Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships of workers being diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and being identified as close contacts of infected persons with unemployment in Japan.
Methods: This was a prospective cohort study using questionnaires about COVID-19 administered to Japanese workers. A baseline survey conducted on December 22-25, 2020, was used to determine history of being diagnosed with COVID-19 or being identified as a close contact of an infected person. Unemployment since the baseline survey was ascertained with a follow-up survey on February 18 and 19, 2021. The odds ratios (ORs) of unemployment were estimated using a multilevel logistic model with adjusted covariates nested in prefecture of residence.
Results: Women (n = 8771) accounted for 44% of the total sample (n = 19 941), and the mean age was 48.0 years. In terms of unemployment because of negative reasons, the multivariate analysis showed that the OR of unemployment associated with being diagnosed with COVID-19 was 2.40 (95% CI: 1.15-5.01) and that the OR associated with being identified as a close contact was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.31-3.11).
Conclusions: There is an association between workers being diagnosed with COVID-19 and unemployment. The reason is not clear, but if the unemployment is unwanted by the individual, workplace adjustment may help prevent unwilling unemployment.
Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of a web-based brief intervention (BI) program to record daily drinking among people with problem drinking in workplace settings.
Methods: A two-armed, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial were conducted at six workplaces in Japan. After obtaining written consent to participate in the study, workers with an Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) score of 8 or higher were randomly assigned into two groups. The participants allocated to the intervention group recorded their daily alcohol consumption for 4 weeks using the program, while those allocated to the control group received no intervention. Outcome measures included the amount of alcohol consumption in past 7 days using the Timeline Follow-Back method in the program at baseline, 8th week, and 12th week and written AUDIT score at baseline and 12th week.
Results: Hundred participants were assigned to either the intervention group (n = 50) or control group (n = 50). The results of two-way repeated measures ANOVA showed a statistically significant interaction between the group and the week factors in the two primary outcomes (number of alcohol-free days, total drinks) and secondary outcomes (AUDIT score) (p = .04, .02, and .03, respectively). The between-group effect sizes (Hedges' g; 95% CI) of the outcomes at 12th week were 0.53; 0.13-0.93 (total drinks), 0.44; 0.04-0.84 (AUDIT score), 0.43; 0.03-0.83 (number of alcohol-free days).
Conclusions: The web-based BI program for problem drinking was considered to be effective in reducing alcohol consumption and the AUDIT score in workplace settings.
Purpose: We investigated occupational dose to the lens of the eye for physicians engaged in radiology procedures. We evaluated the potential for compliance with the new-equivalent dose limits to the lens of the eye. Further, a “multiple radiation protection” protocol was proposed according to the basic principles of occupational health, and its effectiveness was estimated.
Methods: Physicians engaged in radiology procedure at medical facilities in Japan were included in this study. The eye lens dose (3-mm dose equivalent: Hp(3)) for each participant was measured using a small radio-photoluminescence glass dosimeter mounted on lead glasses. Physicians were directed to procedure multiple radiation protection measures to evaluate their usefulness.
Results: The Hp(3) was reduced by multiple radiation protection in all physicians. In particular, the Hp(3) reduced from 207.7 to 43.2 μSv/procedure and from 21.6 to 10.2 μSv/procedure in cardiovascular internal physician and cerebrovascular physician, respectively, after the implementation of the proposed multiple radiation protection measures. The dose reduction rate of these measures was 53% (range: 37%-79%).
Conclusions: The radiation doses received by the eye lenses of physicians engaged in radiology procedure may exceed the dose limits to the lens of the eye if radio-protective equipment and imaging conditions are not properly controlled. However, based on the lens equivalent dose data, the implementation of “multiple radiation protection” according to the basic principles of occupational health can ensure compliance with the new-equivalent dose limits to the lens of the eye without placing an undue burden on individual physicians or medical facilities.
Objective: A sufficient duration of time off after work is necessary to ensure workers’ health. Better quality of off-job time can also facilitate recovery from fatigue, but its quantitative influence is largely unknown. We aimed to examine how off-job time quality (as measured by the frequency of emailing after work), and off-job duration is associated with psychological detachment, actigraphic sleep, and saliva cortisol using a 1-month observational study.
Methods: The participants were 58 daytime employees working at an information technology company. Sleep actigraphy and saliva cortisol as well as self-reported outcomes were repeatedly measured for 1 month. Two-way (work e-mail frequency × off-job time) multilevel mixed-effects linear regression analyses were performed in both continuous and categorical variables.
Results: The frequency of work e-mailing after hours was significantly associated with self-reported outcomes and actigraphic sleep quality, while a significant association was not found in cortisol awakening responses and actigraphic sleep duration. A significantly larger cortisol response after awakening was found in shorter, rather than longer, durations of off-job time. Self-reported detachment, rumination and carry-over fatigue showed significant interactions between work e-mail and off-job time, suggesting that worse outcomes were found in a higher frequency of work e-mail even when employees had longer amounts of off-job time.
Conclusion: Our findings suggest that ensuring the quality and duration of off-job time is beneficial for recovery from work with sufficient sleep. Specifically, the frequency of e-mailing after work should be minimized to make recovery complete.
Yusuke Hiraku, Jun Watanabe, Akira Kaneko, Takamichi Ichinose, Mariko Murata
Objectives: Asbestos causes lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma in humans, but the precise mechanism has not been well understood. MicroRNA (miRNA) is a short non-coding RNA that suppresses gene expression and participates in human diseases including cancer. In this study, we examined the expression levels of miRNA and potential target genes in lung tissues of asbestos-exposed mice by microarray analysis.
Methods: We intratracheally administered asbestos (chrysotile and crocidolite, 0.05 or 0.2 mg/instillation) to 6-week-old ICR male mice four times weekly. We extracted total RNA from lung tissues and performed microarray analysis for miRNA and gene expression. We also carried out real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry to confirm the results of microarray analysis.
Results: Microarray analysis revealed that the expression levels of 14 miRNAs were significantly changed by chrysotile and/or crocidolite (>2-fold, P < .05). Especially, miR-21, an oncogenic miRNA, was significantly upregulated by both chrysotile and crocidolite. In database analysis, miR-21 was predicted to target tumor suppressor genes programmed cell death 4 (Pdcd4) and reversion-inducing-cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs (Reck). Although real-time PCR showed that Pdcd4 was not significantly downregulated by asbestos exposure, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry revealed that PDCD4 expression was reduced especially by chrysotile. Reck was significantly downregulated by chrysotile in real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry.
Conclusions: This is the first study demonstrating that miR-21 was upregulated and corresponding tumor suppressor genes were downregulated in lung tissues of asbestos-exposed animals. These molecular events are considered to be an early response to asbestos exposure and may contribute to pulmonary toxicity and carcinogenesis.
Objectives: Decreased workforce productivity has a significant economic impact on healthcare systems. Presenteeism, the practice of working at reduced potential, is more harmful than absenteeism. Present workers most often experience musculoskeletal pain that is not mitigated by general exercise or stretching. We aimed to assess whether a regimen of pain neuroscience education (PNE) and exercise tailored to individual healthcare workers could reduce presenteeism and improve productivity.
Methods: An independent investigator randomized 104 medical professionals into two groups (intervention and control). The control group received general feedback after answering a questionnaire, while the intervention group received a 6-month plan of exercises and PNE created by a physical therapist with 10 years of experience. Our primary outcome was the scores of the Japanese version of the World Health Organization Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (WHO-HPQ) to investigate presenteeism; and our secondary outcomes were pain intensity, widespread pain index (WPI), and EuroQol 5-dimension (EQ5D-5L).
Results: In the intervention group, post intervention, we observed significant improvement in presenteeism, pain intensity, WPI, physical and psychological stress, and EQ5D-5L (P < .05). In the control group, we noted significant improvement only in the physical and psychological stress post intervention (P < .05). The results showed significant between-group differences in presenteeism post-intervention (P < .05).
Conclusion: We demonstrated that a combination of PNE and exercise decreases presenteeism of healthcare workers. Our findings will help healthcare facilities carry out better employee management and ensure optimal productivity.
Objectives: In this study, we aimed to establish a method for quantifying bromide ions (Br−) in blood and urine using gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) equipped with a headspace sampler, for biological monitoring of workers exposed to methyl bromide.
Methods: Samples were mixed with dimethyl sulfate, and Br− ions were detected using GC-MS with a headspace sampler. The validity of the proposed method was evaluated based on most of the US FDA guidance. The values obtained were compared with reference values by analysis using SeronormTM Trace Elements Whole Blood L-1 RUO.
Results: The calibration curve showed good linearity in the Br− concentration range of 0.1−20.0 mg/L, and the coefficient of determination R2 value was >.999. Intraday and interday accuracy values were 99.3%−103.1% and 97.4%−101.8%, respectively. The measured and reference values of Seronorm were concordant. Herein, eight urine and serum samples of workers were analyzed; the samples' Br− concentrations were known. The correlation coefficients of urine and serum samples were 0.97 and 0.96, respectively, and results were consistent.
Conclusions: This study established a simple and rapid method for the determination of Br− concentration in biological samples using GC-MS with a headspace sampler. Moreover, it can be used for biological monitoring of occupational exposure to methyl bromide and for the determination of Br− concentration in a wide range of biological samples.
Objectives: This secondary analysis aims to investigate the implementation of the legally required company integration management (“BEM”) in case of an incapacity for work of at least six weeks and to identify predictors.
Methods: Database is the representative randomized 2018 BIBB/BAuA Employment Survey of 20 012 employed persons in Germany.
Results: Of the 1367 employees entitled to company integration management, 40% received an offer from their employer and 27% accepted it. In the public sector, half of those who were entitled reported an offer. Among those entitled to company integration management, employees under the age of 30, at risk of dismissal, or with fixed-term employment contract received an offer particularly rarely. Entitled employees with disabilities or in companies with works/staff councils received disproportionately often an offer of company integration management. Logistic regression analyses reveal strong associations between company integration management offer and the duration of incapacity to work. The probability of receiving an offer is almost halved for those entitled in medium-sized compared to small companies. The higher the level of educational qualification, the higher are odds ratios for an offer. In companies in which employees were less or not satisfied with their work overall, the chance of a company integration management offer is significantly reduced almost by half. The chance of an offer is more than three times higher in companies with workplace health promotion compared to those without.
Conclusions: Only a minority of eligible employees received an offer that is closely associated with health-promoting corporate culture and job satisfaction.
Objectives: Long working hours are linked to an increased risk of exposure to work safety hazards that threaten the health of workers. To date, only a few cross-sectional studies regarding the relationship between working characteristics, such as over-workload and chronic kidney disease (CKD) have been reported. Therefore, in this longitudinal study, we aimed to examine the direct relationship between long working hours and the incidence of CKD.
Methods: We included 97 856 participants without CKD in the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study. Using a self-report questionnaire, we evaluated weekly working hours, which were categorized into 35-40, 41-52, and >52 hours. CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident CKD were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression analyses with weekly working 35-40 hours as the reference.
Results: During a median follow-up of 4.0 years, 185 participants developed incident CKD (incidence density, 4.83 per 104 person-years). Multivariable-adjusted HRs (95% CI) of incident CKD for weekly working >52 hours compared with working 35-40 hours were 1.99 (1.22-3.25). In subgroup analyses, the significant association between working >52 hours and incident CKD was consistently observed in groups of age ≥40 years, men, and obesity with no interaction.
Conclusions: Our large-scale cohort study of young- to middle-aged men and women demonstrated a significant association between long working hours and an increased risk of incident CKD.
Daniel Wai-yip Wong, Anthony Wai-leung Kwok, Yiu-chung Wong
Objectives: Cases of injury on duty (IOD) are common in Hong Kong, but literature on this group of patients is limited. This study aims to describe local IOD cases’ epidemiological characteristics and identify factors affecting return to work (RTW) outcomes.
Methods: This is a retrospective epidemiological study of IOD patients in the orthopedic and traumatology center of Yan Chai Hospital in 2016, using the hospital’s electronic clinical record analysis and reporting system; 323 out of the 10 730 patients (M:F = 206:117; mean age 46.9 ± 11.3) were included. Data on demographics, the injury episode, administrative procedures, treatment and rehabilitation were collected. Outcomes were measured by “RTW” and “time to RTW from injury.”
Results: Around 80% of patients had a successful RTW and the mean time to RTW was 10.6 ± 9.0 months. Patients who were female, divorced or widowed and living alone in a public rental flat were less likely to RTW. Psychiatric consultations (OR 13.70, P < .001), legal disputes (OR 8.20, P < .001) and more than 5 months of waiting time for physiotherapy (OR 3.89, P = .002) were the strongest among the numerous risk factors for non-RTW. An increase in one visit to the general outpatient clinic and the presence of legal disputes had lengthened the time to RTW by 4.8 days (P < .001) and 18.0 months (P < .001), respectively.
Conclusions: Several demographic, psychosocial and administrative factors were negatively associated with RTW in the local population. Recommendations were made for healthcare providers and policymakers accordingly.
Mathuros Tipayamongkholgul, Pornpimol Kongtip, Susan Woskie
Objectives: We conducted a matched case-control study of informal workers to determine the association between occupational classification and selected types of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs).
Method: We extracted data of patients aged ≥18 years from the Thai National Health Security Office database (NHSO) during 2011-2014. Cases were patients who had a primary diagnosis of: diabetes mellitus (E10-E14), hypertension (I10-I15), ischemic heart disease (I20-I25) or stroke (I60-69), or thyroid gland disorder (E00-E07). Controls were patients who had a primary diagnosis of intestinal or parasitic infections (A00-A09 and B25-B99), and were randomly matched 1:1 with cases of the same age and residential area. The four-digit occupation codes recorded in the NHSO were grouped and recoded based on the submajor groups of International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO-08) as follows: agricultural workers, unskilled workers, service, and sales workers. Analysis was performed using multivariable conditional logistic regression.
Results: Occupation and sex inequalities were present among all the selected NCDs. Higher risk for the four selected NCDs was found among unskilled workers. Stronger risk for cardiovascular disease was present among males, while females had a higher risk for metabolic disorders.
Conclusions: There is a need to understand what are the key factors that increase the risk for NCDs among informal sector workers. Health promotion campaigns are needed to raise awareness among economically and social disadvantaged informal workers about the risk for NCDs. This will require collaboration between public health and the workforce, and allocation of government budgets to address the needs of these workers.
Jongin Lee, Hyoung-Ryoul Kim, Dong-Wook Lee, Mo-Yeol Kang
Objective: This study aimed to investigate the interactive impacts between occupational physical burdens and psychological job demand or control on musculoskeletal pain (MSP) using nationally representative data for Korean workers.
Methods: Using 5th Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS), we explored the interaction between occupational physical burdens and levels of psychological job demand or control on risk of MSP in 49 572 eligible participants. For quantitative evaluation of the interaction, relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) was calculated.
Results: In a group with low job control and at least one occupational physical burden, odds ratio (OR) for neck and upper extremity pain was 2.44 (95% CI, 2.24-2.66) compared with a group with high job control and no physical burden (a reference group: lowest risk), which was the highest value among the four groups, and the RERI was 0.35 (95% CI, 0.19-0.51). Similarly, OR for lower extremity pain was 2.15 (95% CI, 1.95-2.37) and RERI was 0.26 (95% CI, 0.07-0.45). However, the RERI was not significant in the case of psychological job demand.
Conclusion: This study revealed significant interactions between occupational physical burdens and low job control on MSP.
Ro-Ting Lin, Yu-Ting Lin, Ying-Fang Hsia, Chin-Chi Kuo
Objectives: Burnout among health care workers is highly prevalent and has profound impact on quality of care. Hospital on-duty schedules lead to long working hours and short sleeping hours; both are common factors associated with burnout. We examined the dose-response relationship and the potential mediating role of sleeping hours on the association between working hours and burnout among health care workers.
Methods: We collected data on the burnout status, using the Mandarin version of the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (subscales measure work-related and personal burnouts), working hours, sleeping hours, and relevant measures for 2081 health care personnel who underwent a routine health examination in a medical center in Taiwan during 2016-2017. Four subgroups were compared: physicians (n = 369), nurses (n = 973), technicians (n = 391), and administrators (n = 348).
Results: Average weekly working hours are associated with burnout scores in a non-linear dose-response manner. Compared with a work week of 40 hours, the odds ratio of work-related burnout doubled when hours exceeded 60, tripled when hours exceeded 74, and quadrupled when hours exceeded 84. Physicians’ burnout is less susceptible to incremental increases in working hours, compared to the situations in other health care workers. The proportions eliminated by reducing sleeping hours were 25%-73% for physicians and 7%-29% for nurses respectively.
Conclusions: Our findings suggest that working hours are associated with burnout, and the association was partially mediated by sleeping hours.
Objectives: This study compared differences in age-standardized suicide mortality rates, personal characteristics (demographics, employment conditions, and details of suicide), and work-related stress by gender and occupation among workers who had committed suicide in Korea.
Methods: Data comprised 413 suicide death claims lodged with the Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance (IACI) from 2010 to 2018, which were coded. We calculated age-standardized suicide mortality rates by gender and occupation. The chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and t-test were conducted to examine gender differences. Frequency and percentage distribution by gender and occupation were calculated using descriptive statistics.
Results: Regardless of gender, age-standardized suicide mortality rate was highest among “Managers.” Women who died by suicide were significantly younger and more likely to be unmarried, live alone, and have fewer years of continuous employment than men. “Managers,” “Professionals and Related Workers,” and “Clerks” experienced similar work-related stresses, including “Difficult work to achieve,” “Fail to achieve allocation workload,” and “Change of job contents or workload.” “Skilled Agricultural, Forestry and Fishery Workers,” “Craft and Related Trades Workers,” and “Equipment, Machine Operating and Assembling Workers” had higher work-related stress related to “Severe disease/injury” or “Causing a serious accident” compared with other workers.
Conclusions: Work-related stress related to suicide deaths differed by gender and occupation. The gender gap of labor market participation in Korea may affect gender differences in terms of demographics and employment conditions among workers who died by suicide. Our study suggests that gender- and occupation-specific strategies and policies to reduce work-related stress can prevent suicide among workers.
Jongin Lee, JaeYong Lee, Dong-Wook Lee, Hyoung-Ryoul Kim, Mo-Yeol Kang
Objectives: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess sedentary work's contribution to breast cancer risk quantitatively using thorough research articles.
Methods: We performed a meta-analysis using a registered protocol in PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42020204629). Literature from PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane involving sedentary work and breast cancer risk was reviewed. We calculated the overall pooled risk ratios (RRs) and 95% CI with a random-effect model from the included studies. Furthermore, we performed stratified analyses by characteristics of studies.
Results: Thirty-one studies (13 cohort studies and 18 case-control studies) were included in the analysis. The overall effect of the pooled analysis was an RR of 1.16 (95% CI 1.08-1.23). The results were 1.20 (95% CI 1.10-1.30) and 1.12 (95% CI 1.02-1.23) for cohort and case-control studies. The effect of sedentary work did not seem to be consistently attenuated by controlling body mass index, menopausal status, or experience of hormone replacement therapy.
Conclusion: The results from this meta-analysis suggest that sedentary behavior within the occupational domain was associated with a 15.5% increased risk of breast cancer. It is essential to reduce the sedentary time spent at work and to secure time for leisure-time physical activity among sedentary workers as a primary preventive measure.
Aim: We aimed to develop a measurement method that can count fibers rapidly by scanning electron microscopy equipped with an artificial intelligence image recognition system (AI-SEM), detecting thin fibers which cannot be observed by a conventional phase contrast microscopy (PCM) method.
Methods: We created a simulation sampling filter of airborne fibers using water-filtered chrysotile (white asbestos). A total of 108 images was taken of the samples at a 5 kV accelerating voltage with 10 000X magnification scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Each of three expert analysts counted 108 images and created a model answer for fibers. We trained the artificial intelligence (AI) using 25 of the 108 images. After the training, the AI counted fibers in 108 images again.
Results: There was a 12.1% difference between the AI counting results and the model answer. At 10 000X magnification, AI-SEM can detect 87.9% of fibers with a diameter of 0.06-3 μm, which is similar to a skilled analyst. Fibers with a diameter of 0.2 μm or less cannot be confirmed by phase-contrast microscopy (PCM). When observing the same area in 300 images with 1500X magnification SEM-as listed in the Asbestos Monitoring Manual (Ministry of the Environment)-with 10 000X SEM, the expected analysis time required for the trained AI is 5 h, whereas the expected time required for observation by an analyst is 251 h.
Conclusion: The AI-SEM can count thin fibers with higher accuracy and more quickly than conventional methods by PCM and SEM.
Objectives: Suppression of postprandial hyperglycemia may aid in preventing lifestyle-related diseases in working people. The present study aimed to identify the types and timings of exercises that can be performed by working people during a 60-minute lunch break that are effective in attenuating postprandial increases in blood glucose levels.
Methods: Healthy working people aged 20 years and older were subjected to aerobic (AER) or resistance (RES) exercise before (Pre) and after (Post) lunch, assuming a 60-minute lunch break, with fixed 20-minute lunch and rest periods. These exercise sessions of 4 different patterns were performed by each participant. Serial measurements of blood glucose levels were obtained every 15 minute using a Flash Glucose Monitoring System.
Results: Data were analyzed for 11 participants who completed the protocol. Our incremental area under the curve (IAUC) analysis indicated that the AER-Post condition was associated with the most significant hypoglycemic effect, followed by the AER-Pre condition. Although the RES-Post showed no significant difference, a decrease in the IAUC comparison is apparent. However, the RES-Pre condition exerted no acute effect on blood glucose levels.
Conclusions: Workers may benefit from a 20-minute aerobic exercise period, following a 20-minute lunch and a 20-minute rest period, as this may help prevent progression to diabetes. Furthermore, performing 20-minute aerobic exercises prior to lunch may also attenuate postprandial increases in blood glucose levels. Therefore, if the lunch breaks are short, aerobic exercises are recommended before lunch.
Objectives: The health effects of telework, which was introduced extensively in the immediate context of the COVID-19 pandemic crisis in Japan, on teleworkers, their families, and non-teleworkers, are unknown. Accordingly, we developed a rapid health impact assessment (HIA) to evaluate positive and negative health effects of telework on these groups and recommended easily implementable countermeasures.
Methods: Immediately after an emergency was declared in Japan, we implemented a rapid, five-step HIA. We screened and categorized health effects of telework for the three above-mentioned groups, extracting their content, directionality, and likelihood. Following a scoping exercise to determine the HIA’s overall implementation, five experienced occupational health physicians appraised and prioritized the screened items and added new items. We outlined specific countermeasures and disseminated the results on our website. A short-term evaluation was conducted by three external occupational health physicians and three nurses.
Results: Following screening and appraisal, 59, 29, and 27 items were listed for teleworkers, non-teleworkers, and family members of teleworkers, respectively, covering work, lifestyle, disease and medical care, and home and community. Targeted countermeasures focused on the work environment, business management, communications, and lifestyles for teleworkers; safety and medical guidelines, work prioritization, and regular communication for non-teleworkers; and shared responsibilities within families and communication outside families for family members of teleworkers.
Conclusion: The HIA’s validity and the countermeasures’ practical applicability were confirmed by the external evaluators. They can be easily applied and adapted across diverse industries to mitigate the wider negative effects of telework and enhance its positive effects.
Objectives: Maternity harassment, known in English as pregnancy discrimination, remains prevalent in developed countries. However, research examining the mental health effects of maternity harassment is lacking. We aimed to examine the association between maternity harassment and depression during pregnancy in Japan.
Methods: A cross-sectional Internet survey was conducted on 359 pregnant employees (including women who were working at the time their pregnancy was confirmed) from May 22 to May 31, 2020, during which time a COVID-19 state of emergency was declared. Maternity harassment was defined as being subjected to any of the 16 adverse treatments prohibited by national guidelines. Depression was defined as a score of ≥9 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (Japanese version). Logistic regression analysis was performed.
Results: Overall, 24.8% of the pregnant employees had experienced maternity harassment by supervisors and/or colleagues. After adjusting for demographics, pregnancy status, work status, and fear of COVID-19, pregnant employees who experienced maternity harassment were more likely to have depression than those who did not (odds ratio 2.48, 95% confidential interval 1.34-4.60). This association was not influenced by whether they were teleworking or not as a COVID-19 measure.
Conclusions: One quarter of pregnant employees experienced maternity harassment and had a higher prevalence of depression than those who did not. Being physically away from the office through teleworking may not reduce the effect of maternal harassment on depression. To protect the mental health and employment of pregnant women, employers should comply with the laws and take measures to prevent maternity harassment.
Objectives: The cross-sectional study aimed to analyze the association between burnout, work-related factors, and metabolic syndrome (Mets) in nurses from several departments of a tertiary hospital in Taiwan. Exploring biomarkers could provide for prevention.
Methods: Demographic data were obtained through a written questionnaire and include the following information: gender, age, education level, psychosocial and work situations, such as departments, working hours, work shift, depression, and sleep time. Burnout was evaluated according to the Chinese Burnout inventory, Mets was evaluated according to the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program of Taiwan-Treatment Panel for Adults III (NCEP-ATP III).
Results: A total of 1758 nurses participated with a median age of 35.2 years. The prevalence of burnout and Mets was 6.4% and 13.84%, respectively. The results showed that burnout induced higher risk of Mets, odds ratio (OR) 1.70 (95% confidence interval, 1.04-3.05). Other factors, such as out-patient nurses, seniority (4-10 and >10 years), working hours (51-59 h/wk), nigh shift, Brief Symptom Rating Scale-5 (score 10-14 and ≧15), poor self-rated health status, and inadequate sleep time, led to higher risk of Mets. Biomarkers research showed that Glycated hemoglobin (Hba1c) was significantly associated with burnout nurses (OR = 24.72, P < .001), but thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxin were not.
Conclusions: Results suggested positive associations between burnout and Mets in nurses. For nurses with higher seniority, long hours of work, night shifts, poor physical and mental conditions, and poor lifestyle habits in different departments, strategies are needed to prevent burnout and Mets.