Objective Classic Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) has been regarded as a curable disease when treated appropriately, especially in younger patients, and ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine) has been regarded as the standard regimen. However, a relatively poor prognosis has been reported in older patients with CHL, and the efficacy and tolerability of the ABVD regimen has not been fully elucidated. We retrospectively investigated the outcomes in patients with CHL treated with ABVD at our institute.
Methods Twenty-five patients were evaluated; 14 were ≤60 years of age, and 11 were >60 years of age (older group).
Results The ABVD doses were reduced in all patients in the older group; the median average relative dose intensity was 0.58. In the older group, the 5-year overall survival (OS) and median OS were 100% and not reached, respectively, for patients with early-stage CHL and 66.7% and not reached, respectively, for those with advanced-stage CHL. No patients died of CHL, and only one treatment-related death was observed in the older group.
Conclusion ABVD with dose attenuation may represent a feasible and effective strategy for the treatment of older patients with CHL in clinical practice, particularly in those with early-stage disease, although the optimal degree of attenuation remains unclear.
Objective Although a number of studies have shown that both short and long sleep durations were associated with the risk of metabolic disorders related to obesity, the underlying mechanism is still not fully understood. In this study, we analyzed the association of sleep duration with metabolic, anthropometric, and lifestyle factors in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Patients and Methods The subjects were 279 patients with type 2 diabetes 63 (52-70) years old (median and interquartile range) with a body mass index of 25.0 (22.2-28.3) kg/m2 and HbA1c levels of 8.7% (7.6%-10.3%). Patients with advanced complications were excluded from the study. Diets were evaluated by registered dietitians using a software program. Body composition was assessed by the multifrequency bioelectrical impedance method.
Results The mean self-reported nightly sleep duration was 6.4 h with no marked gender difference. Sleep duration was inversely correlated with the HbA1c levels, total energy intake, and intakes of carbohydrate, protein, and fat. The body fat ratio and skeletal muscle mass were correlated positively and negatively, respectively, with sleep duration. When the subjects were divided into three groups based on sleep duration, the intakes of total energy, carbohydrates, and fat tended to be high in those with <5.5 h of sleep, and the percentage of patients who had habitual physical activities was lower in those with >7 h of sleep.
Conclusions The observation that sleep duration is distinctly associated with excessive eating and a sedentary lifestyle may provide a basis for effective lifestyle management of patients with type 2 diabetes.
In triple A (Allgrove) syndrome, motor neuron disease is a co-morbid condition. We herein report a 38-year-old Japanese man with triple A syndrome and novel tandem mutations: a novel c.881delT deletion mutation and c.835C>T localized to the AAAS gene. A nerve conduction study revealed marked axonal damage in several motor nerves. Tandem mutations in the AAAS gene may be involved in co-morbid motor neuron disease and aberrant electrophysiological findings.
A 62-year-old woman with activity-dependent two-to-one atrioventricular block (2:1AVB) and a normal left ventricular ejection fraction was referred to our department for the evaluation of exclusively exercise-induced marked symptoms. The treadmill test helped establish a clear correlation between 2:1AVB and symptoms. The test results demonstrated that exercise-induced marked symptoms were attributed to abrupt transient hypotension combined with relative bradycardia, probably due to increased diastolic mitral and tricuspid regurgitation because of 2:1AVB during moderate-to-heavy exercise. After pacemaker implantation for 2:1AVB, the symptoms and transient hypotension disappeared, and her exercise capacity improved.
We herein report a case of thymic carcinoma that initially exhibited dysphagia and an intraesophageal mass lesion. A 68-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of dysphagia. An endoscopic examination revealed a mass on the middle esophagus. Chest computed tomography (CT) showed a huge anterior mediastinal mass and subcarinal lymph node swelling, directly invading into the esophageal lumen. An immunohistological examination of the esophageal and anterior mediastinal masses revealed squamous cell carcinoma originating from the thymus. This is the first report of a thymic carcinoma spreading into the esophageal lumen and forming a mass lesion.
An 84-year-old man was admitted with hypoxemia and ground-glass opacities with traction bronchiectasis in both lungs and mild fibrosis on computed tomography. We first suspected that he had acute exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia and initiated methylprednisolone pulse therapy. On day 4, he was diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia. Although the ground-glass opacities were improved with corticosteroid treatment alone, the hypoxemia persisted, and the plasma D-dimer level increased. Anticoagulant therapy was initiated, and the hypoxemia was improved. COVID-19 pneumonia may result in radiological findings similar to those of acute exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia, and corticosteroids and anticoagulant therapy may lead to favorable outcomes.
Patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) associated with a C3 p.Ile1157Thr mutation show a relatively high renal survival and low mortality rates, but renal histopathological findings after recurrence have been rarely reported. A 30-year-old man with a C3 p.Ile1157Thr mutation experienced a third recurrence of thrombotic microangiopathies with neurological and gastrointestinal disorders. A renal biopsy performed during the recovery phase of acute kidney injury revealed collapsed glomeruli and arteriolar vacuolization. Approximately 10% of glomeruli were globally sclerotic, despite the absence of arterio-/arteriolo-sclerosis. These findings suggest substantial progression of irreversible injuries in multiple organs, including kidneys, which occurs in aHUS patients with repeated thrombotic microangiopathies.
We herein report a patient with neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID) who presented with encephalitis-like episodes. A neurological examination revealed a disturbance of consciousness without any evidence of encephalitis or epilepsy on laboratory tests. Brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography revealed an elevated cerebral blood flow during the encephalitis-like episode and reduced cerebral blood flow in the chronic phase with clinical recovery. This report suggests that the cerebral blood flow of patients with NIID can change over the clinical course. Encephalitis-like episodes of NIID should thus be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute disturbance of consciousness.
A 59-year-old woman with small-cell lung carcinoma achieved tumor disappearance after cisplatin-based chemotherapy (CBC) and radiation treatment but subsequently experienced right hemiparesis and aphasia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed a left middle cerebral artery territory acute infarction and left internal carotid artery occlusion. Ultrasonography revealed a mobile thrombus in the left common and internal carotid arteries, and contrast computed tomography revealed a mural thrombus in the ascending aorta. Based on these findings, embolic stroke due to aortic mural thrombus following CBC was diagnosed. Aortic mural thrombus is a rare complication of CBC but carries a risk of embolic stroke.
A 58-year-old woman presented to our hospital with complaints of dysphagia. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed an esophagogastric junction tumor with multiple duodenal intramural metastases, and computed tomography showed peritoneal metastasis. In the middle of her fourth cycle of chemotherapy, she displayed symptoms of a left-sided multi-cranial nerve palsy. She was diagnosed with Garcin syndrome caused by meningeal carcinomatosis from gastric cancer based on the results of gadolinium-enhanced brain magnetic resonance imaging and cytology of the cerebrospinal fluid. It is important not to overlook meningeal irritation symptoms or paralysis of cranial nerves and to consider the possibility of Garcin syndrome caused by meningeal carcinomatosis.
An 80-year-old man was admitted due to biliary stricture with autoimmune pancreatitis. Although radiographical examinations suggested Immunoglobulin G4-related sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC), punched biopsies from the bile duct revealed adenocarcinoma. In the resected specimen, abundant N-terminus of Forkhead box P3 (Foxp3)-positive cells were localized in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) tissue, while IgG4-positive cells were spread around the entire bile duct. Therefore, the case was diagnosed with IgG4-SC accompanied by CCA, not sporadic CCA. We herein report an informative case wherein IgG4-positive cells were abundant in CCA tissue and Foxp3 immunohistochemical staining allowed us to determine that this case had two entities.
Objective Lusutrombopag is a thrombopoietin receptor agonist that improves thrombocytopenia in patients with chronic liver disease scheduled to undergo invasive procedures. However, information on the efficacy of repeated lusutrombopag treatment and factors associated with the treatment is scarce. We analyzed the efficacy of repeated lusutrombopag treatment and the factors associated with a response to lusutrombopag.
Methods Thirty-nine patients with chronic liver disease who received lusutrombopag treatment before undergoing invasive procedures were enrolled in this retrospective study. Of the 39 patients, 10 received lusutrombopag treatment multiple times for a total of 53 regimens of lusutrombopag treatment. Changes in platelet counts, the effects of repeated lusutrombopag treatment, and factors associated with response to lusutrombopag were analyzed.
Results The median platelet count increased significantly from 4.5×104/μL before lusutrombopag treatment to 7.2×104/μL before the invasive procedure (P<0.01), and patients undergoing 49 of the 53 (92%) treatment regimens succeeded in undergoing invasive procedures without needing platelet transfusions. In patients who received lusutrombopag treatment repeatedly, the median platelet count significantly increased following the second administration of lusutrombopag, and the effects of lusutrombopag were similar between the first and second administration. A multivariate analysis identified the absence of diabetes mellitus (odds ratio, 5.56 for presence; p=0.04) as a significant and independent predictor of a response to lusutrombopag.
Conclusion Lusutrombopag treatment significantly increased platelet counts in patients with chronic liver disease, making it possible to receive invasive procedures. The treatment produced identical effects when it was repeated. The efficacy of lusutrombopag might be decreased in patients with diabetes mellitus.
Cerebral rheumatoid vasculitis (CRV) is a rare, fatal, and diagnostically challenging disorder. We herein report an 81-year-old woman with a 4-year history of rheumatoid arthritis who presented with a fever, progressive disturbance of consciousness, high level of rheumatoid factor, and hypocomplementemia. The enhancement of the perforating branches in the left middle cerebral artery led us to suspect CRV. A brain biopsy could not be performed. After we intensified steroid therapy, the size of the cerebral lesions temporarily decreased. However, recurrence in the left frontal lobe occurred one month later, and the patient subsequently died. Early intensive treatments may be needed for CRV.
Bilio-duodenal bleeding, such as post-endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) bleeding, common bile duct (CBD) bleeding after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), and duodenal bleeding due to malignant tumour invasion, can sometimes become severe. Six cases of refractory bilio-duodenal bleeding were stanched via covered self-expandable metallic stent (CSEMS) insertion, even though three of the patients had a history of gastrectomy. The dumbbell-shaped CSEMS was useful for managing post-EST bleeding. Additional duodenal CSEMS insertion was useful for the patient who had previously undergone uncovered SEMS insertion, and no migration of the CSEMS was observed. CSEMS insertion was useful for treating refractory bilio-duodenal haemorrhaging.
Titration of beta-blockers is a gold-standard therapy in patients with heart failure and a reduced ejection fraction but is sometimes challenging to administer, given symptomatic hypotension. Ivabradine is a recently introduced selective If channel inhibitor that purely reduces the heart rate. We encountered a patient with advanced heart failure in whom a beta-blocker could not be up-titrated given his symptomatic hypotension. Following the initiation of ivabradine, an increase in blood pressure due to heart rate optimization, probably via an improvement in the cardiac output, allowed for the further up-titration of carvedilol, followed by a successful clinical course. Ivabradine might be a novel therapeutic tool to facilitate the up-titration of beta-blockers in patients with heart failure and hypotension.
Objective The psychological status is a key factor in smoking continuance. However, details on short-term changes in mild depressive states after smoking cessation (SC) are still unknown. The purpose of the present study was to investigate these short-term changes.
Methods A total of 989 patients who visited our SC Clinic were assessed using the Zung Self-Rating-Depression-Scale (SDS), an official instrument to measure depressive tendencies. The participants were classified into normal and neurotic groups based on their SDS scores during their initial visit; they were assessed again 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks thereafter.
Results The majority of patients in the neurotic group were women. These patients were also younger, with a higher nicotine dependence, and presented with a lower successful SC rate than the patients in the normal group. A decrease in SDS scores after starting the SC treatment was observed only in the neurotic group, especially during the first two weeks. In patients who continued to smoke, no improvement in depressive tendencies was noted in this period.
Conclusion Depressive tendencies of patients with neurosis improve in the initial stages of the SC treatment (i.e. within two weeks after starting the treatment). This finding fills the mentioned knowledge gap regarding the effects of SC on mild depressive states in the short term.
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is mostly observed in patients with a history of asbestos exposure. Although other causes are rare, there are several reports of MPM induced by therapeutic radiation, mainly in Europe and North America. However, no such case has been reported in Japan.
We herein report a 50-year-old Japanese woman who developed MPM 25 years after thoracic radiation therapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma. The patient had no history of exposure to asbestos; therefore, her history of radiation therapy was considered to be the cause of MPM. Clinicians should consider secondary MPM in patients with a history of thoracic radiation therapy.
Anti-leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) antibody is associated with limbic encephalitis. We herein report a patient with anti-LGI1 encephalitis who developed severe orthostatic hypotension (OH) responsive to immunoglobulin therapy five years after developing symptoms of encephalitis. A 71-year-old man presented with amnesia caused by limbic encephalitis. The symptoms of encephalitis improved partially without any immunotherapy. Five years later, he developed severe OH, and anti-LGI1 antibody was positive. The catecholamine dynamics indicated that the central autonomic nervous system was the lesion of his OH. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy improved the OH. This case suggests that anti-LGI1 antibody can be associated with severe OH.
Estrogen is known to increase exogenous corticosteroid levels. In this case, a 27-year-old Japanese woman was referred to our hospital for examination of an adrenal tumor and was diagnosed with Cushing syndrome. Resection of the tumor resulted in secondary adrenal insufficiency. She also developed microcytic anemia due to hypermenorrhea, which was masked by Cushing syndrome. An oral contraceptive was administered for the treatment of hypermenorrhea, but this led to a marked increase in serum cortisol and the reduction of plasma ACTH, disturbing the recovery of the adrenal function. Attention is required when oral contraceptives are used to treat hypermenorrhea masked by Cushing syndrome.
Cholesterol crystal embolization (CCE) shows a poor prognosis and it can cause ischemic organ damage due to a cholesterol embolism from atherosclerotic lesions in large blood vessels. Such an embolism mainly affects the kidneys and skin, although cases involving digestive organs have also been reported. We encountered an autopsy case of CCE with damage mainly to the digestive organs, including the pancreas. The patient had non-specific abdominal symptoms or image findings. Symptomatic therapy failed to save him. CCE can involve the digestive organs, and so must be differentiated from abdominal pathologies. Moreover, conventional treatments may be ineffective, and new treatments might thus be necessary.
Cecal volvulus is an uncommon cause of colonic obstruction. First-line treatment for cecal volvulus is surgery, as nonoperative management is rarely achievable. We herein report an extremely rare case of a patient with spontaneously resolved cecal volvulus; no recurrence occurred without elective surgery. A 47-year-old woman presented with acute lower abdominal pain. She was misdiagnosed with small bowel obstruction and treated conservatively. A few hours later, she was correctly diagnosed with cecal volvulus. Subsequently, her symptoms and computed tomography findings of cecal volvulus completely disappeared. She refused elective surgery, but no recurrence occurred during five months of follow-up.
A 72-year-old women was referred to our hospital because of lower left abdominal pain. Computed tomography showed prominent sigmoid colon dilation and double tumors on both the oral and anal sides. Surgical resection revealed an expanded sigmoid colon involved in double cancer that showed strong adhesion to the surrounding tissues. The pathological findings revealed obstructive colitis and minor perforation in the dilated colon. The minor perforation was considered to have been caused by fecal impaction in the closed cavity between the two tumors, resulting in an increase in colon pressure.
Cholangiolocellular carcinoma (CoCC) is a rare primary liver cancer that is difficult diagnose due to a lack of specific imaging findings. We herein report a case of CoCC accompanied by severe alcoholic cirrhosis. Dynamic computed tomography showed a low-density tumor with a faint surrounding enhancement. Gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging revealed iso-intensity in the hepatobiliary phase and a maximum tumor diameter of 53 mm. 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose position-emission tomography was moderately positive (maximum standardized uptake value: 4.3). CoCC was diagnosed based on the pathological findings, including immunohistochemistry. We discuss the diagnostic imaging findings and review previous reports.
Collagenofibrotic glomerulopathy or LMX1B-associated nephropathy is a rare disease in which type III collagen accumulates in the glomeruli. We herein report a 64-year-old Japanese woman with an elevated serum creatinine level and persistent proteinuria for 7 years. An electron microscopic study using tannic acid showed curved and frayed collagen fibers within mesangial and subendothelial regions compatible with type III collagen depositions. The distribution of type IV collagen α1-6 chains was normal. Since no pathogenic mutations were identified in the LMX1B gene, she was diagnosed with collagenofibrotic glomerulopathy and treated with angiotensin II receptor blocker and calcium antagonist to control her blood pressure.
Objective Aortic stenosis (AS) is common among elderly patients. Since transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a less invasive procedure than surgical aortic valve replacement for symptomatic severe AS, super-elderly patients have tended to undergo TAVR. We retrospectively investigated the post-TAVR outcome in super-elderly patients with severe AS.
Methods This analysis included 433 patients who underwent TAVR in the University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics from 2012 to 2017. Post-TAVR mortality, complications in-hospital, rehospitalization, the New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class and echocardiographic parameters were compared between patients <85 years old (n = 290) and ≥85 years old (n = 143).
Results The patients ≥85 years old less frequently had a history of coronary artery disease (73.1% vs. 62.2%, p=0.026) and hypertension (87.2% vs. 77.6%, p=0.012) than younger patients. Furthermore, the patients ≥85 years old had moderate-severe mitral regurgitation more frequently (19.3% vs. 28.7%, p=0.037) at baseline than younger patients. There was no significant difference in in-hospital outcomes between the age groups. The 30-day mortality was worse in patients ≥85 years old than in younger ones (0.7% vs. 3.5%, p=0.042). While there was no significant difference in the long-term mortality between the 2 groups, the estimated 1-year mortality from Kaplan-Meier curves were 9.6% in patients <85 years old and 14.9% in patients ≥85 years old. The rate of in-hospital complications, rehospitalization rate, improvement in the NYHA functional class and echocardiographic parameters were comparable between the two groups.
Conclusion The outcomes of super-elderly patients after TAVR were acceptable, suggesting that these patients could benefit from TAVR.
An 82-year-old man with hepatocellular carcinoma presented with upper abdominal pain, vomiting, and jaundice. He had been taking a standard lenvatinib dose for three months. Although acute cholangitis was suggested, imaging studies failed to detect the biliary obstruction site. An endoscopic examination following discontinuation of lenvatinib and aspirin revealed multiple duodenal ulcers, one of which was formed on the ampulla of Vater and causing cholestasis. Endoscopic biliary drainage and antibiotics improved concomitant Enterobacter cloacae bacteremia. Ulcer healing was confirmed after rabeprazole was replaced with vonoprazan and misoprostol. Our case shows that lenvatinib can induce duodenal ulcers resulting in obstructive jaundice.
A 72-year-old man was treated with prednisolone and cyclosporine A for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. A nodule with a diameter of 19 mm was found in the right lung and diagnosed as lung squamous cell carcinoma. Anti-cancer treatments were not performed because of the presence of advanced interstitial pneumonia and chronic respiratory failure. Cyclosporine A was tapered to avoid suppression of anti-tumor immunity, and pirfenidone was initiated. Within 2 months, the tumor had shrunk to 10 mm in diameter and remained regressed for 9 months. This is the first report of a non-hematologic solid organ tumor responding to the discontinuation of immunosuppressants.
Staphylococcus condimenti is a Gram-positive coccus that was first isolated from soy sauce mash. Only four cases of human S. condimenti infections have been reported to date. We herein report the first case of spondylodiscitis caused by S. condimenti. A 72-year-old Japanese man complaining of lower back pain and numbness in his legs was diagnosed with spondylodiscitis. A computed tomography (CT)-guided biopsy was performed. A culture of the intravertebral disc aspirate yielded S. condimenti. The result was confirmed using gene sequencing methods. The patient was successfully treated without relapse. This case shows that S. condimenti can be pathogenic and cause invasive infection.
A 70-year-old woman with situs inversus totalis underwent catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter. Although her morphologic left atrium (LA) was enlarged, we performed cryoballoon ablation and liner radiofrequency ablation of the cava-tricuspid isthmus without mapping atrial arrhythmias. However, a different form of atrial tachycardia (AT) recurred. We performed catheter ablation a second time using a three-dimensional electroanatomic mapping system. AT was not terminated by the liner ablation at the roof of morphologic LA and mitral isthmus but sustained by changing the atrial activation sequence and cycle length. Multipolar mapping catheter revealed that fractionated low-amplitude potentials were densely located in a limited area of the anterior morphologic LA, and an activation map demonstrated the presence of small-circuit reentry with an extremely slow conduction at the anterior morphologic LA. A single energy application targeting the fragmented potentials successfully terminated the AT. We successfully treated multiple ATs with a complex anatomy using a three-dimensional electroanatomic mapping system.
We herein report the case of a 75-year-old man with asymptomatic immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI)-associated myocarditis diagnosed on the basis of elevated levels of creatine kinase (CK), CK-myocardial band and troponin I (TNI). He was suspected of being complicated with myasthenia gravis (MG). High-dose prednisolone (PSL) is associated with a risk of MG exacerbation; therefore, PSL therapy was gradually increased from 5 mg/day to 20 mg/day, which resulted in the normalization of the TNI level, and no PSL-related side effects occurred. MG easily complicates myocarditis as an immune-related adverse event; thus, the treatment plan should be carefully considered.
Keishibukuryogan is a Kampo medicine that induces vasodilation and improves the blood flow velocity in subcutaneous blood vessels. We herein report two cases in which keishibukuryogan completely diminished subcutaneous hematoma after cardiac resynchronization therapy pacemaker implantation and defibrillator battery replacement within a month. Keishibukuryogan can be a good option for treating or preventing subcutaneous hematoma after surgical procedures for devices.
The legalization of recreational marijuana in some countries has been accompanied by an increased number of case reports of serious cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications. However, there have been few studies describing the detailed clinical course of reversible cerebral vasospasm syndrome (RCVS) associated with marijuana use. We herein report a unique case of recurrent bi-fronto-parietal subcortical (watershed) infarction in the setting of chronic daily marijuana use for several years, with evidence of bilateral anterior cerebral artery vasoconstriction. The quick resolution of symptoms with treatment and the normalization of cerebral vasoconstriction on follow-up imaging lend high certainty to the diagnosis of RCVS.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been recognized as a worldwide pandemic. However, the clinical course of COVID-19 remains poorly characterized. Although some cases of pneumothorax have been reported, they all had pulmonary complications or were managed with mechanical ventilation. We herein report a case of pneumothorax that developed even though the patient had no pulmonary underlying diseases and had never been managed with mechanical ventilation. In the present case, a lung bulla was found on chest computed tomography during treatment for COVID-19. We concluded that COVID-19 affected the formation of the lung bulla and induced the complication of pneumothorax.
Unilateral pulmonary edema (UPE) is a rare entity and is usually associated with severe mitral regurgitation and more frequently occurs in the right lung. We herein report a case of unilateral left pulmonary edema caused by external compression of the right pulmonary artery and left pulmonary vein caused by the presence of hematoma due to type A acute aortic dissection (AAD), resulting in asymmetrically increased inflow and decreased outflow in the left pulmonary circulation. Physicians caring for patients with UPE should be aware that AAD leading to the external compression of the heart may be a possible underlying mechanism.
Drug-induced immune hemolytic anemia (DIIHA) is a rare condition with an increasing incidence associated with the frequent use of certain drugs. An 85-year-old woman with lung adenocarcinoma prescribed alectinib complained of dyspnea on exertion at our hospital. Based on her laboratory tests results on admission, we focused on the clinical course of anemia and hemolysis progression after alectinib administration. The patient's anemia and hemolysis gradually improved after discontinuation of alectinib, leading to a diagnosis of alectinib-induced IHA, presented here as the first case encountered in a patient with lung adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, we discuss the importance of correlating clinical laboratory findings in DIIHA.