30 day (7.8% versus 8.9%) did not differ between group 1 and group 2 (all P > 0.33). The secondary-endpoints which were incidences of ≥ 30-day < one-year (5.2% versus 4.7) and > one-year (8.9% versus 10.1%) UGIB did not differ between groups 1 and 2 (all P > 0.45). One-year mortality did not differ between two groups (10.74% versus 12.9%) (P > 0.25). Multiple-stepwise-logistic-regression analysis showed that age and advanced-Killip score were independently predictive of 30-day mortality (all P < 0.001).
Double-loading dose of clopidogrel did not confer an additional benefit to the final angiograph results, 30-day/one-year clinical outcomes; and age and advanced Killip-score were powerful predictors of 30-day mortality.
Previous studies reporting that statin increases coronary artery calcium (CAC) were conducted exclusively on patients with statin as a prevention, regardless of the presence or absence of dyslipidemia. The impact of sex on CAC has not been fully evaluated. We aimed to determine the association of dyslipidemia and sex with CAC using 320-row multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT).
Of the 356 consecutive patients who underwent coronary MDCT, 251 patients were enrolled, after excluding those with prior stenting and/or coronary bypass grafting or images showing motion artifacts. The primary outcome measures were the percent calcium volume (PCV) and percent atheroma volume (PAV) per coronary vessel.
Multivariable analyses indicated that PCV was significantly higher in dyslipidemia patients without statins than in the subjects without dyslipidemia [partial regression coefficient (PRC): 2.59, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.83 to 4.34, P = 0.004]. In contrast, PCV was similar in dyslipidemia patients taking statins and those without dyslipidemia (PRC: -1.09, 95% CI: -2.82 to 0.65, P = 0.22). There was no significant difference in PCV between men and women, although women exhibited a significantly lower PAV (PRC: -2.87, 95% CI: -4.54 to -1.20, P = 0.001).
In low-risk patients, these results could be translated into hypotheses, which should be tested in future prospective studies. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in CAC between men and women, but women had lower PAV than men.
There is limited long-term comparative clinical outcome data concerning angiography- versus intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-guided percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in non-complex left main coronary artery (LMCA) disease treated with the single stenting technique in the drug-eluting stent (DES) era.
The aim of this study was to investigate whether angiography-guided stenting is comparable to IVUS-guided stenting during 3-year clinical follow-up periods in patients with non-complex LM disease treated with the single stenting technique.
A total of 196 patients treated with either angiography-guided (n = 74) or IVUS-guided (n = 122) PCI were included. The primary outcome was the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) defined as total death, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), target lesion revascularization (TLR), target vessel revascularization (TVR), and non-target vessel revascularization (Non-TVR). To adjust for any potential confounders, propensity score (PS) adjusted analysis was performed.
During 3-year follow-up, the PS adjusted Cox-proportional hazard ratio (HR) was not significantly different between the two groups for total death, cardiac death, and MI. Also, TLR and the combined rates of TVR and non-TVR were not significantly different. Finally, MACE was not significantly different between the two groups (HR: 0.63, 95% Confidence interval (CI): 0.33-1.17; P = 0.149).
Angiography-guided PCI for non-complex LMCA diseases treated with the single stenting technique showed comparable results compared with IVUS-guided PCI in reducing clinical events during 3-year clinical follow-up in the DES era. Although IVUS guided PCI is the ideal strategy, angiography-guided PCI can be an option for LMCA PCI in some selected cases.
Up to 40% of healthy children have premature ventricular complexes or contractions (PVCs) detected with 24-hour Holter monitoring. We aimed to investigate the morphological characteristics and origins of idiopathic PVCs under a 12-lead electrocardiogram in children with structurally normal hearts. All asymptomatic monomorphic PVC patients with structurally normal hearts under 18 years of age were included in this retrospective study. Characteristics of PVCs in lead V1 under a 12-lead electrocardiogram were classified as left bundle branch block (PVC-LBBB) or right bundle branch block (PVC-RBBB). According to limb leads, PVC-LBBB or PVC-RBBB was divided into: PVCs-LBBB type I; PVCs-LBBB type II; PVCs-RBBB type I; PVCs-RBBB type II; and PVCs-RBBB type III. Out of 178 PVC patients, 94 cases of PVCs-LBBB (PVCs-LBBB type I = 60; PVCs-LBBB type II = 34) and 84 cases of PVCs-RBBB (PVCs-RBBB type I = 3; PVCs-RBBB type II = 55; PVCs-RBBB type III = 26) were identified. The frequency of PVCs-LBBB type I increased with age and the frequency of PVCs-RBBB type II and III decreased with age. Among the children monitor tested, from 1 years old to 18 years old, PVCs originating from the left or right ventricular outflow tract gradually increased with age, while PVCs originating from the branch sources decreased with age.
The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have antiarrhythmic effects, possibly via modulation of the cardiac ion channels. Nevertheless, it is unknown whether low serum levels of n-3 PUFAs are risk factors for ventricular fibrillation in patients with Brugada syndrome (BrS). We retrospectively reviewed data from 62 men with BrS and evaluated their serum levels of EPA and DHA, and the risk factors for sudden cardiac death, including a history of cardiogenic syncope. Nineteen patients had a history of cardiogenic syncope, and their EPA and DHA levels were significantly lower than those of the patients without syncope. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that low EPA and DHA levels were associated with the incidence of syncope. The receiver-operator characteristic curve showed the area under the curves of EPA and DHA for history of syncope were 0.84 and 0.72, respectively. In conclusion, low levels of EPA and DHA are risk factors for cardiogenic syncope in patients with BrS, which suggests that n-3 PUFAs play important roles in preventing ventricular fibrillation in BrS.
Although right ventricular (RV) pacing is the only effective treatment for patients with symptomatic bradycardia, it creates left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony, which can induce LV dysfunction and heart failure. The current criterion for consideration of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is LV ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 35%, but indication for CRT in patients required for RV pacing with LVEF > 35% remains unclear.
We studied 40 patients, all LVEF ≥ 35%, who had undergone implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantation with RV pacing < 5%. Echocardiography was performed at baseline and during RV pacing. LV dyssynchrony was defined as anteroseptal-to-posterior wall delay from the mid-LV short-axis view using two-dimensional speckle-tracking radial strain (significant: ≥ 130 ms). Patients were divided into two groups based on baseline LVEF: normal LVEF ( ≥ 50%; n = 20) and mildly reduced LVEF (35-50%; n = 20).
LVEF and LV dyssynchrony in patients with mildly reduced LVEF deteriorated significantly during RV pacing compared to those in patients with normal LVEF. Moreover, changes in LV dyssynchrony during RV pacing significantly correlated with changes in LVEF (r = -0.44, P < 0.01). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that baseline LVEF was the only independent predictor and baseline LVEF < 48% predictive of significant LV dyssynchrony during RV pacing.
The extent of RV pacing-induced LV dysfunction may be associated with baseline LV function. These adverse effects on patients with mildly reduced LVEF of 35-50% and indications for RV pacing due to bradycardia can thus be prevented by CRT.
In congenital heart disease (CHD), the presence of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is associated with a poor prognosis. In this study, we aim to investigate the role of pulmonary artery compliance (Cp) in predicting the mortality of PAH associated with adult congenital heart disease (APAH-CHD). One-hundred and seventy-five patients of APAH-CHD who underwent a comprehensive clinical evaluation were included in this study. All patients were followed up in a 6-month interval and the primary end point was all cause of death. The duration of mean follow-up was 67±26 months, of which there were twenty-three death. Cp had an inverse correlation with pulmonary artery resistance (PVR), regardless of the clinical phenotype (Eisenmenger syndrome, PAH with small defect and PAH after defect correction). Patients in the lowest Cp group (Cp ≤ 0.84 mL/mmHg) had advanced WHO function class, worse exercise tolerance, liver function, and status of oxygen saturation. In univariate cox regression analysis, Cp (HR = 1.359, P < 0.001), PVR (HR = 0.972, P = 0.001), pulmonary blood flow (HR = 1.092, P = 0.001), heart rate (HR = 1.038, P = 0.028) and 6-minute walking distance (HR = 1.003, P = 0.037) were predictors of survival. After adjustment by bivariate analysis, Cp was the independent predictor. Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that patients with Cp < 1.04 mL/mmHg had worse prognosis. In conclusion, Cp possibly reflects disease severity and decreased Cp was associated with poor prognosis in patients with APAH-CHD.
To evaluate the impact of presurgical mild acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) on surgical mortality in patients undergoing surgical repair of acute type A aortic dissection by means of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) in a single-center, retrospective study.
From January 2011 to December 2015, 333 eligible patients were divided into either a mild-ARDS group (n = 136) or a no-ARDS group (n = 197). The definition of mild ARDS referred to the recent revision of ARDS definition (Berlin criteria). The surgical mortality and major postoperative morbidity were investigated and analyzed.
A total of 136 patients developed presurgical mild ARDS, with an incidence of 40.8%. No significant difference emerged between the 2 groups in major postoperative morbidity except for pulmonary complications. Multivariate logistic regression displayed that the risk of postoperative pulmonary complications in patients with presurgical mild ARDS was 4.25 times that in patients without presurgical ARDS (OR = 4.25, 95% CI 2.05-7.72). Twenty-four patients died after surgery, with significantly higher surgical mortality in the mild-ARDS group compared with the no-ARDS group (12.5% versus 3.6%, P = 0.002). Kaplan-Meier curves showed a poor surgical survival in the mild-ARDS group (χ2=12.958, Log-Rank P < 0.001). And Cox regression revealed the hazard ratio for surgical mortality in the mild-ARDS group compared with the no-ARDS group was 2.52 (95%CI 1.41-5.32, P = 0.016).
Presurgical mild ARDS increased postoperative respiratory morbidity, and then increased surgical mortality after surgical repair of acute type A aortic dissection by means of DHCA
Participation in a comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation (CR) program has been shown to reduce mortality and improve exercise capacity and symptoms in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Reduced exercise capacity leads to a concomitant reduction of skeletal muscle mass and accumulation of body fat. However, it is currently unknown whether CR reduces visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and/or subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT) in patients with CHF. In addition, the body composition associated with improved exercise capacity after CR in patients with CHF has not been previously studied. Nineteen CHF patients who were categorized as NYHA functional class II or III and had received optimal medical treatment including a CR program for 5 months were enrolled in this study. The CR program significantly increased peak VO2 and reduced B-type natriuretic peptide. In addition, fat and body composition analysis showed reductions in the visceral fat tissue (VAT) area, subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT) area, body weight, and total fat weight after CR. There were no changes in total water weight and total muscle weight. Single regression analysis revealed that the amelioration of reduced exercise capacity seen after CR is associated with reduced VAT area but not with SAT area or body weight. In conclusion, CR reduces VAT and improves exercise capacity in patients with CHF. This suggests that reducing VAT is important for CR to be most effective in the treatment of CHF.
The authors assessed the effects of switching from a conventional angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) to azilsartan on blood pressure (BP) and health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) in patients with uncontrolled hypertension. Key eligibility criteria were uncontrolled hypertension treated for ≥ 1 month with an ARB, excluding azilsartan, that did not reach the target BP. We recruited 147 patients (64 males and 83 females; mean ± standard deviation age 73 ± 15 years). Azilsartan reduced both systolic and diastolic BP significantly, from 151 ± 16/82 ± 12 to 134 ± 17/73 ± 12 mm Hg, 3 months after switching. Although scores on the comprehensive QOL scale, the EuroQoL 5 dimensions (EQ5D), and the simplified menopausal index (SMI) did not change, the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) score improved significantly, and there was a significant association between the change in the GDS score and systolic BP lowering (r = 0.2554, P = 0.030). The Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) improved significantly only in the female subgroup. Besides sufficient BP lowering activity, anti-hypertensive treatment with azilsartan may have a favorable impact on depression in geriatric patients with uncontrolled hypertension.
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear protein released from necrotic cells, inducing inflammatory responses. Epidemiological studies suggested a possible association between periodontitis and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Due to tissue damage and necrosis of cardiac cells following myocardial infarction (MI), HMGB1 is released, activating an inflammatory reaction. However, it remains unclear whether periodontitis is also involved in myocardial damage. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g.) after MI in mice.
C57BL/6J wild type mice in post-MI were inoculated with P.g. in the infected group (P.g.-inoculated MI group) and with phosphate buffer saline (PBS) in the control group (PBS-injected MI group). Plasma samples and twelve tissue samples from mice hearts after MI were obtained. We determined the expression of HMGB1 by ELISA and immunohistochemistry.
The level of HMGB1 protein in the P.g.-inoculated MI group was significantly higher than in the PBS-injected MI group on day 5, but not on day 14. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that HMGB1 was mainly expressed in cardiomyocytes, immune cells, and vascular endothelial cells in the PBS-injected MI group, while HMGB1 was seen broadly in degenerated cardiomyocytes, extracellular fields, immune cells, and vascular endothelial cells in the P.g.-inoculated MI group. A significant increase in the number of HMGB1 positive cells was observed in the P.g.-inoculated MI group compared to the PBS-injected MI group.
Infection with P.g. after MI enhanced myocardial HMGB1 expression. There is a possible relationship between periodontitis and post-infarction myocardial inflammation through HMGB-1.
In this study, we investigated the protection effect of Vitamin E (Vit E) on formaldehyde (FA) exposure during pregnancy induced apoptosis of cardiomyocytes, and used an HL-1 cell line to confirmed the findings in vivo.
Pregnant mice received different doses of FA (0.5 mg/kg, 1.0 mg/kg, 1.5 mg/kg, 0.1 μg Vit E, or 1.5 mg/kg + 0.1 μg Vit E). TUNEL staining was used to reveal the apoptosis in cardiomyocytes, and SOD, MDA, GSH, Livin, and Caspase-3 in cardiomyocytes were detected by ELISA, RT-PCR, and Western blot. For in vitro study, HL-1 cells were treated with vehicle, 5 μmol/L FA, 25 μmol/L FA, 50 μmol/L FA, 10 mg/L Vit. E, and 50 μmol/L FA+ 10 mg/L Vit E, respectively. CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry were used to evaluate cell vitality and apoptosis. A high dose of FA exposure led to cytotoxicity in both pregnant mice and offspring, as TUNEL staining revealed a significant apoptosis of cardiomyocytes, and the alternation in SOD, GSH, MDA, Livin, and Caspase-3 was found in cardiomyocytes. 0.1 μg Vit. E could reverse high doses of FA exposure induced apoptosis of cardiomyocytes in both pregnant mice and offspring. The in vitro study revealed that FA exposure induced a decrease of cell viability and increased cell apoptosis, as well as oxidative stress in HL-1 cells with alternation in SOD, GSH, MDA, Livin, and Caspase-3.
This study revealed a high dose of FA induced oxidative stress and apoptosis of cardiomyocytes in both pregnant mice and offspring, and Vit E supplement during pregnancy reversed the systemic and myocardial toxicity of FA.
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a ubiquitous DNA-binding protein, promotes angiogenesis and tissue repair, resulting in restored cardiac function after myocardial infarction (MI). Although dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) degrades certain peptides, it remains unclear as to whether HMGB1 is a substrate of DPP4 and whether DPP4 inhibition prevents the cleavage of HMGB1.
In transgenic mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of HMGB1 (TG) and wild-type mice (WT), a diabetic state was induced by streptozotocin, and MI was created by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. To inhibit DPP4 activity, a DPP4 inhibitor anagliptin was used. The plasma levels of HMGB1, infarct size, echocardiographic data, angiogenesis, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in the peri-infarct area were compared among non-diabetic MI WT/TG, diabetic MI WT/TG, and anagliptin-treated diabetic MI WT/TG mice.
DPP4 activity was increased in the diabetic state and blocked by anagliptin administration. The HMGB1 plasma levels were reduced in the diabetic TG compared with the non-diabetic TG mice, but DPP4 inhibition with anagliptin increased HMGB1 plasma levels in the diabetic TG mice. The infarct area was significantly larger in the diabetic TG than in the non-diabetic TG mice, and it was reduced by DPP4 inhibition. Cardiac function, angiogenesis, and VEGF expression were impaired in the diabetic TG mice, but they were ameliorated by the DPP4 inhibition to levels similar to those found in the non-diabetic TG mice.
The DPP4 inhibitor ameliorated cardiac function by inhibiting the inactivation of HMGB1 in diabetic mice after MI.
A large amount of norepinephrine (NE) released from cardiac sympathetic nerve terminals might accelerate myocardial ischemic injury. Nicorandil (NICO), KATP channel opener, could attenuate cardiac NE release from the sympathetic nerve terminals during ischemia. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of NICO-induced attenuation of cardiac NE release on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats, by comparison with the effect of cardiac sympathetic denervation on I/R injury.
Cardiac interstitial NE (iNE) concentrations were determined using a microdialysis method. Rats were divided into 3 groups; control, NICO, and denervation groups. Cardiac sympathetic denervation was performed by painting 10% phenol on the left ventricular epicardium 7 days before producing ischemia. The left coronary artery was ligated for 30 minutes and then re-perfused for 120 minutes. NICO (50 μg/kg/minute) was infused intravenously starting 20 minutes before the coronary occlusion to the end of the ligation.
The infarct size of the left ventricle was smaller in rats treated with NICO than in control rats (20.2 ± 3.0 versus 50.6 ± 14.7%, P < 0.01). Sympathetic denervation also reduced infarct size (28.5 ± 10.4 %, P < 0.01), which was not significantly different from that in the NICO group. At the end of 30-minute ischemia, iNE increased markedly in control rats (0.1 ± 0.1 to 20.6 ± 5.3 × 103 pg/mL), whereas the increase was completely inhibited in denervated rats. NICO markedly attenuated the increase (4.9 ± 3.0 × 103 pg/mL, P < 0.01) during ischemia.
NICO-induced attenuation of neural NE release during ischemia might, at least in part, contribute to myocardial protection against I/R injury.
Activation of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is shown in resistant hypertension including diabetes mellitus. Although protein kinase C (PKC) signaling is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications, an association between PKC and MR is not known. Activation of PKCα and PKCβ by TPA (12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate) increased MR proteins and its transcriptional activities in HEK293-MR cells. In contrast, a high glucose condition resulted in PKCβ but not PKCα activation, which is associated with elevation of MR protein levels and MR transcriptional activities. Reduction of endogenous PKCβ by siRNA decreased those levels. Interestingly, high glucose did not affect MR mRNA levels, but rather decreased ubiquitination of MR proteins. In db/db mice kidneys, levels of phosphorylated PKCβ2, MR and Sgk-1 proteins were elevated, and the administration of PKC inhibitor reversed these changes compared to db/+ mice. These data suggest that high glucose stimulates PKCβ signaling, which leads to MR stabilization and its transcriptional activities.
Bevacizumab, an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, is currently used to treat patients with ovarian or colon cancer. While several cardiovascular toxicities related to bevacizumab-containing regimens have been reported, the effect of bevacizumab on the coronary microcirculation has not been fully elucidated. Here we report a case of 54-year-old female patient who developed microvascular angina after a series of bevacizumab-containing chemotherapeutic regimen. The discontinuation of bevacizumab and nicorandil administration was effective in alleviating her chest discomfort and the ischemic changes on her ECG. This highlights the possibility that coronary microvascular angina can be induced in patients treated with bevacizumab-containing chemotherapy. It should also be noted that nicorandil can be effective in managing microvascular angina.
An 83-year-old man presented with recurrent acute coronary syndrome (ACS) at the left main coronary artery (LMCA) complicated with ostial chronic total occlusion (CTO) in the right coronary artery (RCA) (RCA-CTO). At the first LMCA-ACS approximately 1 year earlier, he had undergone LMCA-crossover stenting with a biolimus-eluting stent in the presence of RCA-CTO. At the second LMCA-ACS, we angiographically confirmed severe in-stent restenosis in the distal LMCA, in addition to angled severe stenosis in the just proximal LCx, and performed primary PCI for the LMCA bifurcation lesion under intra-aortic balloon pumping support. Because of difficulty in crossing a guidewire through the just proximal LCx lesion, we first performed rotational atherectomy against the LMCA in-stent eccentric lesion. After successfully crossing the guidewire into the LCx, we added balloon dilation with kissing balloon inflation followed by alternate drug-coated balloon dilation. An eight-month follow-up coronary angiography revealed no further vessel narrowing in the LMCA bifurcation lesion.
Paradoxical embolization is the mechanism for patent foramen ovale (PFO)-associated cryptogenic stroke and transcatheter closure of PFO may prevent recurrent ischemic stroke. Mechanical thrombectomy is promising to treat acute ischemic stroke due to high rates of reperfusion and reduced intracranial hemorrhage complications. We report the case of a 27-year-old woman with a massive cerebral infarction but no evidence for any atherosclerosis, who received an urgent mechanical thrombectomy with a Solitaire device. In order to ascertain the etiology of stroke, transcranial Doppler (TCD) and transesophageal echocardiograph (TEE) were conducted. TCD showed severe right-to-left shunting (shower effect) after Valsalva maneuver and bubble test and TEE identified a PFO. Therefore, the patient had suffered a paradoxical stroke associated with PFO. After two weeks of the stroke onset, transcatheter PFO closure with Cardio-O-Fix occluder was also performed successfully. During 1-year of follow-up, no recurrence of stroke occurred. Our case demonstrates that mechanical thrombectomy using a Solitaire device and transcatheter PFO closure can be safely and successfully performed to treat acute paradoxical stroke and prevent its recurrence.
Ebstein's anomaly is a rare congenital heart disease characterized by apical displacement of the septal and posterior tricuspid valve leaflets. It is often complicated with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction as well as right-sided abnormalities. On the other hand, in the presence of LV dysfunction, right ventricular pacing is likely to aggravate the diseased LV function, which is termed pacemaker-induced cardiomyopathy. Thus, deteriorating effects of RV pacing on cardiac function might be enhanced and result in pacemaker-induced cardiomyopathy in patients with Ebstein's anomaly, even if they have preserved LVEF. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is effective for the treatment of pacemaker-induced cardiomyopathy, and we present the first case of effect of CRT on pacemaker-induced cardiomyopathy associated with Ebstein's anomaly.
Atypical aortic coarctation (AAC) has been reported to occur anywhere along the aorta, except for the ascending aorta. The associated symptoms include hypotension in the lower half of the body, secondary hypertension in the upper half of the body, and heart failure. Here we present an 80-year-old Asian woman complaining of progressive exertional dyspnea. She was diagnosed with acute decompensated heart failure and kidney injury due to severely calcified stenosis of the thoracoabdominal aorta, the so called AAC. She received hemodiafiltration, and pulmonary congestion improved in part. Generally, surgical treatments are quite invasive in elderly patients. Endovascular stent graft placement is less invasive, however, fracture and rupture should be considered at severely calcified lesions like this case. Therefore, we selected extra-anatomical axillofemoral bypass. Her recovery after the surgery was remarkable. In a few days, she became free from hemodiafiltration, intravenous diuretics, and oxygen administration. We thought the contributive factors are the increase in kidney blood flow and the correction of afterload mismatch. The decrease in pulse pressure may reflect the reduction in systemic arterial compliance by axillofemoral bypass. The operative mortality of axillofemoral bypass was reported to be acceptable, although the patency of the axillofemoral bypass graft was not high enough. In conclusion, axillofemoral bypass is effective and feasible for elderly patients with acute decompensated heart failure and kidney injury due to AAC.
A pouching defect, which is a type of angiographic classification in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), is equivalent to a chronic total occlusion (CTO). Thus far, treating CTO involves high risk of the lung bleeding and is difficult because the structure and treating strategy have not been clarified, yet treating it has great potential to improve hemodynamic status and ventilation perfusion mismatch. Here, we describe a case of successfully treated the CTO. In this case, we treated it safely by two balloon pulmonary angiography (BPA) sessions. In first session, the surface of the CTO was partially broken by the catheter. However, the distal vessels of it were not observed. Pulmonary angiogram was performed 4 months later, the distal vessels of CTO were observed. This lesion was no longer the CTO, we performed BPA safely and pulmonary arterial pressure was improved dramatically. Furthermore, pulmonary angiogram revealed the surface of the CTO has a cap which is comprised of cross-aggregation of organized thrombi. Partial breakage of the cap is a key to recanalization of the CTO, even if the distal vessels were not seen in same BPA session.
In heart failure patients, exhaled acetone concentration, a noninvasive biomarker, is increased according to heart failure severity. Moreover, exhaled acetone concentration is also known to be affected by diabetes mellitus. However, there have been no reports on exhaled acetone concentration in heart failure patients with diabetes mellitus. A 77-year old man was admitted to our hospital with acute decompensated heart failure and atrioventricular block. He had controlled diabetes mellitus under insulin treatment with hemoglobin A1c of 6.5%. He underwent treatment of diuretics and permanent pacemaker implantation. His condition improved and he was discharged at Day 12. Due to the heart failure improvement, his levels of exhaled acetone concentration decreased from 1.623 ppm at admission to 0.664 ppm at discharge. This is the first report to reveal a change of exhaled acetone concentration in a diabetic patient with acute decompensated heart failure.
While most of pulmonary thromboembolism (PE) cases can be managed by thrombolytic and anticoagulation therapy, massive PE remains a life-threatening disease. Although surgical embolectomy can be a curative therapy for massive PE, peri-operative mortality for hemodynamically collapsed PE is extremely high. We present a case of hemodynamically collapsed massive PE. We avoided either thrombolytic therapy or surgical embolectomy, because the patient had recent cerebral contusion. Therefore, we managed the patient with the combination of veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (V-A ECMO) and conventional anticoagulation, which dramatically improved the patient's hemodynamics. In conclusion, the combination of V-A ECMO and conventional anticoagulation may be the preferred first line therapy for the patients with cardiogenic shock following massive PE.
The errors in the following list appeared in the article titled "Do Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators Reduce Mortality in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease at All Stages?: An Updated Meta-Analysis" by Linghua Fu, Qiongqiong Zhou, Wengen Zhu, Lin Huang, Ying Ding, Yang Shen, Jinzhu Hu, and Kui Hong (Vol. 58, No. 3, 371-7, 2017).