The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of lemon balm (LB; Melissa officinalis L.) extract as additive on performance, health status and carcass traits of broilers during a 42-days production cycle. One hundred mixed chicks of Ross 308 strain were assigned for five dietary treatments with four replicates per group and five birds per replicate as follows: control diet, 0.5LB, 1.0LB, 1.5LB and 2.0LB with 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 or 2.0 mL of LB extract per liter of drinking water, respectively. In overall, at 42nd day, low feed, energy and protein efficiency (P<0.05) were observed in 1.0LB group than in control diet. However, during the 3rd and 5-6th weeks, feed, energy and protein intakes were improved (P<0.05), without any efficiency enhancement (P>0.05) mainly in group on 1.0LB diet. During the 5th week of rearing, daily weight gain was higher (P<0.05) in groups 0.5LB, 1.0LB and 2.0LB compared to control diet. At the end of feeding period, cecal enterococcus bacteria colony count was higher (P<0.05) and left cecum diameter was lower (P<0.05) in 1.0LB group. Hematological parameters and viscera and carcass traits remained unaffected (P>0.05) by dietary treatments. In conclusion, the supplementation with LB as natural feed additive resulted in a potential positive effect on broilers performance mainly during the grower and finisher periods.
Lutein is an essential dietary carotenoid with health benefits and is inter alia responsible for the colouration of egg yolk. The relationship between lutein accumulation and egg yolk colouration was therefore studied in more detail. After feeding a low-luteine diet for 21 days, 14 birds (Lohmann brown hens aged 20 weeks) were fed a diet containing marigold (80 mg lutein/kg feed) and 14 other birds were fed a diet containing oleoresin (45 mg lutein/kg feed) for 21 days; for both groups of birds, this feeding period was followed by withdrawal for 21 days. The Roche Yolk Colour Fan (RYCF) score (0 to 15, where higher values denote greater colour intensity; R2＝0.87; P<0.01) and redness (R2＝0.89; P<0.01) increased with increasing lutein content of egg yolk. Total carotenoid content had a poor relationship with lightness (R2＝0.13; P>0.05) and yellowness (R2＝0.12; P>0.05) of the yolk. It may be concluded that increased lutein is potentially responsible for an increased RYCF score and redness (a*), but decreased yellowness (b*) and lightness (L*), of egg yolk.
The present study aimed to establish whether supplemental Japanese pepper seed (JPS) affects feed intake in broiler chicks under ad libitum conditions. Experiments were designed to estimate the acute effect of JPS on feed and water intake using 5%-20% JPS supplemental feeds. JPS supplemental feed demonstrated a tendency to suppress feed intake and water intake in a dose-dependent manner during the 2 h post-feeding period, and chicks seldom ate 20% JPS supplemental feed at 1 h post-feeding. No significant difference was observed in the rectal temperature between groups during the 2 h post-feeding period. In a 5-h feeding experiment, no JPS level had any effect on feed or water intake in chicks. These data suggest that the adverse effect of JPS may be due to volatile stimulation; however, the effect disappears after 5 h post-feeding.
This study was carried out to determine the effects of dietary inclusion level of canola meal (CM) on performance, organ weights and hepatic type I deiodinase gene expression in broilers. A completely randomized design with 4 levels of CM (0, 10, 20 and 30%) as a substitute for soybean meal (SBM) was utilized with 5 replicates of 9 birds each. The results showed that body weight gain (1 to 42 d) decreased linearly (P<0.01) as the inclusion of CM increased. An increase in dietary level of CM also resulted in a linear (P<0.05) increase in feed conversion ratio (1 to 42 d). Proportion of thyroids (P<0.05) and liver (P<0.01) increased linearly with increased levels of CM. A significant linear increase in right ventricular weight: total ventricular weight ratio (P<0.01) and heart weight (P<0.05) were observed by substituting CM for SBM. The concentration of plasma triiodothyronine and triiodothyronine: tetraiodothyronine ratio decreased linearly (P<0.01) with increasing level of CM. Expression of hepatic type I deiodinase gene (D1) decreased linearly (P<0.01) as inclusion level of CM in diets increased. Moreover, increasing linear (P<0.01) and quadratic responses (P<0.05) were observed in follicles number and epithelial thickness in broilers thyroids followed by increased levels of CM. In addition, increases in dietary CM inclusion led to a linear (P<0.01) increase in thyroid follicles diameters. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that feeding increasing CM inclusions from 0 to 30% negatively affect growth performance of broiler chickens. From this study, it can also be concluded that substitution of CM for SBM adversely interferes with thyroid and liver functions and decrease D1 gene expression, likely because of higher dietary concentration of glucosinolates.
The excessive accumulation of body fat has become a serious problem in the broiler industry. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of lipid metabolism-related genes in broiler chickens are not fully understood. In the present study, we investigated the role of glucagon on the expression of lipid metabolism-related genes in chicken white adipose tissue (WAT). Four hours of fasting significantly increased plasma levels of free fatty acid in broiler chickens. The mRNA levels of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) in abdominal WAT significantly increased by fasting, whereas the mRNA levels of diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase homolog 2 (DGAT2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) significantly decreased. The results suggest that fasting stimulates lipolysis and suppresses adipogenesis and re-esterification of TG in chicken WAT. Glucagon significantly increased the mRNA levels of PDK4 in chicken primary adipocytes, whereas there were no significant changes in the mRNA levels of ATGL, DGAT2, and PPARγ. Our findings suggest that glucagon upregulates PDK4 expression and may stimulate lipolysis without affecting the expression of ATGL in chicken WAT.
Chicken agonistic behavior, a type of social behavior related to threatening and fighting, is among the most serious problems in the poultry industry. However, due to luck of effective models for investigating the brain mechanisms of the behavior, no effective measures have been taken. This study, therefore, aimed to select the behavioral tests available for monitoring chicken agonistic behavior. Two behavioral tests, resident-intruder (R-I) test and social interaction (SI) test, were performed for 10 minutes in 10 pairs of male layer chicks at 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 days of age, and total agonistic frequencies (TAF: Sum of the frequencies of agonistic displays like pecking, biting, kicking, threatening, and leaping) and latency (the period of time from the beginning of the behavioral test to the occurrence of the first agonistic behavior) were measured as indices of agonistic behavior. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant differences in TAF and latency between aggressors and opponents in both the behavioral tests. In the R-I test, the TAF of aggressors significantly increased from 8 to 20 days of age, and the latency significantly decreased from 8 to 24 days of age. In the SI test, however, the TAF of aggressors significantly increased and the latency significantly decreased only from 16 to 20 days of age. When the criterion of high agonistic behavior was defined as the TAF, where aggressors showed more than 30 times of TAF and the opponents did less than one-third TAF of aggressors, the aggression establishment rate (AER), which is equal to the number of aggressors showing high agonistic behavior per total behavioral trials, was significantly higher in the R-I test than in the SI test. These results suggest that the R-I test, rather than the SI test, is an effective tool for monitoring agonistic behavior of layer chicks.
The objectives of this study were to examine morphological changes of oogonia and primordial follicles in the ovaries of turkey poults within the first week after hatching, and to evaluate the effect of cryopreservation on histology and apoptosis of these immature ovaries. Ovaries from poults at Day 1, Day 3, Day 5 and Day 7 post-hatch were cryopreserved using a modified vitrification method. The histology of oogonia and primordial follicles in fresh and cryopreserved tissue was assessed, and the apoptosis of tissue in different age groups was identified using a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The mean oogonium diameter in fresh tissue increased from 11.9±1.3 μm (Day 1) to 15.2±2.7 μm (Day 7) within the first week; however, oogonia in cryopreserved tissue from Day 3 and Day 7 ovaries were smaller than those in fresh tissue (P<0.05). Formation of primordial follicles was observed as early as Day 5. For Day 7 ovaries, follicles in cryopreserved tissue were smaller than those in fresh tissue; this was also true for oocyte diameter (P<0.05). Apoptosis was most frequent in Day 1 fresh tissue, which was reduced as the poults aged. The frequency of apoptosis in cryopreserved tissue was comparable among age groups. This study provides the first documentation of morphological changes in the turkey ovary within the first week post-hatching. Results suggest that oogonia and primordial follicles that are smaller in size could be more resistant to the damage caused by cryopreservation. Of the ages assessed in this study, it is concluded that 3 days of age appears optimal for recovery of donor ovaries for cryopreservation, taking the advance of reduced cryoinjury and ease of tissue handling at this age.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential effect of melatonin on progesterone production by granulosa cells of the Japanese quail. For in vitro experiments, granulosa cells were isolated from pre-ovulatory follicles (F1-F3) when the F1 follicles were predicted to be either immature or mature (at 3-6 or 18-21 h after oviposition, respectively). Granulosa cells were cultured for 12 h with or without melatonin concentration gradients of 0.0001-100 μg/mL, thereby averting luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulation. The concentration of progesterone in culture medium was measured using an enzyme immunoassay. The expression of melatonin receptor subtypes in granulosa cells from F1 follicles was detected by reverse transcription-PCR. The LH receptor (LHCGR) mRNA level in cultured granulosa cells of the F1 follicles was analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR. Six quails were used in each of four groups for in vivo experiments. Each group received intraperitoneal injection of melatonin (0.67 mg/kg body weight) or mock-vehicle at 3 or 18 h after oviposition, respectively. The birds were decapitated to collect serum 3 h later (at 6 or 21 h after oviposition, respectively). The serum progesterone level was also measured using an enzyme immunoassay. We observed that melatonin receptor subtypes (Mel-1a, 1b, and 1c) were expressed in the granulosa cells of the F1 follicles of the Japanese quail. Melatonin suppresses the LHCGR mRNA expression in granulosa cells of F1 follicles but does not affect the basal secretion of progesterone in cultured granulosa cells of the F1-F3 follicles. In addition, melatonin treatment has no influence on the serum progesterone concentration at 6 h post-oviposition, but suppresses progesterone level 21 h after oviposition in the Japanese quail.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of melatonin to protect cultured granulosa cells from the harmful effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in quail. Granulosa cells isolated from Japanese quails were pretreated with or without melatonin (10 or 100 μg/mL) for 12 h and then incubated for 12 h in the absence or presence of 100 ng/mL LPS. The expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokine was detected by quantitative real-time PCR. The levels of oxidative stress biomarkers (dityrosine and nitrite) were determined by ELISA and the Griess reaction. Cell viability was quantified using an MTT assay. Additionally, the level of progesterone was measured by ELISA. We found that melatonin decreased LPS-induced expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8. In addition, melatonin increased the dityrosine level, but suppressed the nitrite level. Finally, melatonin administration increased the viability of LPS-stimulated granulosa cells in vitro. However, progesterone basal secretion was not significantly changed. These results suggest that melatonin protects cultured granulosa cells from LPS-induced inflammatory and oxidative stress damage and provide evidence that melatonin might have therapeutic utility in ovarian follicle infection in Japanese quail.
The offal (hearts, stomachs, and livers) of 24 African ostriches (Strutio camelus var. domesticus) from Polish farms were used in this study. Offal were taken directly from the production line; they were weighed and their water, fat, protein, ash and total collagen contents were determined. Ostrich hearts and stomachs were found to have high protein (18.1% and 19.0%, respectively) and low fat content (2.0% and 0.9%, respectively), typical of lean meat. Thus, the offal could be used in processed offal products or in pet food. Ostrich livers had slightly lower protein content (16.6%) and significantly higher and diverse fat content (4.4-28.4%). Heavier livers had significantly (P<0.05) higher fat and lower protein, water, and ash content. The utilization of ostrich liver should be preceded by classification of its fat content.
Notice on the revision of Instruction for Authors in the Journal of Poultry Science (JPS). The instruction for Authors has greatly amended as of October 1, 2017. Major points: 1. The revised guidance statements on “Aims and Scope”, “Submission of Manuscript”, and “Peer Review Policies”; 2. The additive guidance statements on “Editorial Policy”, “Conflicts of Interest”, “Ethical Statement”, “Corrections, Retractions and Expressions of Concern”, “Open Access”, “Additional Information” and “Advertisement Policy”. Please read Instruction for Authors carefully before the submission of your manuscript to JPS.
February 21, 2017
Notice on the revision of Instruction for Authors in JPS.
The Instruction for Authors has been revised as of February 20, 2017.
Major point: 1. The revised guidance statement on the use of the supplemental information.
Please read Instruction for Authors carefully before the submission of manuscript to JPS.
Editor-in-Chief the Journal of Poultry Science
October 09, 2015
Notice on the revision of Instruction for Authors for JPS.
The Instruction for Authors has been revised as of October 6th,
2015. Major points are:
1. Revision of categories of the manuscript
2. Addition of instruction on the supplemental information.
Please read Instruction for Authors carefully before the
submission of manuscript to JPS.
the Journal o Poultry Science.
October 09, 2015
Instructions for authors has been updated as of October 6, 2015.
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