The paper clarifies the importance of pre-analysis to identify the specific populations with extraordinary high or low risk before usual quantitative risk assessment model fitting. An illustrative example is shown to explain our idea and proposed procedures.
The basic concepts of risks and different approaches to risk management are overviewed. It is shown that the basic concepts of risks include both positive and negative meaning with uncertainty, and academic literature deffnes risks to be measures of uncertainty and the scale of hazards or utility. Hence risks have quantitative measures for the most cases. Decision making is always with risks and there are several different approaches to decision making with risks, some of which are overviewed herein. The issues of risk cognition, risk communication, and nonstandard methods of risk analysis such as fuzzy sets and modal logic are also discussed. The concepts of inverse problems and risk literacy are emphasized.
Hosptial information system (HIS) collects all the data from all the branches of departments in a hospital, including laboratory tests, physiological tests, electronic patient records. Thus, HIS can be viewed as a large heterogenous database, which stores chronological changes in patients' status. This paper overviews three applications of data mining and statistical methods to HIS. First, clustering of temporal sequences based on multiscale matching was applied for grouping chronic hepatitis. Second, decision tree method was used for detection of risk factors, which was successfully used to prevent nursing medication errors. Finally, several linear models were applied for hospital management data. These results show that data mining methods, including decision tree mining, temporal data mining, are useful for detection of risk factors from large distributed data such as HIS, whose process can be called risk mining.
The concepts and characteristics of environmental risks are described, and then the roles and the significance of risk assessment are given as scientific measures against environmental risks. The assessment methods for the risks due to chemicals in the environment, which was first recognized historically as environmental risk, are discussed intensively especially from the statistical viewpoint.