Herein, we assessed the impact of dietary addition of konjac mannanoligosaccharide (MOS) on the growth, intestinal morphology, serum immune status, and oxidative status in Partridge Shank chickens. For the experiment, one-day-old chicks (n=192) were randomized into six replicates (n=8/replicate) and fed four different diets: a basal diet containing 0 (Control group), 0.5, 1, or 1.5 g MOS per kg of diet (g/kg) for 50 d. Relative to the control, the group fed 0.5 g/kg MOS decreased feed consumption from 22nd to 50th d and 1st to 50th d (P<0.05). By adding MOS, the height of the intestinal villus and the villus height to crypt depth ratio were increased (P<0.05); 1.5 g/kg MOS was the best dosage for these parameters. Jejunal and ileal goblet cell density increased following MOS supplementation at 21 d (P<0.01) and 50 d in the jejunum (P<0.05), respectively. Moreover, adding MOS to the diet increased the contents of IgA and IgM at 21 d (P<0.05) and total antioxidant capacity (P<0.05) at 50 d in the serum but decreased malondialdehyde content (P<0.01) at 21 d in the group fed 0.5 and 1.5 g/kg MOS. The findings suggested that MOS supplementation could affect feed consumption, intestinal health, serous immunity, and antioxidant capacity of Partridge Shank chickens.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary brown rice on the growth performance, systemic oxidative status, and splenic inflammatory responses of broiler chickens under both thermo-neutral and chronic heat stress conditions. Forty 12-day-old male broiler chickens (ROSS 308) were randomly assigned to two groups and fed either a control diet (corn-based) or a brown rice-based diet. After seven days (19 days old), both groups were randomly divided into two sub-groups (n=10), one of which was exposed to heat stress (33°C for 14 days), while the other was maintained at 24°C. Heat exposure reduced the body weight gain and feed intake (p<0.01) of both groups. In terms of oxidative plasma states, heat exposure reduced the glutathione peroxidase activity and increased the ceruloplasmin content, while the 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substance and reduced glutathione levels were not affected adversely. Heat exposure activated the immune responses, as evidenced by increased plasma immunoglobin levels, and altered splenic immune-related gene expressions including heat shock proteins, toll-like receptor 4, and interleukin-12. Under both thermo-neutral and heat stress conditions, dietary brown rice improved the growth performance, decreased the immunoglobulin levels, and down-regulated the expression of splenic immune-related genes of broilers, although their systemic oxidative status was not affected. Dietary brown rice should be considered as a valuable component of broiler chicken feeds subjected to both thermo-neutral and heat stress conditions. The positive effects of brown rice on bird performance may be associated with the modulation of the immune responses, as reflected by the decreased production of immunoglobulins and altered splenic immune-related gene expression.
L-Leucine (L-Leu) in ovo administration was demonstrated to afford thermotolerance and modified amino acids metabolism in post-hatched broiler chicks under heat stress. This study aimed to investigate the changes in embryonic growth and amino acid metabolism after in ovo injection of L-Leu. Fertilized broiler eggs were subjected to in ovo injection of sterile water or L-Leu on embryonic day (ED) 7. The weight of embryos and yolk sacs were measured on ED 12, 14, 16, and 18. Plasma and livers were collected on ED 14 and 18 for free amino acid analysis. The weight and relative weight of embryos were significantly lowered by in ovo administration of L-Leu, but those of yolk sacs were not altered. Moreover, L-Leu in ovo injection significantly reduced the plasma proline concentration during embryogenesis and increased the plasma concentrations of tyrosine (Tyr) and lysine (Lys) in ED 18. Hepatic Lys concentration was also significantly increased by L-Leu in ovo injection. Interestingly, Leu concentrations in the plasma and liver were not affected by L-Leu administration. These results indicated that in ovo administered L-Leu was metabolized before ED 14 and affected embryonic growth and amino acid metabolism during embryogenesis.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of microbial phytase on egg production and egg quality in older hens. A total of 216, 63-week-old Hy-line brown laying hens were distributed in a randomized complete design 10-week feeding trial of 3 dietary treatments with 12 replications per treatment and 6 hens per replication. The 3 dietary treatments were corn-soybean meal-based diets supplemented with 0% (CON), 0.06% (TRT1), and 0.12% (TRT2) microbial phytase. Significantly higher hen-day egg production was observed in the TRT1 treatment compared to CON (P<0.05), except during the first two weeks of the experiment. During weeks 3, 4, and 9, TRT2 had a greater hen-day egg production percentage than CON (P<0.05). The damaged egg ratio was not affected. The egg quality parameters (e.g., eggshell color, eggshell strength, albumen height, egg weight, and the Haugh unit) were affected by microbial phytase supplementation (P<0.05). However, there were no significant effects on the eggshell thickness and yolk color. In conclusion, microbial phytase supplementation to the diets of older hens could improve production performance, extend the peak laying period, and alter the egg quality parameters.
This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between early nutrition and the incidence of wooden breasts (WB) in broilers. Sixteen male and twenty female neonatal ROSS 308 broiler chicks were divided equally into four flocks. From 0–12 days of age, starter diet H, composed of 22.4% crude protein (CP), 6.6% crude fat (CF), 1.25% lysine, 0.48% methionine, and ≥3,070 kcal/kg metabolizable energy (ME), was fed to two flocks, and starter diet L, composed of 19.9% CP, 2.5% CF, 1.04% lysine, 0.38% methionine, and ≥2,930 kcal/kg ME, was fed to the remaining two flocks. All the flocks were fed the same commercial finisher diet, composed of 20.3% CP, 7.5% CF, 1.18% lysine, 0.44% methionine, and ≥3,300 kcal/kg ME, from 12–47 days of age. The birds were weighed every 2–5 days, subjected to a wing-lift test, and histology was conducted on the pectoralis major muscle tissue samples from all the birds necropsied at 47 days of age. Significant differences in the mean body weight between groups H and L were observed during 6–16 days and 24–26 days of age in males and during 6–26 days of age in females. Regarding the score evaluation of the individual lesions reflecting wooden breast, the birds in which back-to-back wing contact was not possible had higher lesion scores than those in which back-to-back wing contact was possible. The absence of back-to-back wing contact appeared more frequently in flocks fed the starter diet L, particularly in males. These results indicate that inappropriate nutrition levels in the starter diet increase the incidence of WB. Therefore, avoiding early nutrition deficits is a cost-effective feeding strategy.
Sperm motility is considered as one of the most important traits for successful fertilization, but the motility of an ejaculated sperm decreases with time when stored as liquid. It is reported that seminal plasma serves as a nutrient rich medium for sperm and plays an important role in sperm motility and its fertilization ability. Several studies have reported that imidazole dipeptides such as anserine and carnosine affect sperm motility and its fertilization ability in mammals. In this study, we report the presence of anserine and carnosine in the male reproductive tract of the Japanese quail. Abundant levels of anserine (44.46 µM) and carnosine (41.75 µM) were detected in the testicular fluid and seminal plasma respectively using the amino acid analyzer; however, seminal plasma solely contained carnosine. When the ejaculates were incubated with anserine or carnosine, we found that both the dipeptides improve sperm motility parameters such as straight line velocity, curvilinear velocity, average path velocity and amplitude of lateral head displacement after in vitro sperm storage at 15°C. These results indicate that imidazole dipeptides are present in the male reproductive tract and may improve sperm quality during in vitro sperm storage in the liquid states.
Objectives: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is one of the most common skin disorders in infants and children and is often aggravated by increased Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) colonization. An inhibitory effect of a specific egg yolk antibody (IgY) on S. aureus growth was demonstrated in this study. Furthermore, the effects of water- or oil-based adjuvants on the preparation of anti-S. aureus IgY and hen immunization were compared.
Methods: Hens were immunized intramuscularly with formalin-killed S. aureus mixed with either a water-soluble polysaccharide λ-carrageenan, oil-based Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA), or Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA). Anti-S. aureus IgYs (FIA-IgY, FCA/FIA-IgY, and λCarra-IgY) were purified from the egg yolk of immunized hen eggs, and the activity of the IgY against S. aureus antigen was measured by ELISA. The proportion of each IgY that was absorbed by S. aureus was also determined. Then, the effect of purified anti-S. aureus IgY on S. aureus growth inhibition was investigated in vitro.
Results: The yolk of eggs and purified FIA-IgY from the FIA group showed the highest antibody activity, followed by FCA/FIA-IgY and λCarra-IgY. The proportion of each IgY that was absorbed by S. aureus antigen was as follows: FIA-IgY (18.1%), FCA/FIA-IgY (12.9%), and λCarra-IgY (7.0%). Only FIA-IgY significantly inhibited S. aureus growth in liquid medium.
Conclusion: A specific IgY that was produced using the FIA adjutant inhibited S. aureus growth. Although water-soluble λ-carrageenan showed an adjuvant effect on anti-S. aureus IgY induction in egg yolk, but did not inhibit S. aureus growth. The use of the oil adjuvant FIA was necessary in the preparation of anti-S. aureus IgY as a treatment for AD symptoms.
This study aimed to determine the effect of olive leaf water extract (OEx) on the physical properties of chicken breast sausage (CBS) and the preventive effect of OEx against lipid oxidation in CBS during frozen storage. CBSs, to which 0.1 and 0.5% (w/w) OEx were added to minced meat, were stored frozen at −20°C for 60 days. The thawing weight loss of control CBS without OEx increased with the frozen storage period, while OEx-CBSs did not change, from 15 to 60 days in storage. The water-holding capacity, breaking strength, elasticity, and viscosity of control CBS decreased upon frozen storage, while those of OEx-CBSs did not change. The observation of CBSs using scanning electron microscopy showed that OEx-CBSs that were stored frozen, unlike control CBS, maintained a structure similar to their unfrozen counterparts. These results indicate that OEx confers resistance to CBS upon freezing. Furthermore, the application of OEx to CBS suppressed lipid oxidation, decrease in pH and discoloration induced by frozen storage. Thus, this natural OEx is useful in improving the physical and chemical qualities of frozen processed poultry foods.