Otsubo H, Kishimoto K, Hirano I, Nakano H, Itaya K, Kumaki R, Osumi H. Relationship between cognitive function affecting motor Functional Independence Measure and hypnotics. Jpn J Compr Rehabil Sci 2022; 13: 4-11.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between cognitive dysfunction affecting motor Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and hypnotics.
Methods: This was a retrospective study involving 509 patients aged ≥ 65 years who were discharged from a convalescent rehabilitation ward.
Results: Multiple regression analysis was performed with motor FIM efficiency and motor FIM effectiveness (motor FIM-e) as independent variables and the presence or absence of cognitive dysfunction as the dependent variable. The use of hypnotics in patients with cognitive dysfunction showed a positive relationship with motor FIM efficiency (β = 0.147, P = 0.019) and motor FIM-e (β = 0.141, P = 0.026). Multiple regression analyses were performed after further classifying hypnotics by therapeutic class into hypnotics with new mechanisms, non-benzodiazepine (BZ) hypnotics, and BZ hypnotics. Non-BZ hypnotics (β = 0.141, P = 0.021) showed a positive relationship with motor FIM efficiency. Non-BZ hypnotics (β = 0.158, P = 0.009) and BZ hypnotics (β = 0.178, P = 0.003) showed a positive relationship with motor FIM-e, whereas hypnotics with new mechanisms of action did not. In contrast, none of the three combinations of hypnotics showed any significant relationship with either motor FIM efficiency or motor FIM-e in patients without cognitive dysfunction.
Conclusion: The results suggested that the use of hypnotics in patients with cognitive dysfunction increases motor FIM efficiency and motor FIM-e.
Mita M, Suzumori K, Kudo D, Saito K, Chida S, Hatakeyama K, Shimada Y, Miyakoshi N. Utility of a wearable robot for the fingers that uses pneumatic artificial muscles for patients with post-stroke spasticity. Jpn J Compr Rehabil Sci 2022; 13: 12-16.
Objective: We investigated the utility of a wearable robot for the fingers that we developed using pneumatic artificial muscles for rehabilitation of patients with post-stroke spasticity.
Methods: Three patients with post-stroke finger spasticity underwent rehabilitation for 20 minutes a day, 5 days a week, for 3 weeks. Passive range of motion, Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), and circumference of each finger were measured before and after training and compared.
Results: The range of motion and finger circumference increased when using a wearable robot. The MAS improved partially, and no exacerbation was observed.
Conclusions: The wearable robot we developed is useful for rehabilitation of post-stroke spasticity and may improve venous return.
Oishi K, Nishioka S, Okazaki Y, Hirakawa K, Nakamura M, Ichinose A, Kurihara M. Relationship between oral hygiene and function and activities of daily living at discharge in convalescent patients with stroke. Jpn J Compr Rehabil Sci 2022; 13: 17-25.
Objective: This study was designed to examine the relationship between improvement in oral hygiene and function and activities of daily living (ADLs) at discharge in patients admitted to convalescent rehabilitation wards.
Methods: Eligible criteria were patients with stroke with a score of 13 or higher (i.e., severe oral problems) on the Revised Oral Assessment Guide (ROAG) at admission. Age, gender, primary diseases, rehabilitation dose, dentist visits and denture status, Eichner classification, eating status at admission and discharge, and body mass index at admission were collected. The patients were classified into two groups: those with ROAG scores of less than 9 points at discharge (good ROAG group) and those with scores of 9 points or more (poor ROAG group), and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) gain and total FIM discharge scores were compared using univariate and multivariate analyses.
Results: The good and poor ROAG groups comprised 126 and 366 patients, respectively. The good ROAG group had significantly higher total FIM score, FIM efficiency, and FIM gain at discharge than the poor ROAG group (112 vs. 82; P < 0.001). The ROAG scores at discharge were independently associated with FIM gain (partial regression coefficient = −9.889, 95% confidence interval = −13.499 to −6.279) and total FIM score at discharge.
Conclusion: Improvement in oral hygiene and function in convalescent patients with stroke was associated with ADLs at hospital discharge.
Murata S, Koike Y, Kasukawa Y, Saito K, Okada K, Kudo D, Shimada Y, Miyakoshi N. Contralaterally controlled functional electrical stimulation immediately improves hand function. Jpn J Compr Rehabil Sci 2022; 13: 26-30.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of contralaterally controlled functional electrical stimulation (CCFES) on upper limb function in stroke patients.
Methods: CCFES and mirror therapy (MT) exercises were conducted for 13 stroke patients at least 4 weeks post-onset. A sufficient interval of at least 24 hours was left between the two types of rehabilitation exercises. Before treatment and immediately after each training session, grip strength, Fugl-Meyer Assessment for Upper Extremity (FMA-UE) score and FMA-UE subscores for the shoulder/elbow/forearm, wrist, hand, and coordination were evaluated.
Results: Grip strength, FMA-UE and FMA-UE shoulder/elbow/forearm, wrist, and coordination did not differ significantly after CCFES and MT compared to before therapy. FMA-UE hand did not change significantly after MT compared to before therapy, but it improved significantly after CCFES (p = 0.013).
Conclusion: CCFES for the upper extremities immediately improves hand function and may be effective in maintaining and improving patients' motivation for rehabilitation treatment.
Sakai R, Koike Y, Saito K, Matsunaga T, Shimada Y, Miyakoshi N. Aphasia testing (auditory comprehension domain) using a new eye-tracking system in healthy participants. Jpn J Compr Rehabil Sci 2022; 13: 31‒35.
Objective: We administered a conventional pointingmethod test with eye-tracking to evaluate items associated with auditory comprehension and examined the concordance between the obtained results.
Methods: The enrolled participants were 10 healthy volunteers. We performed tests after extracting auditory comprehension items from the SLTA, the WAB, and the Supplementary tests for the SLTA using the eye-tracking system and the pointing method.
Results: The mean test duration was 9 min 51 s ± 1 min 41 s (mean ± SD), and the percentage of correct answers was 100% and in perfect agreement for the pointing method and the eye-tracking system. The mean response time was 0.96 ± 0.36 s for the pointing method and −0.39 ± 0.21 s for the eye-tracking system. Hence, the latter was faster than the former, and examinees completed their responses before listening to the end of the questions.
Conclusion: The new eye-tracking system makes it possible to perform aphasia tests (auditory comprehension items) comparable to the conventional pointing method.
Watabe T, Suzuki H, Abe M, Uchibori K, Senga K. Rehabilitation practice for external ophthalmoplegia including voluntary training for patients with medial longitudinal fasciculus syndrome. Jpn J Compr Rehabil Sci 2022; 13: 36‒40.
Introduction: This report presents a case of external ophthalmoplegia caused by medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) syndrome. The patient underwent oculomotor rehabilitation by an occupational therapist during hospitalization and voluntary training supervised by the occupational therapist after discharge.
Case: The patient presented with MLF syndrome due to bridge infarction. The left eye had a pronounced adduction disorder, and diplopia was observed in the median vision, resulting in severe discomfort in daily life. During the hospitalization, the patient underwent eye movement rehabilitation led by an occupational therapist that included pursuit, fixation, saccades, and convergence, and after discharge from the hospital, the patient underwent two sets of voluntary training for 10 min daily to induce pursuit, fixation, and convergence under the guidance of the occupational therapist. As a result, the angle of squint, degree of diplopia, and degree of inconvenience in daily life improved.
Discussion: Eye movement rehabilitation, including voluntary training, improved external ophthalmoplegia.