Food factors are considered to be critical for health promotion and play an important role in the prevention of life-style related diseases. Metabolic syndrome is typical common disease, such as abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension and diabetes mellitus that contribute to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Metabolic syndrome is closely linked with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease （NAFLD）, and cognitive disorder and Alzheimer’s disease （AD）. The quality and quantity of dietary lipids have been recognized as contributing factors in the development and prevention of these diseases. Recent evidences suggest the preventive role of dietary bioactive lipids. We review the beneficial effects of CLA, n-3LCPUFA and phospholipids on metabolic syndrome and related diseases such as fatty liver and insulin resistance. Phospholipids have been reported to provide beneficial effects against neurodegenerative disorders, including dementia, AD, Parkinson’s disease and age-related cognitive decline. The studies suggest that n-3
LCPUFA-phospholipids prevent the memory loss and the cognitive disorders. In conclusion, functional bioactive lipids may apply as supplements and/or functional food ingredients to relieve metabolic syndrome and neurodegenerative diseases.