The area of organic farming and their market are incredibly increasing in recent decades, however, there are various ways of organic farming practices. As increasing the interest in organic farming, the discussions regarding how organic farming can contribute to develop a sustainable agriculture are widen. International Foundation of Organic Agriculture Movement also starts the discussion towards the new faces of organic farming that called Organic 3.0. This paper discussed the relationship between organic farming and environmental conservation in the both of global and regional viewpoints. To develop the climate smart agriculture that intend to mitigate climate changes through the farming practices, no tillage and cover crop adoptions will be effective way to develop the new organic farming system. Nature farming that is managed by no-tillage with weed cover mulch will be also attractive way as climate smart agriculture. It will be also needed to reevaluate the traditional Japanese farming practices such as Bocashi and Kun-tan biocha as the view point of mitigation of climate changes.
This paper examined the determinants and the effects of GAP (Good Agricultural Practice) certification. The producers under GAP certification have rapidly increased in recent years. A distinctive characteristic is that these producers are concentratedly distributed in few areas. The four prefectures (Hokkaido, Shizuoka, Kagoshima and Ehime) in Japan accounted for about 68% of certified producers. Degree of recognition for GAP, the production conditions or crop structure, intention of distributors and retailers, the development of agricultural corporations and the initiatives of agricultural cooperatives (JA) are the main factors in determining the changes and regional distribution of certified producers. A comparative static analysis derived that the conditions in market/farm prices, the possibility of technical substitution for scarce resources, and income effect are critically important in determining producers’ behavior of acquiring GAP certification. The empirical works based on 3 case studies of Ehime prefecture, illustrated that GAP certification had significant effect in improving farmer’s consciousness and farm management, but not definitely clear in price and income effects, which may become a factor of restraining the increase in GAP certification. Finally, the paper discussed the issues on the credibility of diversified initiatives in GAP certification, concerns on the control of distributors over farmers, instability of JA initiatives, and the influence on organic farm product certification.
To date, there has been no detailed study of the way in which unconsciousness and affection work in agriculture, especially from the perspective of tacit knowledge. Therefore, the problems hidden in the radical modernization of agriculture in Japan through the use of ICT (Information and Communications Technology) and so on, in recent years have not been clarified, and corrective measures have not been clearly defined.
In this paper, I discuss the fact that unconsciousness and affection constitute a component of skills in agriculture, and elucidate the role that affection plays in acquiring tacit knowledge. Accordingly, I show that excessive application of information science has led to a tendency for farmers to objectify crops and fields and keeps individual farmers away from acquiring tacit knowledge. In supporting transfer of farmers’ skills, a comprehensive approach is necessary that accounts for not only the acquisition of explicit knowledge but also awareness of the apprenticeship system, customs, beliefs, culture and the village community that promote the acquisition of tacit knowledge.