The purpose of this research was to study in the Tigray highland of Ethiopia 1) to understand the change in the land utilization, the grazing patterns, and the change in the number of livestock, in light of the recent natural and social environmental changes, 2) to analyze the decrease in the number of livestock and its contributing factors, and 3) to discuss that the decrease in the number of domestic animals has a negative influence to the nutrition intake of local farmers. The field research while staying with a total of eight households and the survey questionnaire on a total of 14 households were conducted in September 2016 and July 2017, and the study on the farmer’s nutrition was also performed in March 2015 in the study area. From the imperial era through the socialist era, most of the land was still made up of grasslands and forests, which were available for grazing and logging. Each household raised from 10 to 30 cattle, making them rich financially and nutritionally. With the increase in population in the democratic era, however, there was a shortage of farmlands, and the grasslands and forests rapidly shrunk as more and more those communal lands was developed into farmlands. The grasslands and forests that had been used for grazing year-round shrunk even more when the government expanded the areas of seasonally-closed grazing land, prohibited grazing lands and protected forest lands. Furthermore, there was a shortage of herd boys who are in charge of grazing once schooling began in the villages. As a result, the number of livestock raised by a household began to dwindle. Since the farmers were only able to raise a few cattle, they could no longer obtain milk throughout the year, which led to a decreased consumption of milk products. The milk product’s contribution to their nutrition has become limited. The decrease in the amount of feed resources and the shortage of herd boys limited the number of livestock that could be raised by each household, and will mostly likely continue to be a major contributing factor in limiting the subsistence of the farmers in Tigray.
This is a proceeding for the annual symposium entitled “New development of grazing by using drones and robots-From countermeasure at bears to gibier, and to desert and grassland” organized by Commission of Agriculture Development for Arid Lands, The Japanese Association for Arid Land Studies. The symposium was held on 7th November 2017, at Food Science Building, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo. Abandoned farmland is expanding because of old age of farmers and of decreasing of number of farmers. The damages by wild animals such as bears and dear are being actualized along with expanding abandoned farmland, which is concerned as one of the serious problems in super-aging society in the near future. Gibier, French term, which is an activity to consume meat of wild animals locally, is paid attention as one of the resolution to control wild animals. On the other hand, small-seized Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) such as drone is spread quickly and is used in various objectives. Small UAV is used for sheep management in New Zealand instead of sheep dogs. In Japan, small UAV is used for management of sand dune, grassland, and control for wild animals. Based on such background, four presenters were selected in the symposium. Twenty-five people including not only academia but also public organization staffs, private company staffs and NGO staffs who were interested in the above topics attended the symposium and made active and fruitful discussion.
Currently, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) based remote sensing technology is receiving huge attentions for their utilization in pasture management. However, there are still some challenges to consider, such as operation safety, data management, and analytical method of image data. In this study, in order to explore the potential usefulness of UAV in pasture management, the following subjects were discussed: (1) the usage situation in pasture management and the camera (sensor) requirements, (2) the current advances in UAV technologies and examples of research in pasture, and (3) the issue to be solved in future.
This paper considers the possibility of visualizing rural landscape using progressive small UAV aerial photography and three-dimensional technology for reconstructing resident's landscape literacy in rural areas. Terraced paddy fields were selected as the study area. Visualizing rural landscape using small UAV aerial photography and three-dimensional technology were organized into three features: 1) Timeliness, 2) High resolution, and 3) Three-dimensionality. These features were considered effective for supporting residents’ landscape literacy.
Recently conflicts between wildlife and human becomes worldwide problem, but conservation of wild animals is also a current hot topic. We are developing a unique high-performance but low-cost legged robot “Whitegoat” series. The robot accidentally scared real goats, with its animal-like behavior. Inspired by the fact, our team is arranging the robot for wildlife saving tasks. The robot will be an expanded Whitegoat type, with telescopic manipulator as non-lethal threating equipment. It will patrol around the human territory and the size and function will be similar as guard dogs. We will describe the ongoing project in this report.
With aging and the decrease of the person of agriculture working in the district, the cultivation abandonment ground spreads. With expansion of the cultivation abandonment ground, the human damage due to the bear is actualized year by year as deer, agriculture damage and time due to the wild animal including the wild boar, too. The movement which restrains birds and beasts, not to calmly watch damage of birds and beasts in the proper number is also seen, and a measure of birds and beasts has started to wrestle seriously at all part. In this paper report the actual situation such as the agricultural damage and the current state of the measure by the wild damage of birds and beasts about directionality of future game meat (called in French as gibier).