JLTA Journal Kiyo
Online ISSN : 2433-006X
ISSN-L : 2433-006X
Volume 11
Showing 1-31 articles out of 31 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    2008 Volume 11 Pages Cover1-
    Published: September 20, 2008
    Released: August 07, 2017
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  • Type: Bibliography
    2008 Volume 11 Pages Misc1-
    Published: September 20, 2008
    Released: August 07, 2017
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  • Type: Index
    2008 Volume 11 Pages Toc1-
    Published: September 20, 2008
    Released: August 07, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2008 Volume 11 Pages App1-
    Published: September 20, 2008
    Released: August 07, 2017
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  • Akiyo HIRAI, Rie KOIZUMI
    Type: Article
    2008 Volume 11 Pages 1-20
    Published: September 20, 2008
    Released: August 07, 2017
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    Among different types of rating scales in scoring speaking performance, the EBB (Empirically derived, Binary-choice, Boundary-definition) scale is claimed to be easy to use and highly reliable (Turner & Upshur, 1996; 2002). However, it has been questioned whether the EBB scale can be applied to other tasks. Thus, in this study, an EBB scale was compared with an analytic scale in terms of validity, reliability, and practicality. Fifty-two EFL learners were asked to read and retell four stories in a semi-direct Story Retelling Speaking Test (SRST). Their performances were scored using these two rating scales, and then the scores were compared by using generalizability theory, a multitrait-multimethod approach, and a questionnaire delivered to the raters. As a result, the EBB scale, which consists of four criteria, was found to be more generalizable (i.e., reliable) than those of the analytic scale and generally assessed the intended constructs. However, the present EBB scale turned out to be less practical than the analytic scale due to its binary format and because it had more levels in each criterion. Further revisions seeking a better scale for the SRST are suggested.
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  • Takayuki Nakanishi
    Type: Article
    2008 Volume 11 Pages 21-40
    Published: September 20, 2008
    Released: August 07, 2017
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    Savignon and Wang (2003) researched learner attitudes and perceptions toward communicative language teaching (CLT) in senior high school and junior high school using a questionnaire in Taiwan. The results showed students prefer to learn by more communication-based teaching, but their actual perceptions in both senior high and junior high school were that they have been taught by form-based teaching even though the Taiwanese Ministry of Education has placed much more emphasis on the development of communicative competence in English. This article investigated Japanese learners' perceptions and practices of CLT in their previous English learning experiences and compared the results for Taiwanese students and for Japanese students. A total of 174 first-year university students from two Taipei universities and 200 Japanese freshman students were selected from two universities. The results indicated the same tendency between Japan and Taiwan regarding classroom practice and belief whereas the difference was found concerning attitude.
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  • Tetsuhito SHIZUKA
    Type: Article
    2008 Volume 11 Pages 41-60
    Published: September 20, 2008
    Released: August 07, 2017
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    The present paper reports on auditory and acoustic differences observed in learners' utterances before and after a series of pronunciation tests. A group of Japanese junior high school students (N=66) participated in a 24-session pronunciation course, in which the main activity was one-on-one performance coaching/testing. Audio recordings were made of a short sentence read aloud by a subgroup (n=34) of the participants both at the beginning of Session 1 and at the end of Session 24. The pre- and post-course recordings were compared in terms of (a) perceived degree of holistic foreign accentedness, (b) perceived phonological accuracy of segments, (c) the range and SD of vocal pitch (F0), and (d) acoustic characteristics of /r/ as reflected in F3. Holistic accentedness was judged by L1 English speakers, segments were rated by trained L1 Japanese teachers of English, and F0 and F3 analyses were conducted using Praat speech analysis software. The results indicated that in terms of every variable measured the post-course recordings were closer to the targeted, model than the pre-course recordings were. Through the one-year training, participants' utterances were segmentally more accurate, lower in the degree of foreign accent, came to use a wider pitch band, and F3 frequencies for /r/s became lower. Significance of these results is discussed and an argument is presented that the observed effects should be considered beneficial backwash of performance testing of pronunciation.
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  • Aiko MIYAZAKI, Kazuhiko KATAGIRI
    Type: Article
    2008 Volume 11 Pages 61-76
    Published: September 20, 2008
    Released: August 07, 2017
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    The purpose of this study is to investigate what percentage of English words known receptively Japanese learners of English at senior high school can spell out correctly. Two kinds of tests were prepared: one is to measure receptive knowledge of vocabulary (R) and the other is to measure productive knowledge of vocabulary (P). The receptive test was designed to investigate whether an examinee knows the meaning of each word. The productive test was designed to investigate whether not only an examinee can produce each word but also can spell it out perfectly. All the target words were the same in the receptive test and in the productive test. The target words in the tests were decided, considering parts of speech (nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs), lengths (number of alphabets), frequencies of each word. Fifty-six first-year senior high school students took the receptive test, first; and then, approximately ten days later, they also took the productive test. The results showed (1) according to the overall estimation through all the subjects, the productive knowledge 〓 vocabulary was 39.8% of receptive one, (2) the ratio of R[+]&P[+] : R[+]&P[-] : R[-]&P[+] was 0.375 : 0.608 : 0.016, and that (3) the ratios of R[+]&P[+] : R[+]&P[-] : R[-]&P[+] might be different according to the differences of subjects' English proficiency levels, parts of speech (nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs), lengths (number of alphabets), and word-frequency levels of each word.
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2008 Volume 11 Pages 77-95
    Published: September 20, 2008
    Released: August 07, 2017
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    This paper aims to integrate theories of communicative language ability (CLA) in a simple, but expandable way. It defines CIA as a vector whose direction and magnitude are determined in terms of the three dimensions: mindreading ability, physical ability and linguistic ability. This new understanding clarifies the role of mindreading ability in both non-linguistic and linguistic communication. It also makes explicit the function that the body carries both non-linguistically and linguistically. It holds connections with the past theories of CLA, particularly in terms of linguistic ability, and maintains the distinction between Chomskyan competence and traditional linguistic knowledge (conventions). CLA is further expanded both philosophically and linguistically and the three abilities are subdivided into the aspects explained by Theory of Mind and by Relevance Theory (for mindreading ability); linguistic physical ability and non-linguistic physical ability (for physical ability); competence and four types of knowledge of linguistic conventions (for linguistic ability). The four linguistic conventions are grammatical, textual, sociolinguistic and functional. With this three-dimensional understanding, we gain a better understanding of problematic issues in the past. Strategic competence and interaction are now explained by Theory of Mind and Relevance theory, and the psychophysiological mechanisms that disappeared without a reason in Bachman and Palmer (1996) are back with a wider notion that includes non-linguistic aspect. The past bias on the language oriented view of linguistic communication (communication is an extension of linguistic knowledge) is balanced by the communication oriented view of linguistic communication (language is not necessarily an essential component in communication). This paper presents what seems to be one of the most theoretically consistent general pictures of CIA.
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  • Hiroaki TANAKA
    Type: Article
    2008 Volume 11 Pages 96-108
    Published: September 20, 2008
    Released: August 07, 2017
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    The purpose of this study was to examine the facilitating factors of intrinsic English classroom motivation and students' classroom engagement. On the basis of Self-determination theory and the hierarchical model of motivation, this study examined the causal relationship between psychological needs and classroom engagement mediated by classroom motivation. Motivation is defined in terms of a Japanese EFL classroom context and intrinsic aspect, named intrinsic English classroom motivation, to differentiate trait motivation that most preceding studies on motivation have addressed. The participants were 69 high school students. Correlational and causal analyses revealed that the need for competence was (1) the strongest facilitating effect on intrinsic English Classroom motivation, and (2) the strongest indirect effect on classroom engagement. Moreover, the result showed that (3) the need for relatedness was an important facilitating factor of both intrinsic English Classroom motivation and classroom engagement. These results have implications for theories of motivation and also suggest one pathway by which teachers can facilitate students' classroom motivation and engagement in school.
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  • Yuji USHIRO, Haruka SHIMIZU, Yuko HOSHINO, Akari KAI, Sae SHIMADA, Nat ...
    Type: Article
    2008 Volume 11 Pages 109-123
    Published: September 20, 2008
    Released: August 07, 2017
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  • Sae SHIMADA
    Type: Article
    2008 Volume 11 Pages 124-138
    Published: September 20, 2008
    Released: August 07, 2017
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  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2008 Volume 11 Pages 139-155
    Published: September 20, 2008
    Released: August 07, 2017
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    Assessment is an important part of teaching and learning. This study is a part of a research on washback of group oral tests for Japanese language in a classroom environment. The students' preparation before the test and their perceptions of the test were categorized and discussed in terms of their relation to learning. The test was held at the end of term examination in intermediate Japanese conversation classes at a University in Korea. Twenty-five students from two classes underwent the test. After the test, data were collected by questionnaire and group interview. The data were analyzed qualitatively by two researchers. The results showed that 1) although about one-third of the students did not prepare for the test, remaining students underwent preparations intended for improvement in conversation skills, 2) students had analyzed the test format, the theme, their present level in Japanese etc. by themselves. It was, thereby, shown that students were active participants in the assessment process. However, there were students who didn't prepare for the test and those who didn't realize there was any relation between the test and their learning of Japanese language, therefore, further consideration is needed to promote positive washback.
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  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2008 Volume 11 Pages 156-172
    Published: September 20, 2008
    Released: August 07, 2017
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    With a growing interest in learner autonomy in the field of foreign language learning, there has been much discussion on the validity of self-assessment as an alternative to more objective measures in the evaluation of foreign language competence. Given that many of the past studies supported the usefulness of self-assessment, current research focus has been on factors that might enhance or mitigate its accuracy. This study investigated the influence of one such factor, experiential factor, on self-assessment scores, using the self-ratings provided by 357 company employees about their English abilities to perform 65 job-related tasks. More precisely, the research questions are (1) Does learners' experience with a task affect their self-assessments of the target task?, and (2) if so, how are task content and learners' language proficiency related to the experiential factor? Results revealed that in most tasks, the self-estimates given by the experienced were higher than those by the inexperienced and that the differences were statistically significant. This provides evidence that self-assessment is affected by the degree of learners' experience with the tasks self-rated. It was also found that when the tasks are complex or involve encoding/productive skills, experiential factors play more influential roles in learners' measurement of their ability to perform them. On the other hand, it was clearly shown that the higher the learners' language proficiency is, the less evident such effects are in their self-ratings. The findings suggest that the extent of learners' language experience should be considered in designing a self-assessment questionnaire and interpreting its results.
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  • Yasuyuki SAKUMA
    Type: Article
    2008 Volume 11 Pages 173-188
    Published: September 20, 2008
    Released: August 07, 2017
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    The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of English processing and storage in working memory between English native speakers and Japanese EFL learners. Five kinds of tests, that is, two types of digit span tests of forward recall(DST1) and backward recall (DST2), a computation span test(CST), a reading span test(RST) and a listening span test (LST) were administered to 22 English native speakers and 29 Japanese university students. The results showed two remarkable points of comparison between the two groups, as follows: (1) The span scores of RST and LST among the English native speakers were much higher than those of the Japanese EFL learners at the significant level of p .001, though those of DST1, DST2 and CST were not. (2) The correlation between the reading time of RST and its recall was significantly positive only in the Japanese. Overall, the present study indicated differences between the English native speakers and the Japanese EFL learners in utilizing the working memory at higher levels of English sentence processing.
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  • Yujia ZHOU
    Type: Article
    2008 Volume 11 Pages 189-208
    Published: September 20, 2008
    Released: August 07, 2017
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    The present study attempted to discover plausible differences in examinees' linguistic performance on monologic tasks between computer-delivered and face-to-face modes. The study also examined the relationship between test mode and examinees' oral proficiency. Seventy-nine Japanese EFL students responded to two monologic tasks delivered by the two modes. The examinees' speech samples were compared on measures of fluency, accuracy, and complexity. Results indicated that significant but varied effects were produced by the two test modes only in terms of fluency: examinees used more repetition words in the face-to-face mode but more filled pauses in the computer mode. Further, the effects of test mode on speech samples were not found to relate to examinees' proficiency. Implications for the field of language assessment and second language acquisition research were discussed, and directions for future studies proposed.
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  • Type: Appendix
    2008 Volume 11 Pages App2-
    Published: September 20, 2008
    Released: August 07, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2008 Volume 11 Pages 209-
    Published: September 20, 2008
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  • Type: Appendix
    2008 Volume 11 Pages 210-
    Published: September 20, 2008
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  • Type: Appendix
    2008 Volume 11 Pages 211-
    Published: September 20, 2008
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  • Type: Appendix
    2008 Volume 11 Pages 212-213
    Published: September 20, 2008
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  • Type: Appendix
    2008 Volume 11 Pages 214-
    Published: September 20, 2008
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  • Type: Appendix
    2008 Volume 11 Pages 215-
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  • Type: Appendix
    2008 Volume 11 Pages 215-
    Published: September 20, 2008
    Released: August 07, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2008 Volume 11 Pages 215-
    Published: September 20, 2008
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  • Type: Appendix
    2008 Volume 11 Pages 216-
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  • Type: Appendix
    2008 Volume 11 Pages 216-
    Published: September 20, 2008
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  • Type: Appendix
    2008 Volume 11 Pages 217-
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  • Type: Appendix
    2008 Volume 11 Pages 218-
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  • Type: Appendix
    2008 Volume 11 Pages 219-255
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  • Type: Appendix
    2008 Volume 11 Pages App3-
    Published: September 20, 2008
    Released: August 07, 2017
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