Background: IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is characterized by the deposition of the IgA1-IgG immune complex in glomerular mesangial areas. The progression of IgAN in patients is more prominent in men than women. Grouped ddY (gddY) mice are a useful animal model for IgAN patients. However, the mechanisms underlying the gender difference in IgAN has not been clearly understood.
Method: We divided female gddY mice into 4 groups as follows 4 weeks and 14 weeks control mice (4wFC, 14wFC), 14 week-old ovariectomy mice (14wOvx), and 17β-Estrodiol (E2) replaced ovariectomy mice (14wO+E2). Levels of the urinary albumin creatinine ratio (ACR), serum IgA and IgA-IgG Immune complex (IC) concentrations, and renal histopathological findings were examined. In order to elucidate the renal protective effects of E2, we examined estrogen receptors (Erα, Erβ), TGF-β1 mRNA expressions, and the number of F4/80 positive macrophages.
Results: The numbers of sclerotic glomeruli were increased in 14wFC compared with 4wFC. The numbers of advanced sclerotic glomeruli in 14wOvx were reduced by half in 14wO+E2. Urinary ACR and serum IgA and IgA-IgG concentration were increased in 14wOvx and recovered by E2 replacement. Similar changes were observed in the intensity of IgA, IgG, and C3 depositions in glomeruli by immunofluorescence. The numbers of F4/80 positive cells were increased in 14wOvx and recovered to the levels of 14wFC in 14wO+E2. Erα mRNA was increased in 14wOvx but Erβ mRNA was increased in 14wO+E2 compared with 14wFC, suggesting exogenous E2 affects through Erα. TGF-β1 mRNA was increased in 14wOvx and recovered to the 14wFC level by E2 replacement.
Conclusion: Estrogen deficiency accelerates the progression of glomerular injury suggesting a contribution to the gender difference in IgAN. Macrophage infiltration, estrogen receptors (Erα, Erβ), and TGF-β1 metabolism may be involved in the progression of IgAN.
Objective: This study clarified bone turnover at different training intensities based on the annual schedule of a male college artistic gymnastics club.
Methods: For 21 male college artistic gymnasts, bone metabolism markers (bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), intact procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP), bone-specific tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP-5b), type I collagen crosslinked N-telopeptide in serum (s-NTX), type I collagen crosslinked N-telopeptide in urine (u-NTX)) were measured during three periods: pre-season, with gradually increasing training intensity at the beginning of a competition; competition, when gymnasts compete and train at the highest strength; and training, with lower intensity training after competition. Gymnasts train by practicing their techniques.
Results: Procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide, a bone formation marker, showed significantly higher concentration during the competition period (129.4±50.7 μg/l) than during the training period (116.8±47.2 μg/l)(p<0.01). Also, bone-specific tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b, a bone resorption marker, showed significantly higher concentration during the pre-season (677.2±218.8 mU/dl) and training periods (743.2±231.9 mU/dl) than during the competition period (577.0±203.0 mU/dl)(p<0.01). Moreover, concentrations were higher during the training period (743.2±231.9 mU/dl) than during the pre-season period (677.2±218.8 mU/dl)(p<0.05). Results of BAP and s-NTX respectively resembled those of P1NP and TRACP-5b. No significant change was observed in u-NTX.
Conclusion: Bone metabolism marker results suggest that bone formation is dominant when training intensity is higher and strong mechanical stress is placed on bones. Bone resorption is dominant when training intensity is lower and less mechanical stress is placed on bones.
Nocturnal enuresis (NE) is common problem in children, and its prevalence rate is 20% among children aged 5 and, subsequently, 15% of children recover every year.
However, approximately 0.5% of adult populations remain unchanged.
The major pathogenic factors involved in NE are nocturnal polyuria, small bladder capacity and/or detrusor overactivity, and a high arousal threshold.
Desmopressin is the first-line medication for the patients with diuresis dependent nocturnal enuresis and its efficacy rates are nearly 70%. Enuresis alarm device is also commonly used especially for the patients with small bladder capacity and is effective for 65-70% of patients with NE.
For the patients who do not respond to desmopressin and enuresis alarm, anticholinergics or tricyclic antidepressants are used.
Japanese Society on Enuresis has recently revised the practical guideline for nocturnal enuresis in 2016.
80% of all visual impairment can be prevented or cured because uncorrected refractive error and cataract are two leading causes of visual impairment in the world. Half of visual impairments occur in those age 70 years and older. The social costs of visual impairment is substantial, because visual impairment places a heavy burden on individuals, families, and society, and a lot of resources are dedicated to care for individuals with visual impairment at home through informal care. With the accompanying trend of population ageing, the need to prioritise healthy ageing is increasingly recognized, and it is increasingly important to extend healthy life expectancy. Measures against visual impairment will help to extend healthy life expectancy.