The differences between human males and females exist both biologically and sociologically and are known as “sex differences”. Females experience growth spurts 2 years earlier than males, and, subsequently, physical sex differences become prominent owing to female hormones. Therefore, coaches need to fully understand the three conditions that female athletes are susceptible to; these are collectively known as the female athlete triad. From a spiritual perspective, female athletes require a different kind of support than male athletes. For female athletes in other countries, athletic careers following childbirth last longer, and they are assured of work-life balance as athletes. Female athletes are not small male athletes. Thus, similarly nurturing independent female athletes may improve their potential in Japan.
The effect of female hormones needs to be considered in the conditioning and training of female athletes. However, quantitative evaluation of autonomic function is an important indicator for determining the conditioning of athletes, in place of female hormone testing, in the sport setting. Improving intestinal environment, as well as an adequate breathing method, is recommended as an easy approach aimed at increasing the autonomic function and performance. Use of in-vivo approaches to the autonomic nervous system in female athletes is anticipated to expand in the future.
Objective: The advantages of laparoscopic surgery have been described in previous studies. The aim of this study was to objectively evaluate the benefits of laparoscopic surgery (LS) vs. conventional open surgery (OS) by measuring stress markers.
Materials: Fifty-four patients who underwent radical resection for primary colon cancer between May 2008 and March 2011 were enrolled. Thirty-two of the 54 patients underwent LS and twenty-two underwent OS.
Methods: Peripheral blood and saliva samples were obtained on five occasions during the perioperative period. Salivary Chromogranin A (CgA), derivatives of Reactive Oxygen Metabolite Test (d-ROMs Test), interleukin 6 (IL-6), natural killer (NK) cell activity and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were analyzed for comparison between the two groups.
Results: With respect to the clinical characteristics, the intraoperative blood loss was significantly lower, and the operating time was longer in the LS group. Early postoperative oral-intake and reduced postoperative hospitalization were observed in the LS group. The salivary CgA, serum IL-6, and CRP were significantly lower in the LS group compared with the OS group. There was no difference in the d-ROMs finding between the two groups.
Conclusions: In the present study, there were significant differences in postoperative oral in-take, postoperative hospitalization, IL-6, CRP, and salivary CgA, suggesting an advantage of LS for patients with colon cancer. With respect to our finding of perioperative salivary CgA, further studies will be necessary to demonstrate the significance of this interesting and promising test.
Our research projects focus on basic researches harboring the proteomics, genomics and molecular pathogenesis of cancers and sarcomas, with an emphasis on the clinical translation of potential diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets. We also conducted clinical researches regarding sarcomas and bone metastases.
In this lecture, we introduced some of t our main projects as follows:
(1) Proteomic analyses of bone and soft tissue tumors.
(2) The identification of novel tyrosine kinase mutations in lung cancer.
(3) Functional analyses of bone and soft tissue tumors using proteomic approaches.
(4) Gene mutation analyses of bone and soft tissue tumors.
Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) is the most severe form of epidermolysis bullosa, a group of genetic skin fragility disorders. Blisters, skin erosion, and scars form all over the body, including mucous membranes in patients with RDEB. The pathogenesis of RDEB involves mutations of the COL7A1 gene encoding type VII collagen, the main constituent of anchoring fibrils that attach the epidermis to the dermis. Persistent skin erosion frequently results in intractable ulcers. As the ulcers heal, they result in severe scarring. Long-term inflammation of skin ulcers all over the body may cause secondary amyloidosis leading to chronic renal failure. In addition, patients with RDEB are at a high risk of skin cancer. Although there is no curative therapy for patients with RDEB, various kinds of biological dressings, including cultured skin substitutes, have been employed for the treatment of intractable ulcers. Nonetheless, allogeneic cultured skin cannot be permanently adopted. Autologous cultured skin lacks type VII collagen. Adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs) are easily harvested in large quantities from a minimal donor site, and show less immunogenicity and a powerful immunosuppressive potential. In addition, ASCs can differentiate into keratinocyte-like cells. Stem cell therapies using allogeneic ASCs may be applicable to the treatment of RDEB and other skin diseases in near future.
In endurance athletes with intense joint loading, cartilage metabolism (degradation of type II collagen) is enhanced compared with non-athletes and non-endurance athletes. Recently, we have revealed that glucosamine, a functional food, exerts a protective action on cartilage metabolism in not only osteoarthritis patients but also endurance athletes (such as soccer players and rugby players) by suppressing the degradation of type II collagen. In this review, to demonstrate these findings, the following topics will be explained: 1. Biomarkers for cartilage metabolism; 2. Evaluation of osteoarthritis and endurance sports by using biomarkers of cartilage metabolism; 3. Chondroprotective action of glucosamine on osteoarthritis patients and endurance sports athletes; 4. Glucosamine as a “Food with Function Claim”.