Meat productivity of the cross-bred Satsuma Black Aigamo duckTM (SBA) under housing condition was evaluated compared to the conventionally used Satsuma Aigamo duckTM (SA) in southern Kyushu in Japan. There was a significant difference in the respective body weights of SA and SBA at 17 weeks of age (P<0.05). Feed conversion ratio (1 to 17 weeks of age) was lower in SBA than in SA. Although the weight of breast meat of SBA was higher than that of SA (P<0.05), the umami score of breast meat was significantly lower in SBA than in SA (P<0.05). None of the other sensory parameters, such as flavor, tenderness, and overall acceptability, were significantly different between SA and SBA. Glutamic acid content was lower in SBA than in SA (P<0.05), indicating a probable underlying reason behind the inferior umami score of SBA breast meat. These findings suggest that SBA could be used as a new Aigamo duck in integrated rice and duck farming.
Methane emission from paddy soil was compared between conventional (CT) (two sites) and no-tillage with weed green mulch (NTWM) rice paddy in Sakurai City, Nara, Japan. Thick layer (ca. 4cm) with dense fine roots was formed in NTWM paddy, which has been maintained no-tillage for 33-years, whereas soil carbon and nitrogen concentrations were lower in NTWM compared to NT. Methane emission was measured on May, August and September. Biomass of methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB) estimated using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis showed that significant negative correlation between MOB and methane emission. Although higher accumulation of organic matter was observed on the soil surface, methane emission from NTWM paddy was smaller than the conventional paddies. Therefore, this NTWM management can be evaluated to provide an important ecosystem services: methane emission reduction in paddy.
We had questionnaire surveyed opportunity and financial status of the newly started and transformed organic farmers in December from September 2013. The effective answers of newly started and transformed farmers were 122 and 68 respectively.
As the opportunity of the entry in the two groups, “wanted to make security, reliable agricultural products,” was the most of them. The two groups reclaimed the market by themselves and they compared agriculture rough profit increased in organic farming areas than the time of the entry. However, the immaturity of the cultivation technology of the two groups was a problem to management stability.
At the enforcement rate of the organic farming, the farmland was 100% used for organic in the newly started group, and, as for the transformed group, there was much partial enforcement.
The newly started farmers had direct marketing to consumers, the transformed farmers had many agricultural cooperatives and living cooperatives at the time of the entry, but, for the sale, the ratios of person of merchandising increased together now.
In order to increase the number of organic farmers, establishment of organic farming technology and improvement of support system such as training place are required.