Inflammatory cytokines may have important roles in periodontitis. We assessed the effects of initial periodontal therapy on clinical periodontal parameters and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) level in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) from chronic periodontitis (CP) patients. After initial screening, baseline periodontal parameters such as probing pocket depth (PPD) and bleeding on probing (BOP) were measured. GCF samples were collected from 13 shallow (≤3 mm) and deep (≥5 mm) PPD sites from 13 CP patients, and GCF volume and IL-1β concentration were determined at baseline (before scaling and root planning) and at 2 and 4 months after initial therapy. Baseline BOP rate, GCF volume, and IL-1β level were significantly higher at deep PPD sites than at shallow PPD sites. Significant improvements in PPD and BOP were observed at 2 and 4 months after periodontal initial therapy in deep PPD sites only. In contrast, GCF volume and IL-1β concentration were lower at 2 and 4 months after initial therapy at all sites. These results suggest that GCF volume and IL-1β level in samples reflect disease severity and that these variables are better than PPD and BOP as markers of gingival inflammation. (J Oral Sci 57, 67-71, 2015)
This retrospective study evaluated the frequency of development of root resorption in dental trauma cases involving supporting tissue. For 249 traumatized teeth of 125 patients aged between 7 and 51 years, we collected data on the gender and age of the patient, the teeth involved, the type of trauma, and the period between dental injury and initial examination. Radiographic parameters examined in relation to root resorption included the presence of inflammatory external root resorption, internal root resorption, replacement resorption, and canal calcification. Data were analyzed by chi-squared test, Fisher’s exact test, and mult iple logistic regression (P < 0.05). The results indicated that there was a significant relationship between the period from the date of injury until initial examination and the occurrence of inflammatory external resorption (P = 0.0199), as well as the type of injury (P = 0.0406). Furthermore, external resorption was most frequently associated with intrusive luxation (92.8%), followed by avulsion (89.0%), lateral luxation (80.2%), and extrusive luxation (77.4%). Among the types of dental injury, replacement resorption was observed more frequently in cases of avulsion (87.2%). The only factor that was significantly associated with this type of resorption was the type of injury (P < 0.0001). Root resorption is observed more frequently and its risk of development is higher in cases of severe trauma, especially avulsion and intrusive luxation. (J Oral Sci 57, 73-78, 2015)
This study investigated the radiopacity values of glass ionomer- and resin-based bulk-fill restoratives of different thicknesses using digital radiography. Two glass ionomer-based and three resin-based bulk-fill restoratives, and a conventional composite were studied. Five disc-shaped specimens were prepared from each of these materials at three different thicknesses; specimens of enamel and dentin with the same thicknesses were also prepared. Materials were placed over a complementary metal oxide-semiconductor sensor together with the tooth specimen and an aluminum step-wedge, and then exposed using a dental X-ray unit. The images were analyzed using a software program to measure the mean gray values (MGVs), which were converted to equivalent aluminum thicknesses. Two-way ANOVA was used to investigate the significance of differences among the groups. The GCP Glass Fill specimens showed the lowest radiopacity values, and the Quixfil specimens had the highest values. All materials had higher radiopacity values than enamel and dentin, except for GCP Glass Fill, which had a radiopacity similar to that of enamel. The resin-based bulk-fill restoratives had significantly higher radiopacity values than glass ionomer-based restoratives. All of the tested materials showed radiopacity values higher than that of dentin, as recommended by the ISO. (J Oral Sci 57, 79-85, 2015)
We examined the impact of the severity of periodontal disease on quality of life in adults with chronic periodontitis. One hundred patients (age, 30-58 years) who were assisted at the Basic Health Care Unit in the city of Passo Fundo, RS, Brazil underwent clinical examination of all standing teeth, including gingival bleeding on probing, probing depth, and clinical attachment level, and were divided into those with mild/moderate (n = 49; group G1) and severe (n = 51; group G2) chronic periodontitis. The participants were then interviewed, using a structured questionnaire. The Brazilian Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14Br) questionnaire was used to assess oral health-related quality of life. Associations were investigated, and those with a P value of less than 0.2 were tested using multiple logistic regression models. Those with a P value of 0.05 or less were considered significant. There was a significant association between G2 and education level (P = 0.00051). OHIP-14Br score was higher for G2 (24.1) than for G1 (18.2) (P = 0.0455). Severe chronic periodontitis was associated with low education level (≤8 years) (odds ratio [OR], 3.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-7.3) and pronunciation difficulties (OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.0-9.3). In conclusion, periodontal disease severity was inversely associated with quality of life among Brazilian adults. (J Oral Sci 57, 87-94, 2015)
To facilitate safe placement of orthodontic anchor screws (miniscrews), we investigated the frequency of maxillary sinus perforation after screw placement and the effect of sinus perforation on screw stability. Maxillary sinus perforations involving 82 miniscrews (diameter, 1.6 mm; length, 8 mm) were evaluated using cone-beam computed tomography. All miniscrews were placed in maxillary alveolar bone between the second premolar and first molar for anchorage for anterior retraction in patients undergoing first premolar extraction. The placement torque and screw mobility of each implant were determined using a torque tester and a Periotest device, and variability in these values in relation to sinus perforation was evaluated. Eight of the 82 miniscrews perforated the maxillary sinus. There was no case of sinusitis in patients with miniscrew perforation and no significant difference in screw mobility or placement torque between perforating and non-perforating miniscrews. The sinus floor was significantly thinner in perforated cases than in non-perforated cases. A sinus floor thickness of 6.0 mm or more is recommended in order to avoid miniscrew perforation of the maxillary sinus. (J Oral Sci 57, 95-100, 2015)
In this clinical study, we evaluated the 3-year clinical performance of a resin composite containing a surface-prereacted glass ionomer (S-PRG) filler (Beautifil II; Shofu Inc., Kyoto, Japan) placed with a single-step self-etch adhesive (BeautiBond; Shofu Inc.) in posterior restorations. Using modified US Public Health Service criteria, two experienced investigators performed clinical evaluations at the baseline, 6 months, 18 months, and 3 years. Color match, marginal adaptation, anatomical form, surface roughness, marginal discoloration, postoperative sensitivity, and secondary caries were evaluated. After 3 years, 26 patients attended the recall and 31 restorations were evaluated. No postoperative sensitivity or secondary caries was observed at any time point, and no restorations failed during the follow-up period. However, surface roughness, marginal adaptation, and marginal discoloration showed deterioration after 3 years. In conclusion, although some clinical changes were observed, resin composite containing S-PRG filler placed with self-etch adhesive exhibited acceptable clinical behavior in posterior restorations. (J Oral Sci 57, 101-108, 2015)
Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a well recognized premalignant condition predominantly affecting the oral cavity, but sometimes extending to the pharynx, esophagus or even the larynx. OSMF may lead to stiffness of the oral cavity, resulting in trismus and inability to eat, difficulty with speech or swallowing, pain in the throat and ears, and a relative loss of auditory acuity. To evaluate the hearing deficit in patients with OSMF, we examined a study group comprising 40 patients, and also 10 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects as controls. All of the subjects were evaluated for hearing loss by pure tone audiometry. The OSMF group showed a significant degree of hearing loss relative to the control group. OSMF in advanced stages was significantly associated with mild conductive hearing loss (P < 0.01). The present study revealed a significant association between OSMF and hearing deficit. Involvement of the palatal muscles with OSMF may decrease the patency of the Eustachian tube, leading to conductive hearing loss. Therefore, all patients with OSMF should be evaluated for hearing deficit and advised about appropriate treatment. (J Oral Sci 57, 109-113, 2015)
Glucose transporters, such as GLUT-1, mediate the important mechanisms involved in cellular glucose influx, allowing cells to proliferate and survive. The significance of GLUT-1 expression in oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has been less explored, and no study has investigated it in relation to verrucous carcinoma (VC). We evaluated 30 cases each of OED, OSCC, and VC, graded further on the basis of their differentiation, immunohistochemically for GLUT-1 expression, along with 10 specimens of normal oral mucosa (NOM) as controls. In OSCC, GLUT-1 expression increased with the degree of dysplasia and increasing grade (P < 0.001). The expression in VC was predominantly membranous and intense, resembling well differentiated OSCC. This increase of GLUT-1 expression in OSCC along with the degree of dysplasia and the histologic grade reflects the expanding glycolytic response to hypoxia. This is the first study to have revealed prominent GLUT-1 expression in VC, highlighting its inherent metabolic capacity. (J Oral Sci 57, 115-122, 2015)
Investigations into the oral health status of indigenous populations are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate caries experience and associated factors among 342 indigenous children and adolescents aged 5-15 years of the Xukuru community in the municipality of Pesqueira, Brazil. A cross-sectional census study was carried out using the criteria of the World Health Organization to determine caries experience. Examinations were performed by two calibrated dentists and a questionnaire was administered to parents/caregivers addressing socio-demographic data, diet and oral hygiene habits. Logistic regression analysis were performed, with dmft and DMFT as the dependent variables (P < 0.05). Caries experience (dmft/DMFT) was high in both the primary and permanent dentition (75.6% and 62.9%, respectively). Mean dmft and DMFT indices were 3.11 and 2.21, respectively. Caries experience in the primary dentition was associated with children residing in villages far from urban areas (P = 0.016), while caries in the permanent dentition was associated with older children (P < 0.001) and with children from villages at an intermediate distance and far from urban areas (P < 0.001). The indigenous subjects exhibited a high degree of caries experience, which was associated with age and group of villages. Public policies are needed to improve the oral health status of this population. (J Oral Sci 57, 123-129, 2015)
This study investigated the effects of administration of parathyroid hormone (PTH) at different dosages and schedules on bone regeneration in critical-size bone defects in rat calvariae. After calvarial defects had been prepared in 50 rats, they were divided into five treatment groups: 15 µg/kg PTH daily (PTH-15), 35 µg/kg PTH three times per week (PTH-35), 105 µg/kg once per week (PTH-105-1), 105 µg/kg three times per week (PTH-105-3), and controls given vehicle alone. Bone regeneration was evaluated radiographically using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) or histologically. The amount of newly generated bone in the calvarial defects was found to be significantly greater in the PTH groups than in the control group, and did not differ significantly among the PTH-15, PTH-35, and PTH-105-1 groups, whereas the PTH-105-3 group showed a significantly greater degree of new bone formation than the other PTH groups. It appeared that a higher dose of PTH stimulated a greater degree of bone regeneration in this experimental setting. The present results also suggest that the total dose of PTH administered is significantly related to the amount of bone regenerated within a defined period, indicating that less frequent administration of PTH might be a feasible protocol for bone regeneration therapy. (J Oral Sci 57, 131-136, 2015)
We compared flexural strength (FS) in four resin composites before and after three protocols for thermal cycling aging. Four resin composites were evaluated: Enamel Plus Hri, Gradia Direct Posterior, Grandioso, and Grandioso Flow. Sixty specimens (2 × 2 × 25 mm) were fabricated using a split metallic mold and light-cured for 30 s. The specimens were then randomly divided into four groups and tested using one of the following thermal cycling procedures: 1) storage in deionized water for 24 h (control group), 2) 15,000 cycles, 3) 30,000 cycles, and 4) 45,000 cycles. Each thermal cycling procedure was conducted between 5°C and 55°C, with a dwell time of 30 s. All specimens were subjected to a three-point bending test, to determine FS (0.5 mm/min). “Material” and “thermal aging” were significantly associated with FS (P < 0.001). A statistically significant interaction between the two factors was also detected (P < 0.001). In the non-aged groups, nanohybrid composites had the highest FS. FS significantly decreased after thermal cycling protocols in all composites tested. Gradia composite exhibited decrease in FS only after 45,000 cycles. In contrast, FS significantly decreased in the Grandioso Flow composite at 15,000 cycles. The trend in the decrease varied among composites, and the decrement in FS was not proportional to baseline values. (J Oral Sci 57, 137-143, 2015)
The present in vivo study was performed to investigate the levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6, and IL-8, in primary molars for which pulpotomy was clinically indicated, and to evaluate the success rates of three different pulpotomy agents employed for cariously (CExp) or mechanically exposed (MExp) primary molars. Forty-seven primary molars were classified as MExp or CExp according to the type of pulpal exposure. Pulp tissue was harvested and analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Subsequently, three pulpotomy agents—calcium hydroxide (CH), mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), and formocresol (FC)—were applied randomly, and the outcome was observed radiographically for 18 months. Levels of IL-6 and IL-8 were significantly higher in CExp pulp than in MExp pulp (P < 0.05). In the CH pulpotomy group, MExp teeth showed a higher success rate than CExp teeth. There was no significant difference in success rate between MExp and CExp teeth in both the FC and MTA groups. The levels of IL-6 and IL-8 have the potential to become indicators of pulp status and can be monitored by researchers to make the prognosis of vital pulp therapies less uncertain. As MTA and FC yielded higher rates of success than CH in CExp teeth, the choice of pulpotomy agent appears to be important in this context. (J Oral Sci 57, 145-150, 2015)
The purpose of this study was to characterize the anatomy of the genial tubercle using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). The morphology and detailed anatomy of the genial tubercle were assessed retrospectively in 201 patients (101 females, 100 males) using CBCT images. The parameters examined were the height (GH) and width (GW) of the genial tubercle, the distance from the lower incisors to the superior border of the tubercle (I-SGT), the distance from the inferior margin of the tubercle to the inferior margin of the mandible (IGM-IBM), and the anterior mandible thickness (AMT). Statistical analysis was performed to assess relationships among these parameters, gender, and orthodontic malocclusion (P < 0.05). The values obtained were GH 7.3-8.7 mm, GW 7.9-9.2 mm, I-SGT 7.1-9.1 mm, IGM-IBM 8.3-10.1 mm, and AMT 14.0-16.2 mm. GH, GW, and I-SGT showed no significant differences between genders (P > 0.05). However, IGM-IBM was larger for class III than for class I and class II male patients, and larger than for class I female patients. AMT in class III patients was greater than in class I and II patients (P < 0.05). The use of CBCT, which employs less radiation, is important for dental professionals, especially those performing surgery for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), in order to avoid possible surgical complications. (J Oral Sci 57, 151-156, 2015)
When a primary tooth sustains a traumatic injury, development of the permanent tooth can be disturbed, leading to various malformations. This case report details the 7-year follow-up of a developmental anomaly of a central mandibular incisor in a 10-year-old Japanese girl with a history of dental trauma that had occurred at age 4. The trauma had resulted in unusual crown dilaceration in the permanent successor, which exhibited a discoloured and abnormal crown morphology. Radiographic examination revealed crown dilaceration of the tooth, which had a curved root canal. (J Oral Sci 57, 157-160, 2015)
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