Background: Portal venous gas (PVG) is a rare finding and has a grave prognosis. The most common and critical underlying pathology of PVG is bowel necrosis. However, bowel necrosis is sometimes difficult to accurately diagnose. We retrospectively analyzed data from patients that contributed to the decision to perform emergency surgery and bowel resection. Methods: Between 2009 and 2019, 25 consecutive adult patients with PVG were identified retrospectively and divided into the Operation and Non-operation groups. The Operation group was further subdivided into the Bowel resection and Non-resection groups. Clinical, laboratory, and radiographic variables were analyzed. Results: Conservative management was successful for 32% (8/25) of patients (Non-operation group: mortality 0%); 68% (17/25) were treated surgically (Operation group: mortality 35.3%). In the Operation group, 52.9% (9/17) underwent bowel resection (Bowel resection group: mortality 55.6%); however, bowel resection was unnecessary in 47.1% (8/17) of cases (Non-resection group: mortality 12.5%). Univariate analysis revealed significant differences between the Operation and Non-operation groups in GCS, APACHE II, abdominal distention, CRP, lactate, and CT findings of bowel dilatation, pneumatosis intestinalis, and attenuation of contrast effects of the bowel wall. However, with the exception of GCS, there was no significant difference between the Bowel resection and Non-resection groups. Conclusions: Analysis of clinical, laboratory, and radiographic variables can inform decisions on conservative management. However, 47.1% of the present patients who underwent surgery for suspected bowel necrosis did not require bowel resection, suggesting that this approach alone may not be sufficient to avoid non-therapeutic laparotomy. A new approach should be developed to improve this situation.
Background: Epiretinal membrane (ERM) is a disease that affects the vitreoretinal interface and causes metamorphopsia, anorthopia, and decreased visual acuity. In this study, ERM patients who underwent internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling were classified as those with glaucoma (Group G) and a control group (Group C). Changes in ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness were compared between these groups to investigate whether such changes had an effect on progression of glaucoma from structural change. Methods: This was a retrospective, observational study that included 27 eyes of 27 patients. Group C included 22 eyes, and Group G included 5 eyes. Patients underwent ILM peeling, and cataract surgery was combined with vitrectomy for 16 phakic eyes; 2 phakic eyes and 9 aphakic eyes were treated only with vitrectomy. GCC thickness was measured preoperatively and at 2 weeks and 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively, and these values and the rates of thinning were compared between the two groups. Results: The mean age of patients was 66.7±12.8 years (range 30-84 years). There was no significant difference between groups in the thickness of the GCC or its rate of thinning after ILM peeling. Conclusions: The present results suggest that this procedure does not cause structural exacerbation of glaucoma in glaucoma patients. Although further studies of the functional effects of ILM peeling are required, the present results suggest that there is no significant difference between the two groups.
Background: The adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector is a promising vector for ocular gene therapy. Surgical internal limiting membrane peeling before AAV vector administration is useful for efficient retinal transduction. However, no report has investigated localization of AAV vectors after administration into a post-vitrectomy eye. This study investigated the effects of vitrectomy surgery on intravitreal-injected AAV vector-mediated gene expression in the anterior segment and examined the presence of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) in serum before and after AAV vector administration. Methods: Of six eyes from three female cynomolgus monkeys, four were vitrectomized (Group VIT) and two were non-vitrectomized (Group IV). All eyes were injected with 50 μL of triple-mutated self-complementary AAV2 vector (1.9 × 1013 v.g./mL) encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP). NAbs in the serum were examined before administration and at 2 and 6 weeks after administration. GFP expression was analyzed at 19 weeks after administration. Results: Immunohistological analysis showed no GFP expression in the trabecular meshwork in any eye. The GFP genome copy in two slices of the anterior segment was 2.417 (vector genome copies/diploid genome) in Group VIT and 4.316 (vector genome copies/diploid genome) in group IV. The NAb titer was 1:15.9 (geometric mean) before administration, 1:310.7 at 2 weeks after administration, and 1:669.4 at 6 weeks after administration. Conclusion: Previous vitrectomy surgery did not affect gene expression in the anterior segment after intravitreal injection of AAV vectors.
Background: High body mass index (BMI) and visceral obesity were reported to be associated with prolonged transperitoneal laparoscopic radical nephrectomy (LRN); however, factors that prolong retroperitoneal LRN remain unknown. We therefore investigated factors associated with prolonged retroperitoneal LRN performed by non-expert surgeons. Methods: We defined non-experts surgeons as surgeons not certified to perform laparoscopic surgery by the Japanese Society of Endourology. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 59 consecutive patients with renal cell carcinoma treated with retroperitoneal LRN performed by non-experts at our hospital between 2014 and 2019. Associations of surgical duration with age, sex, BMI, visceral fat area (VFA), subcutaneous fat area (SFA), laterality and location of the tumor, length of the major tumor axis (tumor length), clinical T stage, ipsilateral adrenalectomy and specimen weight were analyzed using Spearman rank correlation coefficients. Results: Surgical duration positively correlated with ipsilateral adrenalectomy (rs = 0.3162, p = 0.0147) and specimen weight (rs = 0.3103, p = 0.0168) but not with BMI (rs = 0.2016, p = 0.1257) or VFA (rs = 0.0185, p = 0.8894). Conclusions: Ipsilateral adrenalectomy and specimen weight were associated with prolonged retroperitoneal LRN, when performed by non-expert surgeons.
Background: Although heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is more common in postmenopausal women than in men, the effect of sex hormones on cardiac diastolic function remains unclear. We examined the effect of gonadectomy with or without the angiotensin receptor blocker olmesartan (Olm) in an isoproterenol (ISO) -induced mouse model of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and cardiac diastolic dysfunction. Methods: ISO or ISO with Olm were administered for 28 days in sham-operated male and female, castrated (CAS), and ovariectomized (OVX) mice. LV ejection fraction (EF) and E/A ratio were analyzed by echocardiography, and the LV and lung weight corrected by tibial length were used as indices of LVH and lung congestion, respectively. Results: On echocardiography, systolic function did not differ between the four groups. LV/tibial length (TL) and Lung/TL significantly increased in all groups. The LV/TL ratio was lower in castrated-ISO vs. Male-Sham-ISO but did not differ between Female-Sham-ISO and OVX-ISO. However, the Lung/TL ratio of OVX-ISO was greater than that of Female-Sham-ISO. Olm prevented LV hypertrophy in all groups. The decrease in E/A and increase in lung weight were improved by Olm in Male-Sham and OVX-ISO but not in the other groups. Conclusion: These sex differences suggest that sex hormones play a pivotal role in modulating cardiac hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction induced by chronic β-adrenoceptor stimulation, and thus affect the therapeutic potential of angiotensin receptor blockade.
Background: Robot-assisted surgery and pure laparoscopic surgery are available for minimally invasive radical prostatectomy (MIRP). The differences in anesthetic management between these two MIRPs under combined general and epidural anesthesia (CGEA) remain unknown. This study therefore aimed to determine the effects of robot-assisted surgery on anesthetic and perioperative management for MIRP under CGEA. Methods: This retrospective observational study analyzed data from patients' electronic medical records. Data on demographics, intraoperative variables, postoperative complications, and hospital stays after MIRPs were compared between patients who underwent robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) and those treated by pure laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP). Results: There were no differences in background data between the 102 who underwent RALP and 112 who underwent LRP. Anesthesia and surgical times were shorter in the RALP group than in the LRP group. Doses of anesthetics, including intravenous opioids, and epidural ropivacaine, were lower in the RALP group. Although estimated blood loss and volume of colloid infusion were lower in the RALP group, the volume of crystalloid infusion was larger. Intraoperative allogeneic transfusion was not required in either group. There was no difference between groups in the incidences of postoperative cardiopulmonary complications or postoperative nausea and vomiting. Hospital stays after the procedure were shorter in the RALP group. Conclusions: Robot-assisted surgery required varied consumption of anesthetics and infusion management during MIRP under GCEA. It also shortened postoperative hospital stays, without increasing rates of postoperative complications.
Background: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may be involved in the pathogenesis of glaucoma. BDNF concentrations reported in previous studies have varied widely, and the concentration of BDNF in aqueous humor is unknown. In this study, BDNF concentrations in the aqueous humor of glaucoma patients and control patients were measured with ELISA kits. Methods: This prospective, observational study examined BDNF levels in aqueous humor in 62 eyes of 43 patients who underwent cataract surgery or trabeculectomy (11 glaucoma patients and 32 non-glaucoma cataract patients as controls). BDNF concentrations were examined by 4 different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques. Results: The mean ± SD patient age was 72.0 ± 10.1 (range 35 to 87) years. Two of the techniques detected no BDNF in aqueous humor in any samples (n=3 and n=9, respectively); the average value was less than zero. An ultrasensitive ELISA kit did not yield reliable measurements. Finally, in an even more sensitive ELISA (Simoa-HD1), performed by an outside contractor, 25 (54.3%) eyes were below the detection limit, including 20 (55.6%) control and 5 (50%) glaucoma cases. For eyes with detectable BDNF, the overall BDNF concentration was 0.158 pg/mL (n=21): 0.196 pg/mL (n=16) in controls and 0.034 pg/mL (n=5) in glaucoma cases. Conclusions: BDNF level in aqueous humor varies widely.
Background: Diagnosis and treatment of traumatic posterior instability of the shoulder have not been described in detail. The author investigated surgical outcomes for traumatic posterior shoulder joint instability in collision athletes. Methods: The author surgically treated patients with a diagnosis of traumatic shoulder joint instability and investigated those that had been followed up for >2 years after surgery. Results: Seven shoulders in six collision athletes with a history of traumatic injury were examined. All cases were negative for the general laxity sign and positive for the posterior jerk test; five shoulders showed positive anterior apprehension. Posterior glenoid osseous defects were found in three shoulders, and one shoulder injury involved anterior and posterior osseous lesions. As surgical treatment, one posterior capsulolabral lesion, two posterior osseous lesions, and three combined anterior and posterior capsulolabral lesions were repaired arthroscopically. In a patient with a combined anterior and posterior osseous lesion, the Bristow procedure was perfromed after arthroscopic osseous repair. Patients returned to competition at an average of 6.8 months after surgery. One patient developed anterior subluxation at 7 months, and another exhibited posterior re-dislocation at 8 months after returning to competition. Conclusion: Traumatic posterior instability in collision athletes often involves glenoid osseous lesions and is frequently accompanied by anterior apprehension and lesions. Although collision athletes can return to play after arthroscopic repair, such activity is associated with a risk of re-dislocation.
Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently characterized illness in which lymphocytes and plasma cells infiltrate various anatomical sites. IgG4-hepatopathy, a manifestation of IgG4-RD, is a broader term covering various patterns of liver injury. The clinical course, including the malignant potential of IgG4-RD, remains unclear. Here we report the first case of secondary hemochromatosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) developing from IgG4-hepatopathy. A 67-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for treatment of deteriorating glucose tolerance. Blood test results showed hypergammaglobulinemia, especially IgG4. He was readmitted 2 months later with dyspnea due to lung disease and pleural effusion, and elevated transaminase levels. He underwent liver and lung biopsies. IgG4-RD was diagnosed and he was treated with steroid therapy, which improved serum IgG4 levels and imaging abnormalities. A follow-up computed tomography (CT) scan conducted 38 months later revealed a tumor (diameter, 50 mm) in liver segments 7 and 8. The resected specimen revealed HCC and abundant siderosis in the background liver, indicating a diagnosis of hemochromatosis. IgG4-positive cells were scarce, probably because of corticosteroid therapy. In the present case, IgG4-RD was well controlled with prednisolone (PSL) and an immunosuppressive agent, and chronic hepatitis was not severe, even though the patient subsequently developed HCC. However, extensive siderosis consistent with hemochromatosis was unexpectedly noted. These findings suggest that secondary hemochromatosis and HCC developed during IgG4-RD with hepatopathy. We believe this case sheds light on IgG4-RD.
We describe a case of fever of unknown origin (FUO), renal failure, and pancytopenia. Initially, lymph proliferative disorder was suspected; therefore, bone marrow biopsy and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) were performed. Bronchoscopy and lung biopsy were performed because of abnormal FDG uptake in both lung fields. Imaging data and laboratory and histological results confirmed sarcoidosis with bone marrow invasion. The patient was discharged after favorable response to corticosteroid therapy. Sarcoidosis may present as FUO without typical specific presentations in the skin or lungs. Combined 18F-FDP PET/CT helped identify the biopsy site and confirmed the sarcoidosis diagnosis.
Thumb opposition is an essential movement for daily use of the hand, including precise pinching/grasping and fine and complicated hand movement. Although studies have reported use of several donor tendons for opponensplasty, opponensplasty using the palmaris longus (i.e., Camitz opponensplasty) has been used in patients with loss of opposition function due to longstanding carpal tunnel syndrome. The procedure involves a simple, useful tendon transfer and does not cause functional deficits. To obtain enough length to transfer the tendon to the metacarpophalangeal joint of the thumb, the PL tendon should be obtained with the palmar aponeurosis. However, the palmar aponeurosis is not always available for opponensplasty, as it is occasionally thin and insufficient for elongation of the palmaris longus. An extended skin incision over the palm can cause painful scar formation and postoperative residual pain. This procedure restores the palmar abduction function of the thumb but not opposition function. In the present article, we describe a modification of Camitz opponensplasty that uses a half-split palmaris longus, which is long enough to anchor to the insertion of the adductor pollicis at the metacarpophalangeal joint of the thumb.