Objectives Postoperative venous thromboembolism is an important peri-operative complication associated with total hip arthroplasty (THA). In particular, early detection of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is important for the prevention of pulmonary embolism (PE). However, the methods and timing of examinations for DVT detection differ among the facilities. This study aimed to clarify the time, site, and frequency of DVT after THA.
Materials and Methods Background characteristics including age, sex, body mass index, diagnosis, operation type, operation time, and anesthesia type were investigated in 348 patients who underwent THA at our hospital between April 2017 and April 2019. Blood tests were performed preoperatively and on postoperative days (POD) 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21. Simultaneously, vascular ultrasonography was performed to investigate the time and site of thrombus occurrence before and after the surgery.
Results DVT was observed in 27.2% of the patients on POD 21. The DVT-positive ratio was 9.4% (6/64) in males and 31.3% (89/284) in females. There was a significant difference between the groups (p = 0.0002). Patients in the DVT-positive group were significantly older than those in the DVT-negative group (73.0 ± 7.9 years vs. 63.3 ± 11.2 years, p = 0.0041). DVT mainly occurred in the soleal vein (74.7%). However, there was no significant difference between the operated and non-operated sides. In the DVT-positive group, thrombus occurred in 13.3% of preoperative cases, 20.0% on POD 0, 46.7% on POD 1, 13.3% on POD 3, 6.7% on POD 7, and 0% on POD 14 and 21.
Conclusions Vascular ultrasonography showed that thrombus occurred most frequently in the soleal vein. Thrombus occurred in 66.6% of DVT-positive patients by POD 1, indicating that thrombus appeared very early after surgery. All thrombus cases were formed by POD 7.
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