Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly: JARQ
Online ISSN : 2185-8896
Print ISSN : 0021-3551
ISSN-L : 0021-3551
最新号
選択された号の論文の9件中1~9を表示しています
REVIEWS
Agricultural Environment
  • Takayuki SUZUKI, Hideaki IWAHORI, Katsuki ADACHI
    原稿種別: review-article
    2020 年 54 巻 3 号 p. 201-209
    発行日: 2020/07/01
    公開日: 2020/08/05
    ジャーナル フリー

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) is a major crop in Japan and worldwide. The sweet potato cultivar ‘Koganesengan’ is susceptible to damage by the southern root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in Japan. We investigated the effects of cropping new resistant cultivars on the suppression of nematode population density and subsequent damage to the succeeding ‘Koganesengan’ crops. ‘Koganesengan’ was cropped with two resistant cultivars (‘Daichinoyume’ and ‘Konamizuki’). The tuberous roots of ‘Daichinoyume’ and ‘Konamizuki’ were seldom damaged, whereas ‘Koganesengan’ was heavily damaged. In the next spring, the nematode population density in the plow layer soil (10 cm-15 cm) was lower after ‘Daichinoyume’ and ‘Konamizuki’ cropping than after ‘Koganesengan’ cropping. Nematode damage to ‘Koganesengan’ tuberous roots after ‘Daichinoyume’ and ‘Konamizuki’ cropping was slightly suppressed compared to that after ‘Koganesengan’ cropping. Cropping of these cultivars is an effective method of suppressing nematode density and reducing damage to sweet potatoes. By clarifying the capability of resistant cultivars even overseas, it will be possible to use sweet potato as a nematode-suppressive crop.

Agricultural Engineering
  • Sangyoon LEE, Hajime KOJIMA, Takeshi TAKEMURA
    原稿種別: review-article
    2020 年 54 巻 3 号 p. 211-217
    発行日: 2020/07/01
    公開日: 2020/08/05
    ジャーナル フリー

    There are about 170,000 irrigation ponds in Japan (May 2019) that serve a vital role as agricultural water resources in rural areas. However, these ponds are aging and the number of abandoned irrigation ponds has increased due to more farmland being abandoned and the aging of farmers. Many damaged irrigation ponds have been reported after heavy rains and earthquakes. During the past 10 years (2008-2017), 73% of all damaged irrigation ponds were damaged by heavy rainfall. About 64,000 ponds are specified as disaster-prevention-focused irrigation ponds (May 2019), which could pose a significant risk to downstream assets in case of a break. Thus, there has been rapidly growing social concern regarding disaster prevention and mitigation of the threat of such irrigation pond breaks. The prevention of irrigation pond failure due to heavy rain has consequently become a critical research topic. Accordingly, in this paper we review previous research on the damage to irrigation ponds due to heavy rain and the effects of various disaster prevention countermeasures relative to the following: 1) forms of damage and specific causes due to heavy rain; 2) flood analysis in case of a pond break, and flood control measures; and 3) methods of predicting potential damage due to an irrigation pond break.

Information Technology
  • Akane TAKEZAKI, Sungmin JOO, Hideaki TAKEDA, Tomokazu YOSHIDA
    原稿種別: review-article
    2020 年 54 巻 3 号 p. 219-225
    発行日: 2020/07/01
    公開日: 2020/08/05
    ジャーナル フリー

    We introduce the features of Common Agriculture Vocabulary (CAVOC) and CAVOC-based services, review other resources for standards in the domains of agriculture and food, and briefly discuss the future direction of agricultural semantics standards in Japan based on reviews. CAVOC has been developed as a core vocabulary for enhancing semantics-level interoperability. It specifies concepts that are frequently used to annotate agricultural data on agricultural activities and crops in Japan. The CAVOC website provides uniform resource identifiers by which the concepts in CAVOC are given. The data in CAVOC can be downloaded from the website. The extension of CAVOC coverage is important to unambiguously define objects and their relationships in the domains of agriculture and food. International collaborative efforts to create standards in agricultural semantics are underway through mapping among semantic resources within international projects and by holding meetings among stakeholders. We need to join the international community in creating agricultural semantics standards so as to extend CAVOC coverage through the utilization of foreign resources.

ARTICLES
Biotechnology
  • Tomotsugu NOGUCHI, Sivakumar SUBBARAYAN, Atsushi KIYOSAWA, Kazumi GOTO ...
    原稿種別: research-article
    2020 年 54 巻 3 号 p. 227-238
    発行日: 2020/07/01
    公開日: 2020/08/05
    ジャーナル フリー

    To compare the seed productivity of germplasm in India (Tamil Nadu) and Japan (Tsukuba), a total of 105 accessions from the Japanese National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO) sorghum core collection were cultivated. The comparative cultivation studies were conducted at two locations in India and one in Japan. Differences in cultivation environments, including day length, temperature, and rainfall were evident in all the studies, and accordingly, seed production varied. The accessions grown in Japan yielded the highest number of grains per panicle. However, 11 accessions cultivated in Japan produced no harvest. Conversely, all accessions grown in parts of India, such as in Coimbatore, produced seeds. Therefore, although seed production in Japan was superior, there were benefits to cultivating the crops in India, including longer cultivation periods and the ability to overcome difficulties with seed multiplication found in Japan. Comparative cultivation projects involving international collaborative research are essential to reveal seed productivity in genetically diverse resources of sorghum. This study provides data about international sorghum production and information about differences in available accessions.

Agricultural Environment
  • Yoshimichi FUKUTA, Thi Lang NGUYEN, Thi Thu Ha PHAM, Thi Luy TRINH, Va ...
    原稿種別: research-article
    2020 年 54 巻 3 号 p. 239-252
    発行日: 2020/07/01
    公開日: 2020/08/05
    ジャーナル フリー

    A total of 94 blast isolates were collected from five provinces in the Mekong River Delta in southern Vietnam. The pathogenicities of these isolates were evaluated using 25 international differential varieties (DVs) covering 23 resistance genes and a susceptible Chinese cultivar, Lijiangxintuanheigu (LTH). Based on the reaction patterns of the DVs, the isolates were classified into two clusters (I and II). Isolates virulent towards the DVs for Pit, Piz-t, Pi19(t), and Pita were more frequent in cluster I than in cluster II. Isolates virulent towards the DVs for Pi3, Pi5(t), and Pita-2 were more frequent in cluster II than in cluster I. Differences were also found in their geographical distributions, with isolates of cluster I dominant in the southern region of the Mekong River Delta and those of cluster II dominant in the northern region. Finally, the blast isolates were classified into 67 races. Based on these results and information on donor rice cultivars, the relationships between blast races and cultivated rice varieties were discussed. This information will be useful for understanding the variation of blast races distributed along the Mekong River in the countries of Southeast Asia.

Social Science
  • Chisa NAKAMURA, Yoko SAITO, Thuzar SHWE
    原稿種別: research-article
    2020 年 54 巻 3 号 p. 253-262
    発行日: 2020/07/01
    公開日: 2020/08/05
    ジャーナル フリー

    Child health is often a weak link in developing countries, and Myanmar is a case in point. Broadly speaking, a mother’s education has been shown in the literature to be an important factor in the determination of child health. But the empowerment of women over the allocation of intrahousehold resources has also been shown to be an important child health factor, and thus an accumulation of human capital. In the present study, we use survey data on an important anthropometric indicator of child health and its associated household characteristics to specify and estimate a child-health production function in rural Myanmar. We then use this production function to draw implications for the height-for-age growth curves. Importantly, our questionnaire-based indicator of empowerment shows the mother’s influence over household decisions regarding income, expenditures, and education to be an important factor in the Z-score of the height-for-age indicative of a child’s longterm nutritional status. Nearly 30% of girls and 48% of boys are found in a condition of being stunted nutritionally, and the growth curves come closer to the WHO standard as the empowerment of women improves. Although a number of women rights were achieved early in Myanmar, greater empowerment in the home remains a key to improve child welfare.

  • Sakiko SHIRATORI, Eveline M. F. W. SAWADOGO-COMPAORE, Hsiaoping CHIEN
    原稿種別: research-article
    2020 年 54 巻 3 号 p. 263-270
    発行日: 2020/07/01
    公開日: 2020/08/05
    ジャーナル フリー

    Cowpea, also known as black-eyed pea, is one of the most promising foods for nutritional improvement for many African countries. Cowpea—including its seeds, young pods, and leaves—supplies essential nutrients, such as high-quality protein. It is also of vital importance to the livelihood of many people in West Africa as a cash crop. In August 2018, we conducted a survey on 206 households in rural villages in Yako and Po, located in northern and southern Burkina Faso, respectively. We compared the cowpea production at the family plot and women’s plot levels, and the usages of cowpea seeds, leaves and pods between these two climatically and culturally different regions. Cowpea production in family plots is quite popular in both regions, suggesting that cowpea should no longer be considered just a “women’s crop.” Different varieties of crops are sold in the south, whereas cowpea is a major cash crop in the north. Regarding cowpea usage, all households in the north consume not only cowpea seeds but also the young pods and leaves, whereas some households in the south only consume the seeds. No households in the north use cowpea as a baby food, despite its nutritious content when properly prepared. These findings suggest the need to promote further utilization of cowpea in different forms in order to maximize its potential.

Animal Science
Fisheries
  • Tsuyoshi SUGITA, Amafe Belleza GAVILE, Joemel Gentelizo SUMBING
    原稿種別: research-article
    2020 年 54 巻 3 号 p. 277-284
    発行日: 2020/07/01
    公開日: 2020/08/05
    ジャーナル フリー

    We verified the efficiency of poultry by-product meal (PBM) as a substitute for fish meal (FM) in feed for juvenile milkfish (Chanos chanos). Juveniles (mean 48.0 g) were fed for 12 weeks with two experimental feeds containing different levels of PBM (8.0% and 12%), FM (10% and 5.0%), and cod liver oil (fish oil or FO, 4.0% and 3.8%). A feed without PBM having higher levels of FM and FO (20% and 4.5%, respectively) was used as control. Weight gain, specific growth rate, and feed conversion ratio were not significantly affected by the levels of dietary PBM. In addition, no significant differences were detected among the dietary groups in plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol, phospholipid, glucose, or total protein concentrations. Furthermore, crude protein, crude fat, moisture, and ash contents in the whole body, liver, and dorsal muscle were not significantly influenced by the dietary treatments. The results of organoleptic examinations that included tests of smell, flavor, and texture were almost the same among the dietary groups. These results indicated that PBM is the applicable substitute for FM, with performance of the high PBM feed (PBM-FM-FO = 12%-5.0%-3.8%) being comparable to that of the control feed.

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