Objectives: Suppression of postprandial hyperglycemia may aid in preventing lifestyle-related diseases in working people. The present study aimed to identify the types and timings of exercises that can be performed by working people during a 60-minute lunch break that are effective in attenuating postprandial increases in blood glucose levels.
Methods: Healthy working people aged 20 years and older were subjected to aerobic (AER) or resistance (RES) exercise before (Pre) and after (Post) lunch, assuming a 60-minute lunch break, with fixed 20-minute lunch and rest periods. These exercise sessions of 4 different patterns were performed by each participant. Serial measurements of blood glucose levels were obtained every 15 minute using a Flash Glucose Monitoring System.
Results: Data were analyzed for 11 participants who completed the protocol. Our incremental area under the curve (IAUC) analysis indicated that the AER-Post condition was associated with the most significant hypoglycemic effect, followed by the AER-Pre condition. Although the RES-Post showed no significant difference, a decrease in the IAUC comparison is apparent. However, the RES-Pre condition exerted no acute effect on blood glucose levels.
Conclusions: Workers may benefit from a 20-minute aerobic exercise period, following a 20-minute lunch and a 20-minute rest period, as this may help prevent progression to diabetes. Furthermore, performing 20-minute aerobic exercises prior to lunch may also attenuate postprandial increases in blood glucose levels. Therefore, if the lunch breaks are short, aerobic exercises are recommended before lunch.
Objectives: The health effects of telework, which was introduced extensively in the immediate context of the COVID-19 pandemic crisis in Japan, on teleworkers, their families, and non-teleworkers, are unknown. Accordingly, we developed a rapid health impact assessment (HIA) to evaluate positive and negative health effects of telework on these groups and recommended easily implementable countermeasures.
Methods: Immediately after an emergency was declared in Japan, we implemented a rapid, five-step HIA. We screened and categorized health effects of telework for the three above-mentioned groups, extracting their content, directionality, and likelihood. Following a scoping exercise to determine the HIA’s overall implementation, five experienced occupational health physicians appraised and prioritized the screened items and added new items. We outlined specific countermeasures and disseminated the results on our website. A short-term evaluation was conducted by three external occupational health physicians and three nurses.
Results: Following screening and appraisal, 59, 29, and 27 items were listed for teleworkers, non-teleworkers, and family members of teleworkers, respectively, covering work, lifestyle, disease and medical care, and home and community. Targeted countermeasures focused on the work environment, business management, communications, and lifestyles for teleworkers; safety and medical guidelines, work prioritization, and regular communication for non-teleworkers; and shared responsibilities within families and communication outside families for family members of teleworkers.
Conclusion: The HIA’s validity and the countermeasures’ practical applicability were confirmed by the external evaluators. They can be easily applied and adapted across diverse industries to mitigate the wider negative effects of telework and enhance its positive effects.
Objectives: Maternity harassment, known in English as pregnancy discrimination, remains prevalent in developed countries. However, research examining the mental health effects of maternity harassment is lacking. We aimed to examine the association between maternity harassment and depression during pregnancy in Japan.
Methods: A cross-sectional Internet survey was conducted on 359 pregnant employees (including women who were working at the time their pregnancy was confirmed) from May 22 to May 31, 2020, during which time a COVID-19 state of emergency was declared. Maternity harassment was defined as being subjected to any of the 16 adverse treatments prohibited by national guidelines. Depression was defined as a score of ≥9 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (Japanese version). Logistic regression analysis was performed.
Results: Overall, 24.8% of the pregnant employees had experienced maternity harassment by supervisors and/or colleagues. After adjusting for demographics, pregnancy status, work status, and fear of COVID-19, pregnant employees who experienced maternity harassment were more likely to have depression than those who did not (odds ratio 2.48, 95% confidential interval 1.34-4.60). This association was not influenced by whether they were teleworking or not as a COVID-19 measure.
Conclusions: One quarter of pregnant employees experienced maternity harassment and had a higher prevalence of depression than those who did not. Being physically away from the office through teleworking may not reduce the effect of maternal harassment on depression. To protect the mental health and employment of pregnant women, employers should comply with the laws and take measures to prevent maternity harassment.
Objectives: The cross-sectional study aimed to analyze the association between burnout, work-related factors, and metabolic syndrome (Mets) in nurses from several departments of a tertiary hospital in Taiwan. Exploring biomarkers could provide for prevention.
Methods: Demographic data were obtained through a written questionnaire and include the following information: gender, age, education level, psychosocial and work situations, such as departments, working hours, work shift, depression, and sleep time. Burnout was evaluated according to the Chinese Burnout inventory, Mets was evaluated according to the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program of Taiwan-Treatment Panel for Adults III (NCEP-ATP III).
Results: A total of 1758 nurses participated with a median age of 35.2 years. The prevalence of burnout and Mets was 6.4% and 13.84%, respectively. The results showed that burnout induced higher risk of Mets, odds ratio (OR) 1.70 (95% confidence interval, 1.04-3.05). Other factors, such as out-patient nurses, seniority (4-10 and >10 years), working hours (51-59 h/wk), nigh shift, Brief Symptom Rating Scale-5 (score 10-14 and ≧15), poor self-rated health status, and inadequate sleep time, led to higher risk of Mets. Biomarkers research showed that Glycated hemoglobin (Hba1c) was significantly associated with burnout nurses (OR = 24.72, P < .001), but thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxin were not.
Conclusions: Results suggested positive associations between burnout and Mets in nurses. For nurses with higher seniority, long hours of work, night shifts, poor physical and mental conditions, and poor lifestyle habits in different departments, strategies are needed to prevent burnout and Mets.
Kate Hayman, Jesse McLaren, Dezi Ahuja, Carolina Jimenez Vanegas, Hasan Sheikh
Introduction: Emergency physicians frequently provide care for patients who are experiencing viral illnesses and may be asked to provide verification of the patient's illness (a sick note) for time missed from work. Exclusion from work can be a powerful public health measure during epidemics; both legislation and physician advice contribute to patients’ decisions to recover at home.
Methods: We surveyed Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians members to determine what impacts sick notes have on patients and the system, the duration of time off work that physicians recommend, and what training and policies are in place to help providers. Descriptive statistics from the survey are reported.
Results: A total of 182 of 1524 physicians responded to the survey; 51.1% practice in Ontario. 76.4% of physicians write at least one sick note per day, with 4.2% writing 5 or more sick notes per day. Thirteen percentage of physicians charge for a sick note (mean cost $22.50). Patients advised to stay home for a median of 4 days with influenza and 2 days with gastroenteritis and upper respiratory tract infections. 82.8% of physicians believe that most of the time, patients can determine when to return to work. Advice varied widely between respondents. 61% of respondents were unfamiliar with sick leave legislation in their province and only 2% had received formal training about illness verification.
Conclusions: Providing sick notes is a common practice of Canadian Emergency Physicians; return-to-work guidance is variable. Improved physician education about public health recommendations and provincial legislation may strengthen physician advice to patients.
On 31 December 2019, the World Health Organization (WHO) received reports of pneumonia cases of unknown etiology in the city of Wuhan in Hubei Province, China. The agent responsible was subsequently identified as a coronavirus-SARS-CoV-2. The WHO declared this disease as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern at the end of January 2020.
This event evoked a sense of déjà vu, as it has many similarities to the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) of 2002-2003. Both illnesses were caused by a zoonotic novel coronavirus, both originated during winter in China and both spread rapidly all over the world. However, the case-fatality rate of SARS (9.6%) is higher than that of COVID-19 (<4%). Another zoonotic novel coronavirus, MERS-CoV, was responsible for the Middle East respiratory syndrome, which had a case-fatality rate of 34%.
Our experiences in coping with the previous coronavirus outbreaks have better equipped us to face the challenges posed by COVID-19, especially in the health care setting. Among the insights gained from the past outbreaks were: outbreaks caused by viruses are hazardous to healthcare workers; the impact of the disease extends beyond the infection; general principles of prevention and control are effective in containing the disease; the disease poses both a public health as well as an occupational health threat; and emerging infectious diseases pose a continuing threat to the world. Given the perspectives gained and lessons learnt from these past events, we should be better prepared to face the current COVID-19 outbreak.
Yu-Li Lan, Wan-Tsui Huang, Chi-Lan Kao, Hui-Jung Wang
Objectives: This study explored the relationship between organizational climate, job stress, workplace burnout, and retention of pharmacists. This study adopted a cross-sectional design and conducted a questionnaire survey of pharmacists working at three teaching hospitals (a district teaching hospital, a regional teaching hospital, and a medical center).
Methods: The sampling criteria were a license to practice pharmacy and a willingness to sign a written consent form to participate in this study.
Results: One hundred ten questionnaires were distributed, of which 101 contained valid responses, yielding a valid return rate of 91.82%. A significant correlation was evident between organizational climate, job stress, workplace burnout, and retention. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that demographic variables, organizational climate, job stress, and workplace burnout had a predictive power of 55.6% for retention (F = 9.712***, P < .001). Organizational climate had a significant positive correlated with retention (β = 0.401*, P < .001).
Conclusions: The results of this study can help hospitals to create a friendly and healthy workplace, instruct hospital managers how to improve their organizational climates, and reduce pharmacists’ job stress and workplace burnout, thereby enhancing the quality of pharmacy service and medication safety and eventually improving pharmacists’ intention to stay.
Objectives: Musculoskeletal disorders, mainly carpal tunnel syndrome, represent a leading cause of compensation claims of workers worldwide. Despite this, and the fact that occupational exposures to biomechanical factors and neurotoxic chemicals have been individually associated with peripheral nerve damage, the prevalence of occupational co-exposure to biomechanical factors and neurotoxic chemicals has rarely been explored. Therefore, our aim was to assess the prevalence of occupational co-exposure to biomechanical factors and neurotoxic chemicals in a national representative sample of the French working population.
Methods: The study was based on the French representative cross-sectional survey SUMER 2010. A total of 47 983 employees who had worked in their current job for at least one year were included. Occupational exposure to biomechanical factors and neurotoxic chemicals within the previous week of work were assessed using a questionnaire during face-to-face interviews with occupational physicians.
Results: Approximately 5% of male employees and 1% of female employees were co-exposed to biomechanical factors and neurotoxic chemicals. This prevalence was up to 10% among male blue-collar workers and 13%, 8%, and 6%, respectively, among male employees in the construction, agriculture, and industry sectors. Male employees under 30 years old, in apprenticeships, and working in small companies were more co-exposed to biomechanical factors and neurotoxic chemicals than their counterparts.
Conclusions: Occupational co-exposure to biomechanical factors and neurotoxic chemicals was observed in a significant proportion of French male employees, suggesting that further studies are required to investigate its potential adverse effects on peripheral neuropathies.
Objectives: Very few longitudinal studies have investigated the question of whether differences in company size may give rise to health inequalities. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between company size of the longest-held job and mortality in older Japanese adults.
Methods: This study used longitudinal data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study. Surveys were sent to functionally independent individuals aged 65 or older who were randomly sampled from 13 municipalities in Japan. Respondents were followed for a maximum of 6.6 years. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate mortality hazard ratios (HRs) for men and for women. Analysis was carried out on 35 418 participants (197 514 person-years).
Results: A total of 3935 deaths occurred during the 6-year follow-up period. Among men, in Model 1 that adjusted for age, educational attainment, type of longest-held job, and municipalities, mortality HRs decreased significantly with increasing size of company (P for trend = .002). Compared to companies with 1-9 employees, the mortality HR (0.78, 95% confidence interval: 0.68-0.90) was significantly lower for companies with 10 000 or more employees. However, there were no significant differences among women (P for trend = .41).
Conclusions: In men, mortality in old age may decrease with increasing size of company of the longest-held job. To reduce health inequalities in old age due to differences in size of company, studies should be conducted to determine the underlying mechanisms and moderating factors and those findings should be reflected in labor policies and occupational health systems.
Objectives: Using annual health check-up data, the aim of this study was to identify target populations for lifestyle interventions to effectively prevent diabetes in a real-world setting.
Methods: The Japan Diabetes Outcome Intervention Trial-1, a prospective, cluster-randomized controlled trial, was launched to test if year-long telephone-delivered lifestyle support by health professionals can prevent the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in people with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) identified at health check-ups. A total of 2607 participants aged 20-65 years with IFG were randomized to an intervention arm (n = 1240) or a control arm (n = 1367). We performed subgroup analysis to examine the effects of the intervention on the incidence of T2D in participants with body mass index (BMI) ≥25, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and non-alcoholic or alcoholic elevated liver enzymes at the baseline. Cox regression analysis adjusted for sex was used to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs).
Results: In addition to IFG, the presence of BMI ≥25, MetS, and elevated liver enzymes increased the incidence of diabetes by two- or three-fold. During a median follow-up period of 4.9 years, only the non-alcoholic elevated liver enzyme group showed a low incidence rate owing to lifestyle interventions (adjusted HR: 0.42, 95% confidence interval: 0.18-0.98).
Conclusion: The results suggest that people who have IFG and non-alcoholic elevated liver enzymes are a good target population for lifestyle interventions to effectively reduce the incidence of diabetes in a real-world setting.
Objective: Poultry farm workers are exposed to barn air and suffer from various respiratory disorders. Due to frequent prevalence of endotoxin in the farm settings workers can get co-exposed to barn air and endotoxin. The study was aimed to explore the pulmonary damage following long-term multiple exposures to poultry barn air with or without endotoxin.
Methods: We studied the pulmonary expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) by exposing Swiss albino mice to poultry barn air for 6 days (Monday-Saturday) in a week for 5 and 10 weeks. At the end of exposure, animals were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or normal saline solution @80 μg/mouse intranasally. Histopathology, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and blood analysis were used to characterize lung damage. mRNA and protein expression of TLR4 and IL-1β were evaluated using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and immunohistochemistry, respectively.
Results: Histopathology along with TLC and DLC of blood and BAL fluid revealed lung damage following multiple exposures and damage was severe in combination with LPS. Exposures altered mRNA and protein expression of TLR-4 and IL-1β and the expression was more marked following 30 days of exposure. Further LPS co-challenge showed a synergistic effect on the expression of TLR4 and IL-1β.
Conclusions: The data suggest that long-term exposures with or without LPS caused lung damage and altered the pulmonary expression of TLR4 and IL-1β.
Miyuki Hasegawa, Shamima Akter, Huanhuan Hu, Ikuko Kashino, Keisuke Kuwahara, Hiroko Okazaki, Naoko Sasaki, Takayuki Ogasawara, Masafumi Eguchi, Takeshi Kochi, Toshiaki Miyamoto, Tohru Nakagawa, Toru Honda, Shuichiro Yamamoto, Taizo Murakami, Makiko Shimizu, Akihiko Uehara, Makoto Yamamoto, Teppei Imai, Akiko Nishihara, Kentaro Tomita, Satsue Nagahama, Ai Hori, Maki Konishi, Isamu Kabe, Tetsuya Mizoue, Naoki Kunugita, Seitaro Dohi, the Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study Group
Objective: The present study aimed to estimate cumulative incidence of overweight and obesity and describe 5-year longitudinal changes in body mass index (BMI) in a large occupational cohort in Japan.
Methods: Participants were 55 229 Japanese employees, who were aged 20-59 years and attended at all subsequent annual health check-ups between 2009 and 2014. Mixed model analysis was performed to examine the effects of age and cohort by gender on BMI change, with age as a random variable. Cumulative incidence of overweight (23.0≤ BMI <27.5 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI ≥27.5 kg/m2) was calculated. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios for the incidence of overweight and obesity according to age group.
Results: The incidence of overweight and obesity was approximately double in men (28.3% and 6.7%, respectively) compared to women (14.3% and 3.9%, respectively). The incidence of obesity decreased with age in men, but did not differ according to age in women (P for trend: .02 and .89, respectively). Among overweight participants, the incidence of obesity was higher in women (18.9%) than men (14.5%) and decreased with advancing age (P for trend: <.001 in men and .003 in women). Mean BMI was higher in men than women in all age groups throughout the period. Younger cohorts tended to have a higher BMI change compared with older cohorts.
Conclusions: In this Japanese occupational cohort, transition from overweight to obesity is higher in women than men, and the more recent cohorts had a higher change in mean BMI than the older cohorts.
Objectives: Neck pain ranks 4th highest in terms of disability as measured by years lived with disabilities. This study was conducted to determine whether Tasuki-style posture supporter improves neck pain compared to waiting-list.
Methods: This trial was an individually-randomized, open-label, waiting-list-controlled study. Adults (20 years or older) with non-specific chronic neck pain who reported 10 points or more on modified Neck Disability Index (mNDI: range, 0-50; higher points indicate worse condition) were enrolled. Participants were randomly assigned 1:1 to the intervention group or waiting-list. Prespecified primary outcome was the change in mNDI at 1 week. The principle of intention-to-treat analyses (as randomized) was applied. This trial was prospectively registered with UMIN (UMIN000034825).
Results: In total, 50 participants (mean age, 40.9 [standard deviation (SD) = 9.6]; 32 participants [64%] were female, mean mNDI, 14.3 [SD = 2.9]) were enrolled. Of these participants, 26 (52%) were randomly assigned to the intervention group and 24 (48%) to the waiting-list. Attrition rate was low in both groups (1/50). The mean mNDI change score at 1 week was more favorable for Tasuki than waiting-list (between-group difference, −3.5 points (95% confidence interval (CI), −5.3 to −1.8); P = .0002). More participants (58%) had moderate benefit (at least 30% improvement) with Tasuki than waiting-list (13%) (relative risk 4.6 (95% CI 1.5 to 14); risk difference 0.45 (0.22 to 0.68)).
Conclusion: This trial suggests that wearing Tasuki might moderately improve neck pain. With its low-cost, low-risk, and easy-to-use nature, Tasuki could be an option for those who suffer from neck pain.
Mi Xiang, Huanhuan Hu, Teppei Imai, Akiko Nishihara, Naoko Sasaki, Takayuki Ogasawara, Ai Hori, Tohru Nakagawa, Shuichiro Yamamoto, Toru Honda, Hiroko Okazaki, Akihiko Uehara, Makoto Yamamoto, Toshiaki Miyamoto, Takeshi Kochi, Masafumi Eguchi, Taizo Murakami, Makiko Shimizu, Kentaro Tomita, Satsue Nagahama, Akiko Nanri, Maki Konishi, Shamima Akter, Keisuke Kuwahara, Ikuko Kashino, Miwa Yamaguchi, Isamu Kabe, Tetsuya Mizoue, Naoki Kunugita, Seitaro Dohi, the Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study Group
Objectives: We aimed to compare the association of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among middle-aged working Japanese men.
Methods: A nested case-control study was performed among middle-aged male employees who underwent periodic health checkup. A total of 241 CVD cases were identified and matched individually on age, gender, and worksite with 1205 controls. Data on BMI, WC, WHtR, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia collected at 4 years before the event/index date were retrieved. Associations between BMI, WC, WHtR, and CVD risk were assessed by using conditional logistic regression models.
Results: The strength of the association of BMI, WC, and WHtR with CVD risk was similar. The smoking-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for CVD was 1.60 (1.38-1.85), 1.53 (1.33-1.78), and 1.56 (1.35-1.81) for a 1 SD unit increase in BMI, WC, and WHtR respectively. After further adjustment for hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, these associations were attenuated but remained statistically significant.
Conclusions: Measures of general (BMI) and abdominal (WC and WHtR) obesity were similarly associated with CVD in middle-aged Japanese men.
Objectives: The increasing number of working elderly people has enhanced the importance of workplace health promotion activities. We investigated the association between the health status of workers approximately 60 years of age and the risk of all-cause mortality after compulsory retirement in Japan.
Methods: The 2026 participants (1299 males and 727 females) had retired from a metal-products factory at ≥60 years of age. Baseline health examinations were conducted at 60 years of age and included questions about medical history and lifestyle factors; the participants also underwent a physical examination. The participants were followed up annually by mail for an average of 7.4 years. The association between health status at age 60 years and the risk of all-cause mortality was assessed by Cox proportional hazards regression analysis.
Results: During the study, 71 deaths were reported. The age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratio (HR [95% confidence interval]) for all-cause mortality was higher for males (HR, 3.41 [1.73-6.69]) compared with females, participants with a low body mass index (<18.5 kg/m2; HR 3.84 [1.91-7.73]) compared with normal body weight, smokers (HR, 2.63 [1.51-4.58]) compared with nonsmokers, and those with three or more of four metabolic abnormalities (obesity, high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, and glucose intolerance) (HR 2.29 [1.04-5.02]) compared with no metabolic abnormalities. The associations were unaffected by adjustment for these factors.
Conclusion: Maintenance of an appropriate body weight, smoking cessation, and elimination of metabolic syndrome are required for older workers to prevent early death after retirement.
Jarmo Kuronen, Klas Winell, Sami Riekki, Jelena Hartsenko, Kimmo Räsänen
Objectives: Early retirement due to disability is a problem in Finland. That causes pension costs that are heavy for the society. This study was designed to find out whether a quality network can support the reduction in incident disability pensions and promote a shift from full to partial disability pensions.
Methods: The study population (N = 41 472 in 2016) consisted of municipal employees whose occupational health care (OHC) was provided by the members of the Finnish Occupational Health Quality Network (OQN). The comparison population consisted of all municipality employees whose OHC was provided by non-members of the OQN (N = 340 479 in 2016). The outcomes were measured by comparing the trends in incident disability pensions of full and partial permanent pension and full and partial provisional pension, partial/full pension indexes from 2011 to 2016 according to the principles of Benchmarking Controlled Trials. Linear regression models were used to explore the dynamics of different pension forms. Regression coefficients were calculated to show the average change per year.
Results: The incidence of permanent disability pensions decreased faster in the study population (P for trend .03) and the study group showed a stronger shift from full to partial permanent pensions (P for trend <.001).
Conclusion: Quality networking between OHC units including common goal setting, systematic quality improvement, and repeated quality measurements decreased new permanent disability pensions and increased partial permanent pensions. Such changes are important while thriving for increased work participation.
Marc Rocholl, Michaela Ludewig, Swen Malte John, Eva Maria Bitzer, Annika Wilke
Objectives: Since January 2015, squamous cell carcinoma or multiple actinic keratosis of the skin caused by natural ultraviolet irradiation (UVR) is recognized as occupational disease in Germany. Interventions which improve the sun protection behavior of outdoor workers are urgently needed. When developing preventive interventions, the attitudes of target groups need to be taken into consideration. Therefore, outdoor workers’ perceptions and attitudes were investigated.
Methods: Seven guided, problem-centered qualitative interviews with healthy male outdoor workers were conducted. A qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the data.
Results: We found an underestimation of the perceived skin cancer risk in the seven outdoor workers and heterogeneous attitudes toward the usage of sun-protective measures. Participants stated that the feasibility of technical sun-protective measures depends on the size of the working area. While using a headgear seemed common, none of the participants stated using additional neck protection. Wearing long-sleeved shirts and long trousers were considered problematic. The interviews revealed important requirements for sun-protective clothes, especially in terms of different materials. Although the usage of sunscreen was common, our interviewees seemed to apply it wrongly.
Conclusion: Risk perceptions of outdoor workers and their attitudes toward sun protection measures may influence the factual UV protection behavior in the workplace. Structures to facilitate the implementation of technical and organizational sun-protective measures seem to be necessary. Educational interventions and clear instructions which are tailored to the individual needs and attitudes of outdoor workers are required to improve the UV protection behavior and to avoid common mistakes.
Objectives: To develop and validate a global occupational health and safety management system (OHSMS) model for Japanese companies.
Methods: In cooperation with a Japanese company, we established a research team and gathered information on occupational health and safety (OHS) practices in nine countries where the target company operated manufacturing sites. We then developed a model hypothesis via research team meeting. The model hypothesis was introduced to local factories in Indonesia and Thailand as trial sites. We evaluated the roles of the company headquarters, the implementation process, and any improvements in OHS practices at the sites. Based on the results, a global OHSMS model was formalized for global introduction.
Results: The model consisted of both headquarters and site roles. These roles were well-functioning, and OHS at the sites improved. Two issues concerning the functioning of the headquarters were identified: the need to establish a reporting system to the headquarters and the need to support the improvement of specialized human resources. By improving the model hypothesis to address these issues, the model was formalized for global introduction.
Conclusions: The global OHSMS model was based on the use of methods and specialized human resources relevant to each region and their common objectives, as well as evaluation indicators based on the minimum requirements of the company headquarters. To verify the effectiveness of this model, the experiment should be extended to other countries.
Koji Mori, Takahiro Mori, Tomohisa Nagata, Masako Nagata, Mahoko Iwasaki, Hiroki Sakai, Koki Kimura, Natsumi Shinzato
Objective: A systematic review was performed to study factors of occurrence and improvement methods of presenteeism attributed to diabetes.
Methods: We set 2 clinical questions; (a) how comorbidities and complications of diabetes induce presenteeism and (b) what interventions or conditions effectively improve presenteeism. Then, we conducted a comprehensive search with MEDLINE/PubMed and Scopus databases and extracted those that met the clinical questions.
Results: Eighteen papers studied occurrence of presenteeism by comorbidities and complications of diabetes. Most studies were cross-sectional and had a low quality of evidence. However, the associations of hypoglycemia, diabetic neuropathy, and mood disorders with presenteeism were relatively well studied. The papers that discussed effective interventions or conditions for improving presenteeism were very limited.
Conclusions: Our review suggests that presenteeism attributed to diabetes is mainly caused by hypoglycemia, diabetic neuropathy, and mood disorders. There are very limited evidences, but available information suggests that improving glycemic control, adjusting treatment regimen by evaluating the impact on work, providing psychological support, and developing suitable work accommodations may effectively reduce presenteeism.
Expert Division of Occupational Hygiene & Ergonomics, the Japan Society for Occupational Health, "The Committee for Personal Exposure Monitoring", Haruo Hashimoto, Kenichi Yamada, Hajime Hori, Shinji Kumagai, Masaru Murata, Toshio Nagoya, Hirohiko Nakahara, Nobuyuki Mochida
This Document, "Guidelines for personal exposure monitoring of chemicals" ("this Guideline"), has been prepared by "The Committee for Personal Exposure Monitoring" ("the Committee") of the Expert Division of Occupational Hygiene & Ergonomics, Japan Society for Occupational Health. Considering the background of the growing importance of personal exposure monitoring in risk assessment and the need to prepare for the introduction of monitoring using personal samplers from an administrative perspective in recent years, the Committee was organized in November 2012. The Committee has prepared this Guideline as a "practical guideline" for personal exposure monitoring, so as to offer proposals and recommendations to the members of the Japan Society for Occupational Health and to society in general. The scope of this Guideline covers all chemical substances and all related workplaces regarded as targets for general assessment and the management of risk. It thus is not to be considered to comment on legal regulations and methodology. The main text provides the basic methods and concepts of personal exposure monitoring, while 31 "Appendices" are provided later in this Guideline throughout the series; technical descriptions, statistical bases, and actual workplace examples are provided in these appendices, to assist better understanding. The personal exposure monitoring described as per this Guideline is equivalent to an "expert-centered basic method to reasonably proceed with the assessment and management of risk at workplaces." It is considered that practicing and expanding on this method will significantly contribute in reforming the overall framework of occupational hygiene management in Japan.