A 61-year-old dextral woman was admitted to the hospital with difficulty finding words. Neurological examinations confirmed that her speech was affected by frequent pauses and occasional phonological paraphasia without cognitive deficits. We detected atrophy, hypoperfusion, and hypometabolism in the right perisylvian and parietal regions, expanding to the right anterior temporal lobes and right inferior frontal gyrus (opercular region) by magnetic resonance imaging, single-photon emission computed tomography, and fluorodexyglucose-positron emission tomography (PET), respectively. Amyloid-PET did not identify the accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) in the bilateral cerebral cortices. We herein report a case of crossed aphasia with Aβ-negative logopenic primary progressive aphasia that was likely the result of frontotemporal lobar degeneration.
We herein report a 28-year-old woman with type 1 diabetes with an asymptomatic pontine lesion and diabetic amyotrophy. She had suffered from diabetes from 10 years old. Treatment in a hospital reduced the hemoglobin A1c level from 14.2% to 7.2% for approximately 2 months. She suffered from acute-onset pain and weakness of the lower limb muscles without central nervous system manifestations. Magnetic resonance imaging showed high-intensity lesions at the brainstem and lower limb muscles on T2-weighted images. These findings and symptoms gradually resolved. Rapid treatment of poor glycemic control might increase the risk of asymptomatic pontine lesions and diabetic amyotrophy.
Objective The hospitalist system is considered successful with respect to the quality of care and cost effectiveness in the United States. Studies have consistently demonstrated an improved clinical efficiency with this system. In Japan, however, the efficacy of the hospitalist system has not yet been examined. As a "super-aged society", Japan has a high number of elderly patients with multiple comorbidities who may theoretically receive better care by the hospitalist system than by the conventional system. This study investigates the impact of the hospitalist system on the quality of care and healthcare economics in a Japanese population.
Methods We analyzed 274 patients ≥65 years of age in whom the most resource-consuming diagnosis at admission was aspiration pneumonia over a 1-year period. We categorized patients as those managed by hospitalists and those managed by various departments (control group) and compared the groups. Propensity score matching was used to minimize selection bias.
Results For matched pairs, the length of hospital stay in the hospitalist group was shorter than that in the control group. Care by the hospitalist system was associated with significantly lower hospital costs. The quality of care (rate of switching from intravenous to oral antibiotics, duration of antibiotics therapy, number of chest X-rays and blood tests during hospitalization) was also considered to be favorably impacted by the hospitalist system. There was no statistically significant difference in the mortality rate or readmission rate between the groups.
Conclusion This study showed that the hospitalist system had a favorable impact on the quality of care and cost effectiveness, suggesting the potential utility of its implementation in the Japanese medical system.
A 72-year-old man presented with a 6-month history of systemic edema. Hyperpigmentation, hemangioma, pleural effusion, IgG-kappa-type monoclonal protein, high vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) values, renal failure, and nerve conduction study abnormalities were also present. Multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) showed 0.2% neoplastic plasma cells (CD38-, CD56-, and kappa-positive; CD19-, CD27-, and lambda-negative) in the bone marrow leading to POEMS syndrome. Cases involving kappa-type POEMS syndrome are extremely rare. A kidney biopsy revealed membranous proliferative glomerulonephritis-like changes in our case. Lenalidomide-dexamethasone therapy improved the renal function. Detection of neoplastic plasma cells by MFC was useful for the accurate diagnosis and treatment evaluation.
Cryoballoon ablation is a well-established therapeutic tool for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF). We herein report a rare case of a 69-year-old man with PAF undergoing hemodialysis due to chronic kidney disease who developed hyperkalemia caused by possible cold agglutinin disease during cryoballoon ablation therapy. During the procedure, his electrocardiogram showed wide QRS when we finished cryoablation therapy. We detected hyperkalemia and performed urgent hemodialysis. We should bear in mind that cold agglutinin disease can occur during cryoballoon ablation.
Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) sometimes demonstrates hematologic disorder, whereas acquired amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia (AAT) involvement is extremely rare. We herein report a 67-year-old woman with relapse of AOSD who concomitantly developed AAT. Thrombocytopenia along with high disease activity of AOSD was resistant to high-dose prednisolone, even in combination with methotrexate and tacrolimus. However, alternative treatment with cyclosporine after administering tocilizumab resulted in the improvement of thrombocytopenia, ultimately demonstrating that combination therapy based on suppressing the intractable disease activity of AOSD and subsequently adding a reliable immunosuppressant was required to achieve remission.
Type III collagen is the major protein in the walls of blood vessels and hollow organs; it is decreased in patients with vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS). A 52-year-old man was admitted for severe back pain, and right hemothorax was suspected by chest computed tomography. Immediately after embolization for bleeding bronchial artery, aortic dissection occurred and was treated conservatively in the intensive-care unit. Vascular EDS with a mutation of COL3A1 cDNA (c.3175G>A) was diagnosed. When vascular EDS is suspected, the patient should be treated prophylactically, and a genetic examination should be performed to confirm the diagnosis.
We experienced a pregnant woman with superior vena cava syndrome at 15 weeks of pregnancy who was diagnosed with primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma and given chemotherapy. In this case, the clinical courses of both the mother and infant were favorable without any serious complications because of close multidisciplinary cooperation. Based on a retrospective review of this case, the administration of CHOP-like regimens during the second and third trimesters appears relatively safe. Because pregnancy and continuation of pregnancy are rare in patients with hematopoietic malignancies, the accumulation of detailed information is important.
A 53-year-old woman presented with repeated copious bloody stool. Small bowel capsule endoscopy revealed a submucosal tumor (SMT)-like lesion, with erosion of the surface, in the first third of the small bowel. Balloon-assisted small intestinal endoscopy also revealed a pulsatile SMT-like lesion with an exposed vessel on the surface. This unknown lesion was surgically resected. The histopathological findings of the resected SMT-like lesion showed a dilated artery with thrombosis blockage and recanalization. Since this case could not be classified as any of the small intestinal vascular lesion patterns endoscopically, its classification will require the accumulation of further cases.
We herein report the first pediatric case (a 13-year-old girl) of relapsing eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) successfully treated with mepolizumab (anti-interleukin-5). She was classified as having EGPA based on the presence of asthma, eosinophilia, pulmonary infiltrates, and extravascular eosinophil infiltration confirmed by a biopsy. She achieved remission after initial oral prednisolone (PSL) therapy, but EGPA relapsed during PSL tapering. Subsequent combined therapy with PSL and tacrolimus did not improve the recurrent disease. Intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy was started, followed by oral PSL. During PSL tapering, mepolizumab was added to the treatment, which resulted in sustained remission and successful PSL tapering.
A rare case of lung cancer with the simultaneous production of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) is reported. A 79-year-old man was admitted to our hospital due to cachectic symptoms and an increased inflammatory response. Laboratory tests and imaging studies suggested metastatic lung cancer with high serum levels of G-CSF and IL-6. He died of progressive disease, and an autopsy showed that the lung tumor had positive protein expression of both cytokines and a solid growth of large-cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid changes, possibly resulting from the epithelial-mesenchymal transition mediated by IL-6 and leading to widespread metastases.
Objective We aimed to stratify the risk of major cardiovascular (MCV) events in Japanese patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) who had normal single-photon emission computed tomographic myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT MPI) findings and to compare the risk by generation.
Methods This was a retrospective study. The composite endpoint was the occurrence of cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, or non-fatal stroke.
Patients The study subjects were 2,035 patients with normal SPECT MPI findings at baseline who had been followed up to confirm their prognosis for 3 years. The patients were categorized into 3 age groups: very elderly (≥80 years old, n=311), elderly (65-79 years old, n=1,097), and younger (<65 years old, n=542).
Results During the follow-up, 68 patients experienced MCV events: cardiovascular death (n=29), non-fatal myocardial infarction (n=15), and non-fatal stroke (n=24). The MCV event rate was significantly higher in very elderly patients than in other patients. Multivariate predictors were age categories, the estimated glomerular filtration rate, atrial fibrillation, and stress left ventricular ejection fraction. The MCV event rate was 6.1% in very elderly patients. However, the MCV event rate in those with normal cardiac and renal functions without atrial fibrillation was 3.3%, which was similar to that in elderly and younger patients.
Conclusion The MCV event rate was high in very elderly patients despite their normal SPECT MPI findings at baseline. Therefore, very elderly patients with multivariate risks should be carefully followed to avoid a poor prognosis.
The patient was a 74-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis who developed ataxia. MRI revealed T2-hyperintense lesions predominantly in the left middle cerebellar peduncle. Punctate or linear Gd enhancement was also observed on T1-weighted images. A brain biopsy was conducted and the pathology revealed a mild demyelinated lesion. PCR of biopsied brain tissues revealed the presence of JCV DNA, but JCV-infected oligodendroglia-like cells were not apparent on immunohistochemistry. Sensitive in-situ hybridization, however, detected three JCV-positive cells and the infiltration of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and plasma cells was also observed. Immunosuppressants were tapered off and mirtazapine and mefloquine administered, resulting in a favorable outcome.
Colonic varices are usually associated with portal hypertension. Idiopathic colonic varices are extremely rare. A 68-year-old man with a positive fecal occult blood test result underwent colonoscopy. We detected idiopathic ileocolonic varices and a coexisting ascending colon polyp. While reviewing the literature, we found cases of biopsies and polypectomies resulting in significant bleeding. We herein report a case of idiopathic ileocolonic varices coexisting with a colon polyp treated successfully by endoscopy. The coexistence of colonic varices and a colorectal lesion that requires endoscopic treatment may lead to significant bleeding. During management, the development of a treatment strategy and obtaining informed consent are necessary.
Objective Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a serious fungal infection that can be life threatening in immunocompromised hosts. We evaluated the association between the radiological patterns of PCP on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and clinical characteristics and the prognosis of patients with connective tissue disease (CTD).
Methods All CTD patients who developed PCP from January 1999 to April 2017 were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were divided into three groups based on their chest HRCT findings: Ground glass opacity (GGO) sharply demarcated from the adjacent normal lung by interlobular septa (demarcated GGO), diffuse GGO without obvious demarcation (diffuse GGO), and GGO with mixed consolidation (mixed GGO). We compared the clinical characteristics at the onset of PCP and the outcomes among the groups.
Results A total of 35 cases were identified: demarcated GGO (n=8, 23%), diffuse GGO (n=19, 54%), and mixed GGO (n=8, 23%). The mixed GGO group showed a higher serum C-reactive protein level (p<0.0001), lower lymphocyte count (p=0.07), lower serum albumin (p<0.001), and lower PaO2/FiO2 ratios (p<0.001) in comparison to the demarcated and diffuse GGO groups. The mixed GGO group showed significantly higher mortality in comparison to the demarcated and diffuse GGO groups (88% vs. 7%, p<0.0001).
Conclusion GGO with mixed consolidation on chest HRCT was associated with a poor outcome of PCP in patients with CTD.
Glucocorticoid therapy is effective for treating autoimmune pancreatitis, but autoimmune pancreatitis itself and steroid therapy aggravate glycemic control. A 77-year-old man with type 2 diabetes was consulted due to aggravation of glycemic control. He was diagnosed with autoimmune pancreatitis. We promptly started glucocorticoid therapy for autoimmune pancreatitis and insulin therapy for glycemic control. Subsequently, both pancreatitis and diabetes were markedly ameliorated. After stopping glucocorticoid therapy, good glycemic control continued with diet therapy alone. Starting glucocorticoid therapy at an early stage of autoimmune pancreatitis is very important for preserving the insulin secretory capacity and improving glycemic control.
A 70-year-old woman was referred to our hospital due to symptoms of dry eyes, dry mouth, and epigastric pain. Computed tomography showed distal pancreatic swelling, liver edge dullness and surface irregularities. Serum anti-nuclear antibody titers, immunoglobulin G and IgG4 levels were elevated. Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) was diagnosed based on endoscopic findings and a histopathological examination. Her AIP improved after starting prednisolone treatment. A liver biopsy revealed interface hepatitis with lymphoplasmacyte and IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration. In addition, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) was diagnosed based on the presence of parenchymal steatosis, ballooning hepatocytes, and pericellular fibrosis. We experienced a unique liver disease case showing IgG4-related liver disease overlapping with NASH.
Isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency (IAD) is a cause of adrenal insufficiency (AI), which shows impaired secretion of ACTH with the preserved secretion of other anterior pituitary gland hormones. We herein report a case of IAD complicated by chronic thyroiditis presenting with neuropsychiatric symptoms without other signs indicative of AI that showed complete improvement of the cognitive function after the administration of corticosteroids. The clinical features of our case may be confused with autoimmune encephalopathies (AEs); however, IAD should be strictly differentiated from AEs, as it requires permanent hormone replacement without addition of immunosuppressive agents.
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is a tick-borne infectious disease. A 91-year-old woman was admitted to our intensive-care unit with SFTS, and she developed dyspnea with wheezes 5 days after admission. Bronchoscopy showed scattered white mold in her central airway. An airway tissue biopsy and culture of bronchial lavage fluid revealed fungal hyphae in the necrotic tissue, confirmed as Aspergillus fumigatus. She was thus diagnosed with pseudomembranous aspergillus tracheobronchitis. She had no common risk factors for invasive aspergillosis (IA). Patients with SFTS, even those without apparent risk factors for IA, may be at risk of developing IA.
In 2018, the CorPath GRX system (Corindus) was approved for use in Japan, marking the introduction of the first robotic-assisted system for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the country. The present report describes the first experience of robotic-assisted PCI for four coronary lesions in two cases in a single center. All procedures succeeded without any complications, although one procedure was converted to manual PCI by the operator's decision. Post-marketing surveillance to assess the impact of this novel system on both Japanese patients and physicians is currently ongoing in Japan.
A 48-year-old woman with POEMS syndrome suddenly presented with numbness of her right upper limb. Magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple acute infarctions in her left cerebrum, and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) showed multiple intra-cranial vascular lesions, which contrasted with previously normal MRA results obtained eight months prior to the stroke. After completing successful treatment for POEMS syndrome, there were no recurrent stroke episodes. A six-month follow-up scan showed that although the vascular lesions did not progress, they did not improve much either. POEMS syndrome is associated with the rapid extension of large blood vessels-vasculopathy-resulting in nearly irreversible brain lesions.
Chest computed tomography (CT) findings of minute pulmonary meningothelial-like nodules (MPMNs) usually show tiny nodules (2-5 mm in diameter) of ground-glass attenuation. However, diffuse, thin-walled cavities have rarely been reported. We herein report a 56-year-old woman with MPMNs showing diffuse, thin-walled cystic lesions on a thin-section chest CT scan. Clinicians need to be aware of the imaging characteristics of this conditions to guide appropriate management of lung diseases, as these CT findings may resemble certain metastatic lung neoplasias and primary adenocarcinoma of the lung.
We herein report the case of a 74-year-old woman with a lung tumor. She presented with complaints of blurred and rapid, progressively impaired vision. A visual field examination revealed bilateral concentric contraction of the visual field and a ring scotoma in the right eye. She was diagnosed with cancer-associated retinopathy (CAR) combined with large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the lung via a visual field examination and underwent thoracoscopic surgery. CAR has been mostly associated with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). Combined LCNEC is relatively rare and accounts for 10.6% of all LCNECs. This is the first case report of CAR-combined LCNEC.
A 71-year-old woman being treated with methotrexate (MTX) and tacrolimus (TAC) for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was admitted to our hospital and underwent surgery for gastric perforation and peritonitis. An endoscopic examination six days post-surgery showed an extensive ulcer in the stomach, and a biopsy revealed diffused large B-cell lymphoma. We diagnosed her with immunodeficiency-associated lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD) and discontinued the MTX and TAC. She underwent gastrectomy due to stenosis approximately two months after the first operation, but the histopathological findings of lymphoma had disappeared. LPD should be considered as a potential cause of gastric perforation during RA treatment.
We herein report the first case in which an escalated dose of sunitinib was effective, even after dose reduction. A 64-year-old man with gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the small intestine discontinued adjuvant imatinib because of interstitial pneumonia. After two years, peritoneal recurrence was detected. Sunitinib was started at 50 mg/day for 4 weeks every 6 weeks, after which the dosage was reduced to 37.5 mg/day because of grade 1 gastritis, stomatitis, and a fever. Four months later, computed tomography showed progressive disease. As the adverse events were well-controlled by medication, we escalated the dose to 50 mg/day and achieved a partial response.
Blind pouch syndrome-associated anastomotic ulcer is rare, and itsendoscopic features remain poorly described. A 79-year-old man was referred to our hospital for melena. Capsule endoscopy (CE) revealed multiple ulcers in the small intestine. Double-balloon endoscopy (DBE) and a gastrografin examination through DBE revealed a potential anastomotic ulcer, a blind pouch, and a side-to-side anastomosis in the middle of the small intestine. Laparoscopic partial resection of the small intestine with anastomosis was performed on the suspected blind pouch syndrome-associated anastomotic ulcer. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the endoscopic features of a blind pouch syndrome-associated anastomotic ulcer.
An absence of skin lesions at the neurological onset may obscure the diagnosis of neuro-Sweet disease (NSD). We herein report a 32-year-old man with NSD in whom neurological symptoms preceded the development of skin lesions by 10 years. The patient exhibited four distinct neurological episodes: meningoencephalitis, scattered brain lesions, ocular flutter, and isolated seizures. Acute relapses responded to corticosteroid therapy, and the patient was successfully maintained on corticosteroid and dapsone combination therapy. NSD should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with recurrent neurological manifestations, especially with both meningeal and brain parenchymal involvement, even if no skin lesions are observed.
Antibody against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-IgG) associated encephalitis is an important syndrome associated with MOG-IgG. However, there have been no reports of MOG-IgG-associated optic neuritis or demyelination following meningitis without encephalitic symptoms. A 55-year-old woman presented to our hospital with headache, nausea, fever, and nuchal rigidity that had persisted for more than a month. She was hospitalized due to aseptic meningitis and recovered with conservative therapy. However, she was re-admitted due to left optic neuritis and demyelinating lesions. We diagnosed MOG-IgG-associated neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). She responded to treatment with intravenous methylprednisolone and oral prednisolone. Aseptic meningitis may be an initial manifestation of MOG-IgG-positive NMOSD.
Hyperprogressive disease (HPD) is a paradoxical phenomenon involving the acceleration of tumor progression after treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). A 66-year-old male smoker with advanced lung adenocarcinoma started pembrolizumab for progressive disease following first-line chemotherapy. He developed HPD after two cycles, and a re-biopsy revealed transformation to small-cell carcinoma. He subsequently underwent two lines of chemotherapy for small-cell carcinoma until progression and ultimately died. Transformation to small-cell carcinoma may be a cause of HPD during ICI therapy. The possibility of pathological transformation should be considered in cases of HPD with resistance to ICI therapy.
A 69-year-old man who had undergone chemoradiotherapy for advanced pulmonary adenocarcinoma had bilateral testicular and adrenal gland masses on a routine follow-up examination. We performed left orchiectomy, and the histopathological examination confirmed metastatic pulmonary adenocarcinoma involving the extracted testis. He was treated for disease progression with nivolumab after unsuccessful cytotoxic chemotherapy, which resulted in regression of recurrent adrenal and right testicular tumors. We reviewed the existing literature on metastatic testicular tumors and found that testicular metastasis from lung cancer is rare and poses a chemotherapeutic challenge. Based on our experience, immune checkpoint inhibitors seem to have good efficacy for treating testicular metastasis.
Mid-esophageal diverticulum is a rare disease, formed by the traction caused by inflamed bronchial lymph nodes or by pulsion induced by motility disorder. We herein report a case of mid-esophageal diverticular bleeding in a patient with kyphosis who was taking an anti-platelet drug. She was successfully treated with endoscopic hemostasis. An 80-year-old woman presented to our emergency department with hematemesis. She had kyphosis and was taking dipyridamole for her chest pain. Emergent upper endoscopy revealed bleeding from a mid-esophageal diverticulum; hemostasis was achieved via clipping. Mid-esophageal diverticula can cause upper gastrointestinal bleeding. An endoscopic examination and hemostasis are effective treatments.
A 71-year-old woman with abnormal pulmonary shadows and multiple enlarged thoracic lymph nodes was diagnosed with stage IIB lung adenocarcinoma, pulmonary sarcoidosis, and sarcoidosis-associated lymphadenopathy after biopsies from multiple organ sites. She also had rapidly progressive renal dysfunction, microhematuria, and high myeloperoxidase anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA) concentrations. A renal biopsy revealed granulomatous tubulointerstitial nephritis and necrotizing glomerulonephritis with crescent formation. She was diagnosed with nephritis caused by both sarcoidosis and ANCA-associated vasculitis. Oral prednisolone was administered to treat her nephritis, resulting in improvement in both her renal dysfunction and her sarcoidosis-associated lymphadenopathy.
Objective We aimed to identify obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) severity indices reflecting the anthropometric and metabolic characteristics of patients with OSAS.
Methods A total of 76 patients with OSAS underwent nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP). We also investigated the effects of nCPAP on OSAS-associated muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), risk for cardiovascular diseases, and insulin secretion and sensitivity.
Results Among the OSAS severity indices, HbA1c was significantly correlated with the apnea-hypopnea index, whereas HOMA-beta, HOMA-IR, and hepatic insulin resistance were significantly correlated with % SpO2<90%, independent of age, gender, and body mass index (BMI). Burst incidence of MSNA was independently associated with only a 3% oxygen desaturation index. nCPAP therapy significantly lowered the OSAS severity indices and reduced the burst rate, burst incidence, and heart rate.
Conclusion The OSAS severity indices reflecting apnea/hypopnea are associated with glycemic control, whereas those reflecting hypoxia, particularly % SpO2<90%, are associated with hepatic insulin resistance independent of obesity. Both types of OSAS severity indices, especially the 3% oxygen desaturation index (reflecting intermittent hypoxia), are independently associated with MSNA, which is dramatically lowered with the use of nCPAP therapy. These findings may aid in interpreting each OSAS severity index and understanding the pathophysiology of OSAS in clinical settings.
Objective Delays in insulin initiation can lead to the development of complications in the management of type 2 diabetes.
Methods In this study, the effects of the timing of insulin initiation on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes were evaluated retrospectively. Changes in the HbA1c levels of 237 patients were analyzed after insulin initiation.
Results The patients were divided into 4 groups according to the duration of diabetes at the time of insulin initiation: ≤3 years, 4 to 6 years, 7 to 9 years, or ≥10 years. Patients with a diabetes duration of ≤3 years were more frequently hospitalized at the time of insulin initiation, had a higher HbA1c level before insulin initiation and a lower HbA1c level at 1 year after insulin initiation and exhibited significant decreases in HbA1c at 1, 3, or 5 years after insulin initiation than those in the other 3 groups with longer durations of diabetes. In the group receiving 4 insulin injections per day, the reduction in HbA1c after 5 years of treatment was larger in patients with a diabetes duration at the time of insulin initiation of ≤3 years than in those with a duration of 7 to 9 years or ≥10 years.
Conclusion Our results suggested that an earlier initiation of insulin therapy was crucial for sustaining glycemic control in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes, particularly in those with a history of obesity or receiving multiple insulin injections daily.
Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) and segmental arterial mediolysis (SAM) are noninflammatory, nonatherosclerotic arterial diseases that cause aneurysm, occlusion, and thromboses. These diseases are rarely seen in mesenteric arterial lesions; however, as they can be lethal if appropriate management is not provided, the accumulation of clinical information from cases is essential. We herein report the cases of a 57-year-old man diagnosed with FMD and a 63-year-old man diagnosed with SAM. We conclude that an early diagnosis with imaging modalities and clinical information followed by the appropriate treatment improves the prognosis of these arterial diseases.