The purpose of this study is to clarify the Olympism of the filmmakers by considering both artistic and documentary aspects of the film, with an interpretation of the contents of representation of “Tokyo Olympiad.” In order to interpret these messages, it is important to notice the film's context and metatext. First, as a social context, it may be argued that the 1964 Tokyo Olympic Games had a strong role to play in enhancing the national prestige of Japan. So, it was natural that the politicians, the officials of the Japanese Olympic Committee (JOC), and the sport world in Japan asserted that the IOC's official film of the Tokyo Olympic Games should record mainly the outcomes of the performances of Japanese athletes (nationalism). Second, the gap between the artistic representation and a conventional documentary record are clarified by considering the metatext of the film. The frame of reference of film viewers, which is comprehension of the film itself when they watch the film, is as follows: “This is an official film of the Olympic Games,” and “this is a documentary film.” So, people regard this film with the understanding that “all that is represented in this film must be true.” In contrast, the filmmaker's premise was also that “this film is not just a conventional documentary film but an artistic one.” In conclusion, it can be said that this excellent film tried to represent not only a peaceful world (inter-nationalism) but also universal equality as human beings. The images of the film have no connection with race and class because of the representations of the universal solemnity of athletes, and human possibilities of excellent performance by winners and losers (trans-nationalism). This is the authentic representation of the Olympism of the filmmakers, and the reason “Tokyo Olympiad” was appraised as a great film worldwide.
Optimal cutoff frequency of bi-directional zero phase-lag Butterworth digital filter, determined through the technique of residual analysis, was evaluated using the methodology of computer simulation. Squat jumping (SQJ) and counter movement jumping (CMJ) motions were analyzed. A three-dimensional neuromusculoskeletal computer simulation model of the human body was constructed. Realistic SQJ and CMJ motions were generated through forward dynamic computer simulation employing an extensive procedure of numerical optimization. Residual analysis was performed on each coordinate in order to obtain the optimal cutoff frequency. Effects of artificially introduced experimental noise (Gaussian noise) were evaluated. It was found that the optimal cutoff frequency was underestimated when the experimental noise was imposed on the kinematic data. In other words, the possibility of an information loss was suggested as a result of digital filtering with the cutoff frequency determined through the residual analysis. It was suggested that the optimal cutoff frequency obtained as a result of residual analysis should be compared with the residual - cutoff frequency characteristics obtained through analyzing noise-free kinematics.
Large arteries (central arteries such as aortas) and medium-sized arteries (peripheral arteries such as upper limb arteries) provide buffer function to level off fluctuations in blood pressure and blood flow. When upper limb arterial stiffness increases, buffer functions deteriorate, thereby increasing the blood pressure and reducing the blood flow efficiency. Intense aerobic exercise training helps to decrease stiffness in central arteries and peripheral arteries. We have demonstrated whether continuous aerobic exercise in elderly women can help to reduce stiffness in peripheral arteries, even when the exercise is relatively mild. Arterial pulse wave velocity (PMV) method was used to measure peripheral (upper arm- forearm) arterial stiffness in test subjects; eight healthy elderly women (age 62±1) who perform moderate exercises continuously and six healthy women (age 61±3) who do not exercise regularly. Findings demonstrate that stiffness in peripheral arteries is significantly lower in the elderly women who participate in continuous aerobic exercise training compared to those with no such exercise routine. These findings show that aerobic exercise on cycle ergometer that mainly uses lower limbs helps to reduce stiffness in upper limb arteries. Therefore, this study suggests that aerobic exercise training in peripheral arteries may have an effect on arteries where lower loads are to be applied.
The purpose of this study was to develop a simple assessment of lactate threshold (LT) in older people. Two-hundreds and nine subjects, aged 65 to 90 years old, performed a bench stepping test by means of a 20 cm bench at 10 to 35 ascends per minute of the stepping rate. In 52 of 209 subjects, we determined the metabolic equivalents corresponding to exercise intensity of which lactate (LA) increased 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 1 mmol/l from baseline level, LA corresponding to the baseline level and 2 mmol/l (METs@LAr+0.1, METs@LAr+0.2, METs@LAr+0.3, METs@LAr+0.4, METs@LAr+0.5, METs@LAr+1, METs@LAr and METs@LA2), in addition to LT. We calucurated exercise intensity equivalent to fixed LA levels by both a standard aseessment using a liner regression between exercise intensity (log-exercise inetsnity) and LA (log-LA) ranged above LT, and a simple assessment using a liner regression between log-exercise inetsnity and log-LA ranged bellow and above 2 mmol/l of LA. Using the standard assessment, no significant difference was confirmed between METs@LAr+0.1 (4.7±0.8 METs) and LT (4.6±0.7 METs). In regard to METs corresponding to other LA, using the standard assessment, METs@LAr (4.5±0.8 METs) was significantly lower (p<0.05), and the rest (4.8±0.8 - 5.6±0.8 METs) were significantly higher (p<0.01), compared with LT. There was no significant difference between METs@LAr+0.1 determined using standard assessment and simple assessment (4.6±0.9 METs). Also METs@LAr+0.1 determined by the simple assessment had high correlation and good limit agreement with LT (r=0.900, p<0.001 and 0.0±0.8 METs), as well as METs@LAr+0.1 determined by the standard assessment (r=0.930, p<0.001 and 0.0±0.6 METs). In 90% of men and 92%of women, LA reached 2 mmol/l at an intensity of 20, 25 or 30 ascends/minute. The method of evaluating exercise intensity corresponding to 0.1 mmol/l above resting level of LA using a stepping rate of 15, 20, 25 and 30 ascends/minute on a 20 cm platform, taking LA of 2 mmol/l as the termination criteria, can be considered valid as a simple assessment of LT in older individuals.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the best predictor for estimating the joint torque capacity of dorsiflexors muscles. Nineteen male college students (19.9±1.2 yrs) participated in this study. The anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA) of the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle was estimated by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) every 0.5cm from the proximal end of the tibia to the lateral malleolus. B-mode ultrasonic images of the TA were obtained by using a 7.5MHz probe, and the fascicle angle between superficial aponeurosis and central aponeurosis of the TA was measured as the pennation angle at proximal 30%, 40% and 50% positions of the leg as well as at the maximal ACSA (ACSAmax) position. The physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) of the TA was determined by dividing muscle volume (MV) by fascicle length, multiplied by the cosine of the angle of fiber pennation. Maximal isometric dorsiflexion torque (TQ) was measured by using an isokinetic dynamometer. ACSAmax was found at the 33.8% position on average, and ACSAmax was significantly correlated with TQ (P<0.05). At the 30% and ACSAmax positions, there were significant correlations between pennation angle and muscle thickness (P<0.01, respectively), and between pennation angle and muscle strength of ankle dorsiflexion (P<0.05, respectively). The correlation with TQ was slightly higher for PCSA (r=0.743) and MV (r=0.625) than for ACSAmax (r=0.542), but there were no significant differences. The results suggested that ACSAmax has adequate precision for estimating torque-producing capacity of dorsiflexors muscles.
The current paper tries to indicate the origin and genealogy of doping. It will be shown that the sport organizations only pretend to have humanistic reasons to prohibit doping, e.g. the health of the athlete, fair play etc.. The real reasons for the prohibition of doping and the way doping control is organized cannot be found in the purity of sport but in the maintenance of power. The norm of “purity” is deeply rooted in traditional Western metaphysics and develops itself into the norm of self-containment of the human body in a sporting context of a modern secular society in which sport has a quasi-religious function. Finally, this way of thinking is critically discussed.
The purpose of this study was to verify the effectiveness of a multi-component program (PACE+ Japan) for nutritional improvement and changes in physical activity in a clinical setting. PACE+ Japan consists of life style assessment and making an action plan using a computer, in combination with counseling from a physician. Outpatients with life style related diseases were allocated randomly to two groups; a PACE+ Japan only group (n=26) and a PACE+ Japan & follow-up counseling group (n=25) and an age- and sex-matched control group (n=16) was also selected. The patients in all intervention groups completed a computerized assessment and created action plans to aid in physical activity and nutritional behavior. PACE+ Japan & follow-up counseling group received approximately 20 minutes counseling two weeks after PACE+ Japan. The control group received no intervention. The analysis of results one month after intervention showed an improvement in physical activity and a reduction in the total energy intake for the intervention group in comparison with that of the control group. There was no observable difference in other indices for the three groups. PACE+ Japan has a high usability and physician counseling was highly evaluated. In the future, effective follow-up in maintaining the effect will be pursued.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of assisted and resisted training using different weight balls on ball speed and accuracy in baseball pitching. Eight male university baseball players were assigned as subjects. The experiment used a standard 145-gram baseball and two heavier or lighter balls with weights increased or decreased by 10% respectively. The subjects were required to pitch these balls and/or standard ball either six or eighteen times under different training trial conditions: 1) pitching the weighted ball only, 2) pitching the lightened ball only, 3) pitching the standard ball only, and 4) pitching three kinds of balls in order of the weighted, standard and lightened balls. Immediately after each training trial, the standard ball was pitched five times respectively (test trial). The ball speed of each trial was measured with a speed gun, and the distance from the center of target to the position of the ball pitched on the target was calculated using a video digitizing system. The results are summarized as follows: 1) In the training trials, the ball speed increased as the ball weight was decreased. 2) In the test trials, immediately after pitching the lightened ball both six (6Atest) and eighteen times (18Atest), and the three different kinds of balls eighteen times (18Ctest), the ball speeds were seen to be significantly higher than that of other test trials (p<0.01). 3) Although there were no significant differences in the ball speed in the above three test trials, a relatively higher ball speed was observed in 18Atest. 4) As for the distance from the center of target to the position of the ball pitched on the target, there were no significant differences among any trials.