This paper describes the 35 years of history of the Japan Society for Educational Technology (JSET) and its contribution to information and communication technology (ICT) education in Japan. Society 5.0, as advocated by the Government of Japan, calls for a major transformation of education to prepare future generations to not only adapt to a digitally transformed society, but also lead such a societal transformation. In order to contribute to the research base of educational practices and governmental policies for advanced ICT utilization in education, the JSET has been playing an active role in various major works, including publishing an encyclopedia in 2000 and a book series in 2015. Recently, to meet the diverse interests and topics within the educational technology research community, the JSET has established activities for special interest groups. At the end of this article, a brief description of the frameworks of Japan’s ICT policies has been given, to which the JSET has made major contributions.
The key to developing learning support using technology is understanding learning from an informatics point of view. Research on informatics for learning and education applies learning theories or views to model learning and develop various methods and systems for learning support. The Japanese Society for Information and Systems in Education (JSiSE) has demonstrated leadership in this research field in Japan. JSiSE particularly encourages theoretical development, as well as practical use of models, methods, and systems, which involves circular interaction between them. In this paper, we introduce the history, research aim and approach, and academic activities of JSiSE. The paper also highlights the research being conducted by JSiSE on theoretical modeling of learning and development of methods and systems, and its transition owing to the influence of learning theory and learning media.
The knowledge-creation metaphor of learning, a new epistemological perspective of learning, has been discussed in many studies; however, the methodological approach to evaluating learning as a knowledge-creation practice has not been established to date. This paper discusses learning analytics for the new perspective of learning and examines two developing technologies for analyzing discourse: the knowledge-building discourse explorer and epistemic network analysis. This paper provides a brief introduction to the new perspective of learning and discusses the need for new methodological approaches for the new perspective of learning. The paper demonstrates how the two technologies help researchers analyze learners’ discourse in collaborative contexts and further examines how technologies can be integrated into a higher-level analytics framework.
The contemporary information world is epistemically complex—rife with conflicts, misinformation, and diverse forms of poor evidence. To prepare learners for this world, educators must enable learners to handle this epistemic complexity. As one important component, this includes preparing learners to handle the various forms of poor evidence that they will encounter—from low-quality studies touted as proof that vaccinations are harmful to cherry picked evidence on climate change that flies in the face of scientific consensus. This paper presents an analytic template based on the Grasp of Evidence Framework for analyzing learning environments according to how well they prepare students to reason well with various kinds of good and poor evidence they will encounter in the contemporary world. We illustrate the use of this analytic template by applying it to evaluate our own science curriculum; the design principles we discuss are more broadly applicable to any curricula aiming to prepare students to reason well with good and poor evidence encountered in the information world.
This paper presents an international comparison of parents’ perceptions regarding information and communications technology (ICT) usage by young children. We conducted surveys using questionnaires and interviews with parents and educators in Japan, Taiwan, and Australia. The study showed differences between these three countries regarding parents’ thoughts on ICT usage by young children, including the number of hours of use, necessity of parental supervision, and the need to teach young children about the technology before using ICT. Educational practices are conducted in Australia, and regulations are implemented in Taiwan. However, our study shows that parents in all three countries have concerns regarding problems that young children might have while becoming involved with the internet. Parents think that young children need information education and rules on this matter regardless of the existence of educational programs or regulations in each country.
The importance of cultivating learning attitudes that enable learners to not only memorize key facts but also gain insights into the background of these facts is widely recognized. This study aims to develop a novel learning support system that imparts a positive learning attitude to learners by having them perform historical interpretation activities in an exploratory manner by using historical cartoons that illustrate historical events as learning materials. This study proposes a historical interpretation activity support system based on cartoon semantics whereby learners can perform self-exploratory learning in a step-by-step manner according to the historical interpretation process model. The proposed system also aims to provide them with support to encourage their historical interpretation activity according to their interests and learning situations. It was confirmed that the proposed system helps to promote the learners’ interpretation of history instead of rote learning and has the potential to change their learning attitude toward history.
This study examines the learning effectiveness of computational thinking (CT) in a simple classification task while using a yes/no chart learning system compared to using a visual programming learning system. Several investigations have already reported that both visual programming as well as classification tasks can be useful in fostering CT. However, while visual programming is thought to be difficult for beginners because of its complex nested structure, yes/no charts, which visualize the yes and no states, enable students to learn the classification tasks and to understand their structure immediately. This means that even if the learning content is the same, there may be a difference in the learning effect due to their appearance being different. Thus, we have hypothesized that the learning effectiveness of a yes/no chart would be higher than or equal to that of visual programming. We developed a yes/no chart system and a visual programming learning system, and implemented the same classification task in both the systems. The results showed the learning effects of the two systems to be roughly equivalent, supporting the hypothesis in general.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of teachers’ autonomy support in synchronous online learning environments. The participants included 197 Japanese undergraduates. The hypothetical model posited that perceived teachers’ autonomy support was related to students’ intrinsic motivation and metacognition, which, in turn, were related to self-evaluated achievement. The results showed that perceived teachers’ autonomy support was related to students’ self-evaluated achievement, and this relationship was mediated by intrinsic motivation. Perceived teachers’ autonomy support was also related to metacognition, although metacognition did not have a mediating effect. The role that teachers play in synchronous online learning environments is also discussed.
In order to write successful novels, authors should consider the preferences of their target readers. However, some authors find it difficult to identify their target readership. One important characteristic of readers is that they expect to experience certain emotions through reading a novel. For example, some readers enjoy thrillers, whereas others prefer sad stories. Our study focuses on this characteristic of readers to propose a method of writing novels that evokes target emotional impressions in readers, and develop a system that supports this method. The process of reading a novel evokes myriad emotions in readers, who then draw an overall emotional impression of the book based on the felt sequence of emotions. From this viewpoint, the current study introduces a story arc that expresses the expected transition of reader emotions along with narratives and helps authors select them as the first step in producing a novel. Additionally, readers often experience emotions through empathizing with characters whose actions or emotional aspects are described. The emotions of such characters should reflect in story arcs. Our study allows authors to derive the emotions of characters by referring to story arcs. In order to support those who are interested in this process, our system provides an environment within which a story arc is selected from typical ones, and characters’ emotions are established by referring to it. Our system also provides feedback if differences are identified between the characters’ emotional changes and the selected story arc. Experimental results suggest that the proposed system can support authors who intend to create discourse structures that follow a story arc and can convey emotions.
This study designed and evaluated a project-based learning (PjBL) technique that promotes the social construction of knowledge by overcoming dissonance using G Suite for Education. The core aspects of the design include controlling the discussion process by setting a task with the same directionality in terms of its solution while including two conflicting positions and using a synchronous system to provide real-time feedback from a teacher to control the discussion process. A four-part model of PjBL was presented to overcome dissonance. To evaluate the effects of this model, PjBL lessons were conducted with high-school students in which the topic led them to consider ideas to support people living in shelters for 3 months following an earthquake. Consequently, the effects of the core aspects of the design were partially confirmed.
Technology and self-regulated learning are necessitated for successful distance learning. In this study, we investigate whether an orientation course that include activities to facilitate self-regulated learning in instructions pertaining to using information communication can help learners succeed in the course. The study population comprises 60 nurses enrolled in an academic medical institution in Japan. Progress through the course and outcomes of performing and modifying learning plans as indicators of self-regulated learning are compared with the results of learners who have completed an analogous course that excludes self-regulated learning activities. The effect of mentor feedback on learners’ self-regulation is evaluated. The data obtained from the learning management systems are analyzed via quantitative and qualitative analyses. The results of this study suggest that the experience of rotating the self-regulation cycle in the orientation course increases the learners’ metacognition of their thinking process and learning strategies, thereby resulting in the setting of reasonable goals and plan execution.
The authors and their colleagues had developed a critical reading support software called “eJournalPlus,” which was designed to help learners not only read an electronic text but also construct their own opinions based on it. To create a rich learning environment that enhances critical reading when learners read electronic texts, we designed and implemented a collaborative learning function. The function was designed in the form of “push-pin comments,” which allows learners to directly exchange comments with each other on specific parts of a graphic organizer called “knowledge map” and on an essay generated by each learner through their individual reading processes. In this study, we examined the effects of this function on peer response activity that had the aim of improving the individual essays as products of their critical reading. The results showed that the push-pin interface facilitated learner peer response activities in which learners exchanged more critical comments on their peers’ knowledge maps and essays.
We equipped an interactive digital signage system with simple interactivity, which enabled viewers to answer quizzes by performing horizontal body movements. Our system was installed in a local public facility for disaster education mainly visited by children. To improve the learning experiences of the visitors, we added improved interactivity, which enabled them to answer the quizzes by using body actions such as pointing, positioning, and posing. This improved interactivity aimed to (1) introduce fun to learning activities and (2) attract the attention of viewers. We compared the efficacies of the simple and improved interactivities at an event in the facility. Although improved interactivity did not necessarily improve the efficacy and fun of learning, it attracted more attention than simple interactivity.
This study investigated the failure beliefs among Japanese junior high school students using the failure belief scale developed by Nishimura et al. Cluster analysis was performed by categorizing 280 students into four distinctive clusters: “high fearfulness group” with high fearfulness toward failure, “failure amicable group” with low fearfulness towards failure and high utilization-possibility of failure, “average group” that showed consistently average scores over the two subscales, and “failure indifferent group” with low scores over the subscales. One-way ANOVA revealed that the first two groups are different not in the academic outcomes but in the social outcomes. The results suggested that teachers should focus on social aspects as well as cognitive aspects in promoting the qualitative development of students’ failure belief groups.
In this study, the English proficiency (EP) of learners was determined based on their read-aloud performance (RAP). RAP reflects EP as it demonstrates the basic linguistic skills required for recognizing lexical/syntactic structure, understanding the meaning, and making speech sounds depending on the sentence structure/meaning. Empirically, RAP test scores have been correlated with those of EP tests such as the Test of English as a Foreign Language or Test of English for International Communication. With the assumption that RAP can be evaluated based on accuracy, speech rate, and learners’ subjective judgment, in this study, it was examined which combinations of these RAP indices achieved the highest EP estimation; in addition, how EP estimation depended on learners’ EP was analyzed. For this, EP estimation was evaluated for learners at different EP levels. The experimental results showed that all combinations of RAP indices perform comparably in EP estimation, and that effective EP estimation differed by EP level.
This article presents a review of the literature on Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) from 2011 to 2020. We analyzed 100 research articles based on the First Principles of Instruction (FPI), with the aim of considering the problems of CLIL and exploring the possibilities of improvement based on these principles. We found that the focus of almost all the articles was English as a Foreign Language (EFL) as the target language; rarely was a concern for other languages indicated. Moreover, current studies pertaining to CLIL paid little attention to the FPI. In this article, we offer some suggestions for future research.
The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a system to support the scoring of writing tests in primary and secondary schools employing the subject-teacher and the classroom-teacher systems. To this end, we employ the previously proposed image-skewered method, in addition to an area setting package function, to address commercially available tests used by classroom teachers and a multiple class selection function to score tests completed by students from multiple classes taught by the same subject teacher. Further, a function is added to operate only in the case of incorrect answers to reduce the number of operations required to assess the correctness of answers. To evaluate the system, the time taken to manually score actual test papers was compared with the time taken to do so using the proposed system. The automatic scoring method exhibited a time reduction by 44.0% for subject teachers and 42.9% for classroom teachers. These results indicate that the system functions effectively as a scoring support system to reduce the time consumed for scoring tasks for teachers working in primary and secondary schools.
An attitude survey for teachers was administered to derive extracted inhibition factors and promotion factors using exploratory factor analysis to clarify concrete measures to promote programming education in elementary schools. From the results of 434 respondents, 3 inhibition factors were identified: “lack of teaching materials”, “recognition of inequality”, and “resistance to ICT utilization”. Three promotion factors were also identified: “promotion system”, “provision of information”, and “human support”. In order to clarify the relationships among the six extracted factors, covariance structure analysis was conducted. As a result, the three collaborations of “promotion system”, “provision of information”, and “human support” led to improvements in “lack of teaching materials” and “resistance to ICT utilization”. Furthermore, it was shown that there is a relationship leading to the resolution of the disparities in the skills and knowledge of teachers and students.
This study examined classification of formative feedback (FB) for teachers in the Period for Integrated Studies. Objectives of the Period for Integrated Studies are to enable pupils to have independent thinking about life through cross-synthetic and inquiry studies while fostering qualities and abilities necessary to seek their own tasks, to learn and think independently, to make proactive decisions, and to solve problems better. For this study, we conducted utterance analysis of teacher–student interactions based on two assumptions: 1) types and modes of providing formative FB might differ among teachers with different skills, and 2) a relation might exist between student attitudes toward learning and formative FB. Utterance analyses assessed interactions between teachers and Grade 5 elementary students. We used a self-made rubric to apply quantitative analysis to evaluation data. Results demonstrated that an expert-level teacher used formative FB of 35 types depending on student attitudes. Expert-level teachers used different formative FB depending on the student’s approach type more than competent-level teachers did. However, competent-level teachers used formative FB of similar kinds, irrespective of a student’s learning status. An expert teacher uses certain forms of formative FB for problem consciousness in learning to elicit solutions from students, and to improve students’ learning quality.
The present study investigated the efficacy of the UWC ISAK Japan summer school on nurturing social-emotional competencies among junior high school students, considering the influence of participants’ personal characteristics. A pre-questionnaire on subpopulations and personality traits, and pre- and post-questionnaires on social-emotional competencies were conducted. Valid responses from 47 participants were analyzed. The results indicated that the UWC ISAK Japan summer school had significant effects regarding nurturing social-emotional competencies. In addition, positive correlations were found between changes in social-emotional competencies and students with low levels of agreeableness and openness, and between changes in social-emotional competencies and students who are Japanese nationals and foreign residents in Japan. This indicates that participants’ personality traits work as a moderator which influences the effects of the program.
This study aims to identify the nature of elementary school children’s metacognition in observational and experimental activities in science lessons and to clarify the structure of the factors that influence the metacognition of both elementary and junior high school students. To achieve this, a 14-item questionnaire was administered to 327 fifth and sixth graders. Analysis of the results revealed the following: (1) Elementary schoolchildren use metacognition in observational/experimental activities, but only to an extent. (2) While their own metacognition is well used by schoolchildren during observational/experimental activities, metacognition resulting from interaction with others is well used before such activities; however, after observational/experimental activities, there is insufficient use of metacognition of either type. (3) The use of metacognition by elementary and junior high school students is strongly influenced by the metacognition resulting from interactions with their teachers. In addition, the influence of metacognition resulting from children’s interactions with peers is stronger for elementary schoolchildren than for junior high school students.
This study developed a system that supports video annotation on mobile devices for non-face-to-face learning. We considered three functions supporting video annotation in the “VOVAM” system based on two surveys. It was found that learners were able to determine the evaluation contents to annotate on mobile devices. We also found that the D&D annotation function was easy to operate, and it was easy to set the target position to the time corresponding to the content that the learners wanted to annotate on the mobile device. We found that the marker overlap playback function could improve visual comprehension during reflection activities even if the markers from other evaluators were displayed on the mobile devices.
In self-directed language learning, it may be more effective for learners to design and carry out a learning plan that matches their individual needs. This study was conducted in a course at a Japanese university to examine the effects of instruction concerning English language learning design on learners’ planning and learning performance. The results showed that: (1) instruction in learning design helped learners create learning plans that matched their needs, and (2) learning plans matching learners’ preferences increased their motivation to learn, while plans matching learners’ preferences and learning environment improved the completion rate of the plans. The results suggest the importance of providing instruction in learning design, focusing on individual learners’ needs, especially their preferences.
This study aimed to examine the criterion-related validity of job application descriptions present in job application forms that college students submit to companies while job hunting. This study also empirically discussed how job application forms should be screened, highlighting that companies can fully understand the traits of each student through such forms, a knowledge that may allow for companies to make well-informed decisions about what type of work and organization should be offered for each student. Data on job application forms and job interviews were collected from a Japanese company. In terms of predictive validity, based on t-test results, significant differences in word frequency were verified in 19 words between higher and lower appraisal in job interviews. In terms of concurrent validity, a correlation analysis showed that partial words had a significant correlation with the Big Five personality factors. An analysis methodology was proposed based on the effectiveness evaluations.