Objective This study was performed to clarify the association of the degree of gastric mucosal atrophy (GMA) with the occurrence of gastric cancer in patients with Helicobacter pylori-eradicated status.
Methods The subjects were 3,058 patients (2,035 men, 1,023 women; mean age 57.9 ± 9.5 years old) with H. pylori eradication who underwent esophago-gastroduodenal endoscopy examinations as part of medical checkups conducted between April 2013 and March 2022. The gender, age at eradication, time since eradication, usage of anti-secretory drugs, degree of endoscopic GMA, and the fundic gland polyp (FGP) prevalence were compared between subjects with and without gastric cancer occurrence.
Results Gastric cancer was newly detected in 26 subjects (0.85%) during the study period, with an older age at H. pylori eradication and severe grade of endoscopic GMA being significant risk factors for its occurrence. The gender, smoking history, and usage of anti-secretory drugs were not significantly different between subjects with and without gastric cancer occurrence. A Cox regression analysis showed that an older age at eradication and the degree of GMA were risk factors significantly related to occurrence. Furthermore, the degree of GMA was inversely correlated with FGP development, and gastric cancer was not detected in 467 subjects with FGP prevalence.
Conclusion An older age at the time of H. pylori eradication and the degree of GMA are significant risk factors for gastric cancer occurrence in H. pylori-eradicated patients. The FGP prevalence in subjects with H. pylori eradication was inversely associated with GMA, suggesting it was negatively related with gastric cancer occurrence.
Objective The study objectives were to clarify the clinical findings and the causes of intractability and mortality of upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding in inpatients.
Methods The patients were divided into Inpatient (Ip) and Outpatient (Op) onset groups, and their characteristics, clinical and bleeding data, and outcomes were compared.
Patients Our study included 375 patients who developed UGI bleeding during hospitalization or were admitted after being diagnosed with UGI bleeding in an outpatient setting from January 1, 2015, to June 30, 2020.
Results The Ip group had worse general condition; increased percentages of comorbidities; and more common use of proton pump inhibitor, anti-coagulant, and steroid than the Op group. Compared with the Op group, the Ip group had lower serum albumin levels and platelet counts at the onset of bleeding, whereas rebleeding, mortality, and bleeding-related death rates were higher. Multivariate analysis of the Ip group revealed that the risks of rebleeding included endoscopic high-risk stigmata, maintenance dialysis, and duodenal bleeding, whereas the risks of mortality were gastric ulcer and a Charlson Comorbidity Index update score of ≥3.
Conclusion UGI bleeding in the Ip group was associated with higher rebleeding and mortality rates. Because of their poor general health condition, the pathology of UGI bleeding in these patients may differ from that of patients with common UGI bleeding. A different approach for the care and prevention of UGI bleeding in inpatients is required.
Objectives Real-world evidence on the safety and effectiveness of direct-acting antivirals in patients infected with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes (GTs) 3, 4, 5, or 6 in Japan is limited. This prospective observational study assesses the real-world safety profile and treatment effectiveness among patients prescribed sofosbuvir with ribavirin (SOF+RBV) for HCV GT3-6 infection in Japan.
Methods Adults receiving 24-week SOF+RBV treatment for HCV GT3-6 infection were prospectively enrolled and observed through 24 weeks post-treatment for treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) considered related to SOF and/or RBV by treating physicians and for a sustained virologic response at 12 and 24 weeks post-treatment (SVR12, SVR24). Incidence rates of related AEs and serious AEs (SAEs) were calculated. Proportions of patients experiencing related AEs/SAEs and those achieving SVR12 and SVR24 were assessed overall and by baseline characteristics, including treatment experience and cirrhosis status.
Results Among the 50 patients included in the safety analysis, 92% had GT3 infection. The incidence rates of related AEs and SAEs were low overall (1.52 and 0.25 per 100 person-weeks, respectively), with 6.0% and 14.0% patients experiencing AEs related to SOF or RBV, respectively. There were no marked differences in the occurrence of related AEs/SAEs by patient baseline characteristics. SVR12 and SVR24 were achieved in 83.7% (41/49) and 82.2% (37/45) of patients, respectively. Lower effectiveness was observed among treatment-experienced patients and patients with cirrhosis at baseline.
Conclusion This study demonstrated that SOF+RBV treatment for HCV GT3-6 infection was safe, effective, and an important treatment option for this difficult-to-treat patient population in Japan.
Objective The course of cryptogenic cirrhosis (CC) after liver transplantation (LT) is unknown. We therefore clarified the natural course post-LT for CC and investigated the etiology of CC.
Methods Eighteen patients who underwent LT for CC were included. To rule out the possibility of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in patients with CC, those with a history of obesity or liver steatosis found pretransplantation were excluded. A liver biopsy was performed one year after LT and annually thereafter.
Results Liver steatosis and steatohepatitis were identified in 61% and 39% of patients after LT, respectively, with a median time to the onset of 12 and 27 months, respectively. There were no other pathological findings such as liver allograft rejection, autoimmune hepatitis, or primary biliary cholangitis. The body mass index after LT (28.5 vs. 22.4 kg/m2; p=0.002) and mean muscle attenuation at the time of LT were significantly higher (33.3 vs. 25.8 Hounsfield units, p=0.03) and the postoperative hospitalization period shorter (50 vs. 102 days; p=0.02) in the steatosis group than in the non-steatosis group. Recipients were significantly younger in the steatohepatitis subgroup than in the simple steatosis subgroup (55.0 vs. 63.5 years old; p=0.04).
Conclusion Despite excluding CC patients with a history of obesity, we observed that patients with CC had a high prevalence of steatosis after LT than those without CC. Young patients with a favorable postoperative course were noted to have a high risk of NASH after LT for CC. Patients with CC may represent cases of non-obese NASH.
Objective The 2018 Tokyo Guidelines (TG18) were published to facilitate the decision-making processes (DMP), including the diagnosis and operation of acute cholecystitis (AC). However, only a few guidelines consider older adults. This study evaluated the DMP based on the TG18, focusing on older patients with AC.
Methods This was a single-armed, single-center retrospective study. The primary outcome measure was the "undiagnosable" AC rate, and the secondary outcome measure was the degree of concordance of "unfit for surgery" decisions.
Patients Two hundred and nine patients with AC.
Results Sixty (28.7%) of 209 patients with AC were "undiagnosable" on admission based on the TG18 criteria. The numbers and rate of "undiagnosable" AC in patients ≤59, 60-79, and ≥80 years old were 4 (10.0%), 20 (24.4%), and 36 (41.4%), respectively (p<0.001). The multiple logistic regression analysis following the univariate analysis revealed that age >73 years old was the most significant risk factor for undiagnosable AC [p=0.006, odds ratio (OR): 3.06, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.38-6.81]. Female sex (p=0.033, OR: 2.09, 95% CI: 1.06-4.09) and severe AC (p=0.049, OR: 2.97, 95% CI: 1.01-8.76) were also significant risk factors for undiagnosable AC. The number of cases unfit for surgery based on the Charlson Comorbidity Index and American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status was 90 (43.1%) and 75 (35.9%), respectively. The κ value between these 2 indicators revealed a minimal concordance of 0.33 (95% CI: 0.20-0.47).
Conclusion The DMP based on the TG18 potentially harbors a misjudgment risk, especially in older patients with AC (UMIN000047715).
Objective Patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and impaired awareness of hypoglycemia (IAH) are at an elevated risk of experiencing automobile accidents. We therefore investigated the association of IAH with driving safety and hypoglycemia problem-solving abilities in adults with T1D.
Methods This cross-sectional survey used Gold's method in adult patients with T1D at the National Hospital Organization (NHO) Hospital from February 14, 2020, to October 31, 2021. The participants were divided into control and IAH groups. The data included information on demographics, worries and distress regarding hypoglycemia, hypoglycemia problem-solving abilities, and adverse driving events.
Patients We enrolled 233 participants (mean age: 48.5±12.8 years old, mean hemoglobin A1c level: 7.6%±0.9%) from NHO collaborating centers in Japan.
Results Among a total of 233 participants (mean age: 48.5±12.8 years old, mean hemoglobin A1c level: 7.6%±0.9%), the prevalence rate of IAH was 11.6% [95% confidence interval (CI): 7.8-16.4%]. IAH was significantly associated with near-miss car accidents (odds ratio: 5.41; 95% CI:1.64-17.80). Diabetic peripheral neuropathy was associated with an increased risk of IAH, while treatment with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion was not associated with a decreased risk of IAH. The average hypoglycemia problem-solving perception, detection control, and seeking preventive strategies scores in the IAH group were significantly reduced compared with those in the control group.
Conclusion IAH was associated with an increased risk of near-miss car accidents among adults with T1D. Furthermore, good hypoglycemia problem-solving abilities were associated with a decreased risk of IAH.
Objective Patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) are considered to be at an increased risk of thrombosis, and prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism (VTE) is often recommended. However, the occurrence of thrombosis in Asian patients has not been specifically studied. Thrombotic complications and features of Japanese warm AIHA (WAIHA) patients were studied to see if Japanese patients were at an increased risk of thrombosis and should receive prophylaxis for VTE.
Patients and Methods Forty-seven consecutive patients with warm WAIHA were retrospectively studied. Twenty-nine patients were diagnosed as primary cases and 18 as secondary cases, and 10 patients were diagnosed with Evans syndrome.
Results No patient presented with thrombosis, and over a median observation period of 15 months, 3 patients had ischemic cerebral vascular accidents. However, all three of those patients had other known risks for thrombosis, with only one taking thrombotic prophylaxis. No venous thrombosis occurred in any patients during the follow-up period. There was no mortality associated with thrombosis. D-dimer levels were often elevated in patients with WAIHA, indicating that the coagulation was activated in a considerable number of patients, but not to such a level as to be associated with clinically overt thrombosis.
Conclusion Thrombotic complications occur infrequently in Japanese WAIHA patients, and these individuals do not appear to be at a particularly increased risk of thrombosis because of WAIHA. The indication of VTE prophylaxis should be determined individually, considering other risks.
Objective To investigate the frequency and clinical characteristics of ischemic stroke patients with early seizures, especially with cortical involvement contralateral to their focal seizures.
Methods We retrospectively studied patients with ischemic stroke admitted to our hospital. We compared the clinical characteristics of patients with and without early seizures (occurring within seven days of the stroke onset). In addition, we divided the patients with early focal seizures into two groups (patients with and without cortical involvement of a recent infarct contralateral to their focal seizure) and compared the clinical characteristics of the groups.
Results Of the 5,806 patients with ischemic stroke, 65 (1.2%) were diagnosed with early seizures. A history of ischemic stroke [odds ratio (OR) 1.71], a history of seizures (OR 27.58), and a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score on admission (OR 1.07) were significant and independent factors associated with the presence of early seizures. Of these 65 patients, 56 had focal seizures, while the others had generalized or undetermined seizures. Cortical involvement of a recent infarct contralateral to their focal seizures was observed in 24 of these 56 patients (43%). Glucose and hemoglobin A1c levels were significantly higher in patients with cortical involvement of a recent infarct contralateral to their focal seizures than in those with infarcts in other regions.
Conclusion These findings suggest that recent infarcts play a role as systemic causes of acute symptomatic seizures as well as an epileptogenic lesion in ischemic stroke patients with early focal seizures.
Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric cancer (EBVaGC) has been reported to be associated with chronic inflammation of the gastric epithelium caused by Helicobacter pylori infection. Autoimmune gastritis (AIG) is also believed to increase the risk of carcinogenesis. We herein report a case of multiple EBVaGCs that arose in a patient with AIG, highlighting the potential for multiplicity of this entity. In this case, a total of four metachronous EBVaGCs were found after initial Endoscopic submucosal dissection for EBVaGC, all of which were treated endoscopically. This case demonstrates that patients with AIG should be monitored closely for development of EBVaGC.
Duodenal varices are detected infrequently, and their rupture is very rare. We encountered an 87-year-old man who developed duodenal varices rupture during chemotherapy with atezolizumab and bevacizumab (ATZ/BV) for hepatocellular carcinoma. We identified massive bleeding of a ruptured varix in the horizontal portion of the duodenum with emergency esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). Successful hemostasis was achieved by endoscopic injection sclerotherapy with Histoacryl. Although ATZ/BV can cause esophageal varices rupture, there have been no cases of duodenal varices rupture. We should take care to check the duodenal varices as well as esophagogastric varices before ATZ/BV treatment.
Hiatal hernia is a common condition in elderly patients, but the additional presence of prolapse of the pancreas is extremely rare. We herein report an 89-year-old woman who presented with liver function disorders and abdominal pain. Her laboratory tests revealed cholestasis, and imaging examinations showed stenosis of the common bile duct pulled toward the hernia sac. She was diagnosed with a common bile duct stricture due to pancreatic herniation and underwent laparoscopic surgery. Our review of the literature identified three types of pancreatic herniations: asymptomatic, bile duct complication, and acute pancreatitis. Pancreatic head herniation tends to induce bile duct complications.
We herein report a rare case of Yersinia enterocolitica enteritis with a fever and abdominal pain followed by erythema nodosum (EN) a few days later. The diagnosis was confirmed based on characteristic colonoscopy and computed tomography findings, pathology, and mucosal culture. Yersinia enteritis is a curable disease provided a proper diagnosis and treatment are performed. Although EN is a rare clinical course, it should still be considered as a differential diagnosis.
We herein report a case of atypical pseudo-Meigs' syndrome without pleural effusion. A 46-year-old woman was diagnosed with an ovarian tumor and sigmoid colon cancer with massive ascites. She underwent surgical resection of the sigmoid colon and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. The pathological diagnosis was sigmoid colon cancer with ovarian metastasis. A few days after the operation, the massive ascites disappeared. Immunostaining for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) suggested its overproduction was involved in the development of the ascites. Although cases of pseudo-Meigs' syndrome without pleural effusion are rare, reporting such cases will facilitate the choice of more appropriate treatment strategies in future.
Esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis (EIPD) is a rare disease. A 78-year-old man with dysphagia presented to our hospital. The presence of diffuse esophageal spasm was suspected by his primary-care doctor. High-resolution manometry (HRM) showed no abnormal findings. The patient was diagnosed with EIPD and Candida esophagitis, by esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and esophagography. His symptoms improved after symptomatic treatment for Candida esophagitis with oral administration of an antifungal drug. EIPD should be considered in patients with dysphagia; EGD and esophagography should be performed when diagnosing EIPD.
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is a systemic disorder characterized by tissue eosinophilic infiltration and vasculitis. Although EGPA causes multiple organ damage, it causes cholecystitis less frequently. We herein report a case of acute cholecystitis associated with EGPA in which successful treatment with glucocorticoid therapy allowed surgery to be avoided. EGPA can present as acute cholecystitis. It is important not to overlook acute cholecystitis associated with EGPA in patients with abdominal pain with peripheral eosinophilia. Furthermore, in cases of mild cholecystitis associated with EGPA that are diagnosed preoperatively, cholecystectomy might be avoided with conservative glucocorticoid treatment.
Primary pancreatic lymphoma is a rare pancreatic malignancy, reportedly accounting for only 0.2-0.7% of all primary pancreatic tumors. Primary pancreatic lymphoma is often difficult to distinguish from other diseases, such as acute pancreatitis. We herein report the autopsy of a patient with primary pancreatic lymphoma with imaging findings resembling those of severe acute pancreatitis, with a focus on the gross and histological features.
Bioprosthetic aortic valves have limited durability. We herein report sudden progression of structural valve deterioration (SVD) and a successful case of emergency transcatheter aortic valve (TAV) implantation for acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) caused by SVD. A 79-year-old man who had undergone a Bentall operation 11 years prior was diagnosed with ADHF due to suddenly progressive SVD. Emergency TAV implantation in the surgical bioprosthetic valve was selected based on the surgical risk. Ours and previous case reports suggest that SVD can progress suddenly, even after months of stability, and that emergency TAV implantation is effective.
An 87-year-old woman who had undergone coil embolization 25 years ago for pulmonary arteriovenous fistula, which was diagnosed following repeated cerebral infarction, presented with massive hemoptysis. The coils migrated and were excreted in stool following hemoptysis during long-term follow-up. Although the technical success rate of coil embolization for pulmonary arteriovenous malformations is extremely high, and coil embolization-related complications are rare, little is known about the long-term complications. We herein report the clinical course of our case, review previous reports related to coil migration as a long-term complication, and discuss the associated mechanism.
Triple-negative essential thrombocythemia (ET) is a condition in which mutations in JAK2, CALR and MPL are all negative. Transformation to acute myeloid leukemia may occur during the course of ET, while B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia B-(ALL) is rare. We experienced a case diagnosed as B-ALL during the course of triple-negative ET. Notably, cytoreduction was required for the excessive increase in blood cells during the bone marrow recovery period after chemotherapies. Whole exome sequencing identified 17 somatic mutations: 9 were identified in both ET and B-ALL samples, while 8 were specific to B-ALL, suggesting that these 8 might have caused the transformation.
We herein report a case of anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody-related myelitis caused by coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection in 2021. A 22-year-old man with no history of any related illness contracted COVID-19. Eight days later, he developed bladder problems, paraplegia and sensory disturbances. Cervical spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging revealed extensive hyperintensity at T2 and spinal cord lesions extending from C4 to Th1. The patient was diagnosed with transverse myelitis and started on intravenous methylprednisolone, plasma exchange and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. The symptoms improved only after intravenous methylprednisolone therapy. Anti-MOG antibodies were found in his serum and cerebrospinal fluid during routine screening. As this observation is unusual and could cause serious health problems, we wonder if COVID-19 triggered this autoimmune response.
Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T cell lymphoma (SPTCL) is a very rare cutaneous T cell lymphoma that has been reported to be associated with autoimmune disorders but is most commonly associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. We herein report a 26-year-old man thought to have lupus panniculitis (LP) treated for 10 years with corticosteroids and cyclosporine. After several relapses with panniculitis, he was finally diagnosed with SPTCL, which was confirmed to have a HAVCR2 mutation for p.Tyr82Cys. We emphasize that rheumatologists should be aware of the possibility of SPTCL, despite its rare appearance, when making a diagnosis of LP or when encountering clinical manifestations that are not consistent with LP.
A 68-year-old man presented with right buccal ulceration along the facial artery, temporal pain, lagophthalmos, diplopia, and tongue deviation to the right. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed bilateral temporal artery and right maxillary artery wall thickening, and a diagnosis of giant cell arteritis (GCA) was made according to the American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria. Treatment with corticosteroids ameliorated his symptoms. This is the first report of GCA with buccal skin ulceration along a facial artery. Because a delayed diagnosis can lead to irreversible damage, it is essential to notice rare symptoms, such as skin ulceration and multiple cranial neuropathy-like symptoms.
A 78-year-old Japanese woman with no history of rheumatic disease received 2 doses of the BNT162b2 COVID-19 mRNA vaccine. Two weeks later, she noticed bilateral swelling in the submandibular region. Blood tests showed hyper-immunoglobulin (Ig)G4emia, and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) revealed the strong accumulation of FDG in the enlarged pancreas. She was diagnosed with IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR)/the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) classification criteria. Treatment was started with prednisolone at 30 mg/day, and the organ enlargement improved. We herein report a case of IgG4-RD that may have been associated with an mRNA vaccine.
The efficacy of benralizumab, as well as mepolizumab, to granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) involved with mononeuritis multiplex remains unclear. We experienced a case of EGPA presenting neuropathy with severe asthma. Muscle weakness due to neuropathy involved with gait disturbance was partly ameliorated by intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. Mepolizumab (100 mg/day) did not promote further improvement of neuropathy. However, the administration of benralizumab instead of mepolizumab improved neuropathy quickly and enabled walking alone. The efficacy of benralizumab for EGPA and its complication has been maintained for over four years. Benralizumab may be a possible treatment for EGPA presenting neuropathy with severe asthma.
A 76-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for refractory diarrhea with a poor antidiarrheal effect. Chest and abdominal computed tomography revealed a 24×22-mm mass in the left upper lobe of lung and multiple masses in the liver. Urine 5-Hydroxy indol acetic acid was markedly elevated. A liver biopsy revealed large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma with serotonin production, suggestive of a lung origin, and a lung biopsy revealed combined large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Therefore, we made a definitive diagnosis of carcinoid syndrome caused by large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung. Although chemotherapy was performed after diagnosis, the patient died 50 days postadmission.