The Journal of Poultry Science
Online ISSN : 1349-0486
Print ISSN : 1346-7395
ISSN-L : 1346-7395
早期公開論文
早期公開論文の33件中1~33を表示しています
  • Yuichiro Yonetani, Atsushi J. Nagano, Hideki Ueno, Tomoko Amano
    論文ID: 0210037
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/08/25
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Upon contact with laid eggs, avians initiate incubation behavior and stop laying additional eggs. This phenomenon suggests that the productivity of laying hens in free-range facilities may decrease because of frequent contact with laid eggs. Here, we examined whether hens of a commercial breed exhibit incubation behavior in a free-range facility and whether egg productivity subsequently decreases. One-hour observations were performed twice weekly for 3 weeks, during which 9 of 129 hens (7.0%) exhibited incubation behavior (i.e., sitting on eggs) in the free-range facility and were defined as incubating hens. During 4 d of continuous behavioral observation, incubating and non-incubating hens laid the same number of eggs statistically (4.6 and 3.6, on average, respectively); however, incubating hens spent significantly more time on average incubating the eggs (2071.9 min) than did the non-incubating hens (20.9 min; P<0.05), indicating a clear behavioral difference. Subsequently, the incubation behavior and egg productivity of incubating hens and a Silky Fowl breed hen, which is known to exhibit typical incubation behavior and cessation of laying, were continuously compared for 27 d. The average minutes spent incubating eggs during the observation period increased in both the incubating hens and Silky Fowl hen and the total time was almost the same (18,088.5 and 23,092 min, respectively). However, the Silky Fowl hen stopped laying on day 17 after laying 17 eggs, whereas the incubating hens continued laying throughout the observation period. Incubating hens laid an average of 24.5 eggs, indicating that some hens (at least those of the commercial breed used in our study) can continue laying while exhibiting incubation behavior. A single-nucleotide polymorphism associated with incubation behavior was detected on chromosome 4 through genome-wide association analysis.

  • Shusei Mizushima, Tomohiro Sasanami, Tamao Ono, Norio Kansaku, Asato K ...
    論文ID: 0210041
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/08/25
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    We previously reported that egg activation in Japanese quail is driven by two distinct types of intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i): transient elevations in [Ca2+]i induced by phospholipase Czeta 1 (PLCZ1) and long-lasting spiral-like Ca2+ oscillations by citrate synthase (CS) and aconitate hydratase 2 (ACO2). Although the blockade of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (ITPRs) before microinjections of PLCZ1, CS, and ACO2 cRNAs only prevented transient increases in [Ca2+]i, a microinjection of an agonist of ryanodine receptors (RYRs) induced spiral-like Ca2+ oscillations, indicating the involvement of both ITPRs and RYRs in these events. In this study, we investigated the isoforms of ITPRs and RYRs responsible for the expression of the two types of [Ca2+]i increases. RT-PCR and western blot analyses revealed that ITPR1, ITPR3, and RYR3 were expressed in ovulated eggs. These proteins were degraded 3 h after the microinjection of PLCZ1, CS, and ACO2 cRNAs, which is the time at which egg activation was complete. However, degradation of ITPR1 and ITPR3, but not RYR3, was initiated 30 min after a single injection of PLCZ1 cRNA, corresponding to the time of the initial Ca2+ wave termination. In contrast, RYR3 degradation was observed 3 h after the microinjection of CS and ACO2 cRNAs. These results indicate that ITPRs and RYR3 differentially mediate increases in [Ca2+]i during egg activation in Japanese quail, and that downregulation of ITPRs and RYR3-mediated events terminate the initial Ca2+ wave and spiral-like Ca2+ oscillations, respectively.

  • Usman Ali, Saima Naveed, Shafqat Nawaz Qaisrani, Athar Mahmud, Zafar H ...
    論文ID: 0210042
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/08/25
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    There has been an upsurge of interest in the phytobiotics coincident with the onset of the potential ban on the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) in the broiler industry and because many kinds of nutraceuticals play an important role in improving growth performance, feed efficiency, and gut health of broilers. In the previous years, significant biological activities of essential oils (EOs) belonging to phytobiotics were observed, including antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and antioxidant properties. We found new perspectives on the roles of EOs, particularly extracts from the Apiaceae family, which is one of the largest plant families, in potential replacement of AGPs, and on the chemical composition involved in regulating microorganism activity and oxidative damage. Furthermore, the positive effects of EOs on broiler production and the possible mechanisms inducing the involvement of gut health and growth performance have been studied.

  • Kazuhisa Honda, Kiyotaka Kurachi, Shoko Takagi, Takaoki Saneyasu, Hiro ...
    論文ID: 0210060
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/08/25
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Excessive accumulation of body fat in broiler chickens has become a serious problem in the poultry industry. However, the molecular mechanism of triglyceride accumulation in chicken white adipose tissue (WAT) has not been elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the physiological importance of the catabolic hormone corticosterone, the major glucocorticoid in chickens, in the regulation of chicken WAT lipid metabolism. We first examined the effects of fasting on the mRNA levels of lipid metabolism-related genes associated with WAT, plasma corticosterone, and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA). We then examined the effects of corticosterone on the expression of these genes in vivo and in vitro. In 10-day-old chicks, 3 h of fasting significantly decreased mRNA levels of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in WAT and significantly elevated plasma concentrations of NEFA. Six hours of fasting significantly increased mRNA levels of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) in WAT and significantly elevated plasma concentrations of corticosterone. On the other hand, fasting significantly reduced mRNA levels of LPL in WAT and elevated plasma concentrations of NEFA in 29-day-old chicks without affecting mRNA levels of ATGL in WAT or plasma corticosterone concentrations. Oral administration of corticosterone significantly reduced mRNA levels of LPL and significantly increased the mRNA levels of ATGL in WAT in 29-day-old chicks without affecting plasma NEFA concentrations. The addition of corticosterone to primary chicken adipocytes significantly increased mRNA levels of ATGL, whereas mRNA levels of LPL tended to decrease. NEFA concentrations in the culture medium were not influenced by corticosterone levels. These results suggest that plasma corticosterone partly regulates the gene expression of lipid metabolism-related genes in chicken WAT and this regulation is different from the acute elevation of plasma NEFA due to short-term fasting.

  • Katsuya Obara, Chizuka Obara (Henmi), Mitsuru Naito, Ikki Mitsui, Yumi ...
    論文ID: 0210024
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/07/25
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開
    電子付録

    This study examined the effects of calcium lactate on the development of chicken embryos in a shell-less culture system (cSLCS) up to the seventeenth day of incubation. In the presence of calcium lactate, a significant reduction in embryo viability was observed during the first week of incubation in cSLCS. On day 17 of embryo development, no significant difference was observed in the blood plasma calcium concentration or tibia bone density between cSLCS and intact control embryos, whereas the tibia length was significantly shorter in cSLCS embryos than in the intact control. These results suggest that calcium lactate supplementation in cSLCS supports bone formation in developing chicken embryos, but has adverse effects on the viability of embryos, particularly during the first week of embryo development.

  • Sadao Kojima, Sakura Koizumi, Yukari Kawami, Yuna Shigeta, Ayako Osawa
    論文ID: 0210032
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/07/25
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    The effects of dietary carotenoids on egg yolk were investigated in this study. Forty Rhode Island Red (RR) and 40 Silky Fowl (SF) hens that were 60 weeks old were used. Hens of each breed were randomly divided into four dietary groups. One group was fed a basal diet (crude protein 17%, metabolizable energy 2800 kcal/kg) only, whereas the other groups received a specific additive, namely, paprika extract, marigold petal extract, or Paracoccus cell powder, in addition to the same basal diet. The color and carotenoid content of egg yolk and singlet oxygen quenching activity were measured after 4 weeks. The total carotenoid content, zeaxanthin content, and singlet oxygen quenching activity in the yolk differed significantly between breeds and between diets (two-way ANOVA). The lutein content in egg yolk was affected by breed and diet, as well as by the interaction between these two factors. Regarding the Roche Yolk Color Fan values, only the effect of diet was significant. In terms of objective egg yolk color, there was a significant difference in lightness and yellowness between breeds. The total carotenoid content was higher in SF than in RR in all the groups. Likewise, the levels of zeaxanthin and lutein in the yolk were higher in SF than in RR (P < 0.05). The results of the present study suggest that dietary carotenoids are effective feed additives for laying hens, especially SF, to improve the color and singlet oxygen quenching activity of egg yolk.

  • Nanase Kubo, Mari Nishii, Satoshi Inoue, Akira Noguchi, Hajime Hatta
    論文ID: 0210053
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/07/25
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    DNA immunization has been used to study vaccination methods and for production of specific antibodies. The present study aimed to apply DNA immunization to prepare specific IgYs, which react against rabies virus N protein (RV-N) and can be used to research and diagnose rabies virus. The DNA sequence of RV-N was ligated into a pcDNA 3.1 plasmid for constructing pcDNA-N. Eight hens were divided into four groups. Group 1 comprised the control group (non-immunized). In Groups 2, 3, and 4, hens were injected intramuscularly with pcDNA-N (400 μg/hen). Eight injections were administered every other week. From the 4th week, an adjuvant was injected in addition to pcDNA-N. Freund’s complete adjuvant (FCA) and λ-carrageenan were administered to Groups 3 and 4, respectively. Eggs were collected daily, and the specific antibody activities of egg yolks were measured by ELISA. IgYs were purified from pooled egg yolks at 16-19 weeks post-administration in each group. The detection sensitivities of the RV-N were compared using purified IgY as the primary antibody for ELISA, dot blotting, and western blotting. Egg yolks from one of the two hens in Group 2 (pcDNA-N alone) and all hens in Groups 3 (pcDNA-N + FCA) and 4 (pcDNA-N + λCarra) had increased ELISA values. The combined use of λ-carrageen in DNA immunization resulted in an adjuvant effect comparable to that of FCA. Each purified specific IgY detected RV-N in the ELISA, western blotting, and dot blotting; however, the detection sensitivity differed. Higher detection sensitivity of the +λCarra IgY was observed by ELISA, whereas there was higher detection sensitivity of +FCA IgY in western blotting and dot blotting. In summary, anti-rabies virus N protein IgY was prepared through DNA immunization of hens using FCA or λ-carrageenan as adjuvants and can be used as a primary antibody to detect rabies viruses.

  • Rosalie Adina Bălăceanu, Victor G. Nimigean, Vanda Roxana E. S. Nimige ...
    論文ID: 0200069
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/06/25
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    The reproductive performance of broiler breeder chickens noticeably decreases toward the end of their commercial lives. Herein, we determined the effects of vitamin E and selenium dietary supplementation on semen traits, egg fertility (defined as fertilization and hatching rates) of adult (49-week-old) and older (63-week-old) Red Cornish breeders. We found that both vitamin E and selenium were concentrated in the liver and adipose tissue of adult and older Red Cornish breeders, and were transferred to the semen and egg yolk, respectively, in proportion to the level of supplementation. Vitamin E supplementation, in particular, improved ejaculate volume, total sperm count, sperm motility, and viability in both adult and older roosters, whereas selenium improved sperm motility and viability in the adult roosters. Egg fertility increased following supplementation with either vitamin E or selenium. The hatching rate also improved by both supplements in proportion to the level of supplementation. No significant synergistic effects of vitamin E and selenium were found. The levels of egg fertility and sperm trait improvements diminished with the age of the birds and depended on vitamin E and/or selenium doses. Thus, as dietary vitamin E and selenium supplements improved semen quality and egg fertility in these older Red Cornish broiler breeders, such birds could be maintained in flocks to prolong their reproductive output.

  • Maki Shimeno, Yasushi Hashimoto, Aya Yanagawa, Mai Yamamoto, Teruhiro ...
    論文ID: 0210010
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/06/25
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    We evaluated the effects of 6-phytases on the growth performance of broilers (UK Chunky) under the recommended supplier-application dosage of each phytase. A nutritionally sufficient standard diet was administered as the base diets in the positive control feed. The diet in the negative control feed was designed by reducing total phosphorous, non-phytate phosphorus, and calcium by 0.1 % to evaluate the effect of the nutrient restriction on broilers. Four 6-phytases were added to negative control feeds at the level of the recommended dosage of each product to compare the effect of phytases on broiler technical performance, tibia ash, and feed digestibility. Nine hundred one-day-old broiler chicks (males and females) were distributed in a completely randomized design composed of six treatments and three replicates of 50 chicks each. Chicks were fed ad libitum for 49 days. Body weight gain and feed intake were recorded on days 21 and 49, tibia ash was measured on day 21, and apparent ileal digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, and total phosphorus were analyzed on day 49. Birds reared with test feeds supplemented with phytase showed higher body weight gain and feed intake compared to those of the negative control birds. No significant differences in traits were observed among different phytase treatments. Similarly, the percentage of tibia ash increased when phytase was supplemented, resulting in higher bone levels compared to that of the positive control. The apparent ileal digestibility of crude protein and total phosphorus was enhanced by supplementing negative control diets with phytases.

  • Lihua Wu, Xiaona Wang, Xianliang Lv, Lei He, Hongxia Qu, Chuanxin Shi, ...
    論文ID: 0210019
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/06/25
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25-(OH)2-D3) is the final active product of vitamin D. This study aimed to investigate the effects of 1,25-(OH)2-D3 on growth performance, bone development, and calcium (Ca) transporter gene expression levels in the small intestine of broiler chickens. On the day of hatching, 140 female Ross 308 broilers were randomly allotted into two treatments with five replicates (14 birds per replicate). Two levels of 1,25-(OH)2-D3 (0 and 1.25μg/kg) were added to the basal diet without vitamin D. Results showed that the addition of 1.25μg/kg 1,25-(OH)2-D3 increased the average daily feed intake and the average daily gain and decreased the feed conversion ratio and mortality in 1- to 19-day-old broiler chickens compared with the basal diet without vitamin D (P < 0.05). 1,25-(OH)2-D3 also enhanced the length, weight, ash weight, and the percentage contents of ash, Ca, and P in the tibia and femur of broilers (P < 0.05). The mRNA expression levels of the Ca-binding protein (CaBP-D28k) in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of 19-day-old broilers increased to 88.1-, 109.1-, and 2.7-fold, respectively, after adding 1,25-(OH)2-D3 (P < 0.05). The mRNA expression levels of the plasma membrane Ca-transporting ATPase 1b (PMCAlb) in the duodenum and the sodium (Na)/Ca exchanger 1 (NCX1) in the duodenum and the jejunum were also enhanced to 1.57–2.86 times with the addition of 1,25-(OH)2-D3 (P < 0.05). In contrast, the mRNA expression levels of PMCA1b and NCX1 in the ileum and that of vitamin D receptor (VDR) in the small intestine were not affected by 1,25-(OH)2-D3 (P > 0.05). These data indicate that 1,25-(OH)2-D3 upregulated Ca transporter gene transcription and promoted Ca2+ absorption in the small intestine, especially in the proximal intestine (duodenum and jejunum), thereby improving growth performance and bone mineralization in broiler chickens.

  • Kazuki Nakashima, Aiko Ishida
    論文ID: 0210021
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/06/25
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Protein synthesis in skeletal muscle is considered one of the most energy-consuming cellular processes. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a metabolic master switch that regulates glucose and lipid metabolism, and it is implicated in protein synthesis control in skeletal muscles. The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a central regulator of protein metabolism in cells. However, the effect of AMPK activation on protein synthesis and mTORC1 signaling in chicken skeletal muscle remains unclear. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR), an AMPK activator, on protein synthesis and mTORC1 signaling in chick myotube cultures. The incubation of chick myotubes with AICAR (1 mM) for 3 h led to a significant increase in AICAR (Thr172) phosphorylation. Nonetheless, protein synthesis, measured using the surface sensing of translation method, was significantly decreased by AICAR. In addition, the phosphorylation of p70 ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6K1, Thr389), S6 ribosomal protein (Ser240/244), and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1, Thr37/46) was significantly reduced by AICAR. These results suggest that AMPK activation suppresses protein synthesis and mTORC1 signaling (through the phosphorylation of S6K1, S6 ribosomal protein, and 4E-BP1) in chick myotubes.

  • Ryoko Ono, Haruka Miyachi, Harui Usui, Rina Oguchi, Kenji Nishimura, K ...
    論文ID: 0200110
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/05/25
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Japanese indigenous chickens include approximately 50 breeds exhibiting various morphological traits, such as a long tail. These genetic resources will be important for revealing the genetic basis of morphological traits in the future. However, little is known about the phenotypic characteristics of each breed during the growth stages. To understand age-dependent changes in growth and morphological traits, we investigated tail length, tail number, body weight, and shank length at several time points using three genetically distinct Japanese indigenous chicken breeds. A total of 155 birds from the Tosa-jidori, Chabo, and Minohikichabo breeds were used for trait measurements from 1 to 36 weeks of age to reveal breed and sex effects. Significant sex differences through the growth stages were observed for all traits except for tail number. Although there were no clear breed differences in tail length traits at the 6- and 20-week stages, Minohikichabo ultimately had a significantly longer tail due to extended tail feather growth at later stages (28 and 36 weeks). By measuring two tail length variables (central and maximum), it was revealed that the shape of the tail feathers varies with the growth stage. Minohikichabo’s tail number was higher than that of Tosa-jidori and Chabo at earlier ages (8 and 16 weeks), which leads to an elegant visual in Minohikichabo. Tosa-jidori’s body weight was higher than that of Chabo and Minohikichabo, whereas the shank lengths of Chabo and Minohikichabo were shorter than those of Tosa-jidori. These differences in body weight and shank length were consistent from the early to late growth stages. These results revealed the age-dependency of growth and morphological trait breed characteristics.

  • Mengze Song, Hongchao Jiao, Jingpeng Zhao, Xiaojuan Wang, Haifang Li, ...
    論文ID: 0200127
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/05/25
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of calcium propionate and calcium butyrate on the laying performance, eggshell quality, and expression of genes related to calcium and phosphorus metabolism in the tibia. One hundred and twenty 70-week-old Isa Brown hens were randomly assigned to three treatments, and each treatment had four replicates of 10 birds fed a basal diet (control) or a basal diet supplemented with 0.5% calcium propionate (CP) or 0.5% calcium butyrate (CB) for 8 weeks. The CB and CP treatments had no significant effect (P>0.05) on the laying rate, egg production, egg weight, and feed efficiency. The eggshell percentage was increased from week 2 (P<0.05) and eggshell thickness was elevated at week 8 (P<0.01) by both CP and CB treatments. Compared to the control treatment, the CB treatment increased serum calcium and phosphorus levels at week 4 (P<0.05), whereas the CP and CB treatments decreased serum phosphorus at weeks 6 and 8, respectively (P<0.05). Dietary supplementation had no effect on the bone index and bending strength of the tibia (P>0.05). The calcium and phosphorus content of the tibia was decreased by the CB treatment (P<0.05). In the spleen, NF-κB and IL-6 transcript levels were not influenced (P>0.05) but TNF-α transcript levels were decreased by the CP treatment (P<0.05). In the tibia, the expression levels of NF-κB, TNF-α, and IL-17 were not affected by the CP or CB treatment (P>0.05). The CP and CB treatments had no significant effect on the transcript levels of RANKL, OPG, RNUX2, OPN, α-Clotho, and VDR (P>0.05). In contrast, PHEX transcript levels were increased by the CP treatment (P<0.05). The expression levels of osteocalcin (P=0.094) and FGF23 (P=0.087) tended to decrease under the CB treatment. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of 0.5% calcium butyrate or 0.5% calcium propionate improved the eggshell quality of aged laying hens, possibly as a result of decreased deposition or enhanced mobilization of bone calcium and phosphorus.

  • Fuminori Kawabata, Shoji Tabata
    論文ID: 0210017
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/05/25
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Many behavioral studies and histological analyses of the sense of taste have been conducted in chickens, as it plays an important role in the ingestion of feed. In recent years, various taste receptors have been analyzed, and the functions of fatty acids, umami, and bitter taste receptors in chickens have become clear. In this review, the bitter taste sense in chickens, which is the taste quality by which animals reject poisons, is discussed among a variety of taste qualities. Chickens have taste buds in the palate, the base of the oral cavity, and the root of the tongue. Bitter taste receptors, taste receptor type 2 members 1, 2, and 7 (T2R1, T2R2, and T2R7) are expressed in these tissues. According to functional analyses of bitter taste receptors and behavioral studies, T2R1 and T2R7 are thought to be especially involved in the rejection of bitter compounds in chickens. Furthermore, the antagonists of these two functional bitter taste receptors were also identified, and it is expected that such antagonists will be useful in improving the taste quality of feed materials and poultry drugs that have a bitter taste. Bitter taste receptors are also expressed in extra-oral tissues, and it has been suggested that gastrointestinal bitter taste receptors may be involved in the secretion of gastrointestinal hormones and pathogen defense mechanisms. Thus, bitter taste receptors in chickens are suspected to play major roles in taste sensing and other physiological systems.

  • Yoshimitsu Ouchi, Vishwajit S. Chowdhury, Takashi Bungo
    論文ID: 0210029
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/05/25
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    DNA methylation regulates gene expression by modifying the nucleosome structure of DNA, without altering the gene sequence. It has been reported that DNA methylation reactions are catalyzed by several enzymes. In chickens, thermal conditioning treatment affects the central DNA methylation levels. The purpose of this study was to clarify the changes in DNA methylation and demethylation factors during thermal conditioning in the hypothalamus of 3-day-old chicks. Male chicks (3-days old) were exposed to 40 ± 0.5 °C as a thermal conditioning treatment for 1, 2, 6, 9, or 12 h. The control chicks were kept in a thermoneutral zone (30 ± 0.2 °C). After thermal conditioning, the mRNA levels of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT)-1, -3a, -3b, and ten-eleven translocation (TET)-1, -2, and -3 in the hypothalamus were measured by q-PCR. The mRNA levels of DNMT-3a and TET-1 were increased by thermal conditioning. Moreover, the expression level of TET-1 increased with the loading time of the thermal conditioning. The gene expressions of DNMT-1, DNMT-3b, TET-2, and TET-3 were not affected by thermal conditioning. Since DNMT-3a is a catalyst for de-novo DNA methylation and TET-1 catalyzes the oxidation of methylated cytosine, it is suggested that the thermal conditioning increased the activation of DNA methylation and demethylation factors, which occur in the hypothalamus of neonatal chicks.

  • Dafei Yin, Tiejin Tong, Amy F. Moss, Ruiyang Zhang, Yinggu Kuang, Yong ...
    論文ID: 0200108
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/04/25
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Inorganic trace minerals may exacerbate lipid peroxidation, thereby impacting lipid metabolism. This study aimed to compare the effects of inorganic and coated trace minerals in diets with different fat sources, on the performance, slaughter characteristics, and antioxidant status of broiler chickens. A total of 576 21-day-old Abor Acres broiler birds were randomly divided into four dietary treatment groups in a 2 (non-coated and coated trace minerals) × 2 (soybean oil and lard) factorial design. Each treatment was replicated 12 times (12 birds per replicate). The results showed that coated minerals significantly improved the average daily gain (ADG) in weight and the feed conversion ratio (P < 0.01), increased serum iron, zinc, selenium, and thyroxine contents, increased the activities of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity, and lipoprotein lipase (P < 0.05), and decreased the serum and muscle malondialdehyde (MDA) contents (P < 0.01). The use of soybean oil as the fat source resulted in a high ADG in weight, a low F/G ratio, reduced serum MDA content, and drip loss of breast and leg muscles (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the supplementation of coated trace minerals improved growth performance, antioxidant status, trace mineral retention within serum, and lipid metabolism. Additionally, soybean oil also improved the growth performance, antioxidant performance, and meat quality of broilers. The combination of coated trace minerals and soybean oil generated the best growth performance, antioxidant status, and meat quality characteristics.

  • Md Raihanul Hoque, Insun Park, Seyoung Mun, In Ho Kim
    論文ID: 0200111
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/04/25
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    A 35-day experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of the supplementation of mineral detoxified sulfur dispersion ((DSD); Patent No.: 10–1997773) on the growth performance, meat quality, excreta microbiota, gas emissions, nutrient digestibility, and blood profiles of broilers. In total, 720 one-day-old ROSS 308 broilers, with an initial body weight of 41.9 ± 0.8 g, were divided into two (2) treatment groups with 20 replicate pens/groups composed of 18 birds per pen. Treatments consisted of 1) CON (the control), normal drinking water and 2) TRT (the treatment group), CON + 0.001% DSD (1000:1 dilution ratio). Average daily feed intake (ADFI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) increased in the TRT group (P<0.05) between days 1 to 7 and days 7 to 21 of the experimental period. Similarly, body weight gain (BWG) showed a significant increase (P<0.05) in the DSD-supplemented group throughout in the length of the experiment. With regard to meat quality, redness (a*) was higher, while drip loss was lower, on the 7th day in the DSD group. Furthermore, DSD supplementation increased (P<0.05) Lactobacillus excreta but decreased E. coli concentrations in the TRT group compared to the CON group. Notably, nutrient digestibility, excreta gas emission, and blood profiles did not show any significant differences (P>0.05). DSD supplementation, administered through drinking water, has a positive impact on the growth performance, meat quality, and excreta microbiota of broiler chickens.

  • Masafumi Katayama, Manabu Onuma, Tomokazu Fukuda
    論文ID: 0200085
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/03/25
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開
    電子付録

    Cultured cells are a useful resource for poultry scientists, since these cells allow scientists to evaluate biological responses to conditions such as infectious diseases in vitro while mimicking the whole-body response in birds. However avian cell culture requires an optimized basal medium, and there are currently relatively few options for this basal medium (medium 199 and KAv-1). This means that there is still room for the development of an optimal basal medium for avian cell culture. Here we compare KAv-1 medium, Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM) and medium 199 during the culture of chick fibroblasts and determine that KAv-1 remains the optimal medium for these assays. Our results show that DNA damage is reduced in fibroblasts cultured in the KAv-1 medium, when compared to both DMEM and Medium 199 and that these cells also display improved growth dynamics in KAv-1 medium when compared to both DMEM and medium 199. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to describe a comparative analysis of culture media for avian cells, which would provide useful information for poultry scientists.

  • Zhenzhen Chen, Ya Xing, Xue Fan, Tongjun Liu, Minmeng Zhao, Long Liu, ...
    論文ID: 0200095
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/03/25
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開
    電子付録

    Nutrition and energy are essential for poultry growth and production performance. Fasting and refeeding have been widely used to study the effects of nutrition, energy, and related mechanisms in chicken. Previous studies have shown that geese have a strong capacity for fat synthesis and storage; thus, changes in the goose liver transcriptome may be different from those in chicken assessed with a model of fasting and refeeding. However, the responses of the goose liver transcriptome to fasting and refeeding have not yet been addressed. In this study, 36 70-day-old Si Ji geese with similar body weight were randomly assigned to three groups: control (ad libitum feeding), fasting (fasted for 24 h), and refeeding (fast for 24 h followed by 2-h feeding) groups. After treatment, eight geese per group were sacrificed for sample collection. Liver samples from four geese in each group were subjected to transcriptome analysis, followed by validation of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) using quantitative polymerase chain reaction with the remaining samples. As a result, 155 DEGs (73 up-regulated) were identified between the control and fasting groups, and 651 DEGs (321 up-regulated) were identified between the fasting and refeeding groups. The enrichment analyses of Gene Ontology terms and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways showed that fasting mainly influenced material metabolism in the liver, especially lipid metabolism; in contrast, refeeding affected not only lipid metabolism but also glucose and amino acid metabolism. In addition, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway may play an important role in lipid metabolism. In conclusion, fasting and refeeding have a strong effect on lipid metabolism in the goose liver; specifically, fasting promotes fatty acid oxidation and inhibits fatty acid synthesis, and refeeding has the opposite effect. The model of fasting and refeeding is suitable for goose nutrition studies.

  • Kiriko Nakamura, Mitsuki Shishido, Saki Shimamoto, Goichiro Ogawa, Nik ...
    論文ID: 0200120
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/03/25
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of dried neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract (DNE) on lipid peroxidation and the expression of genes encoding mRNAs in antioxidant enzymes in the pectoralis major muscle of chickens. A total of 24 male broiler chickens (ROSS308) were divided into three groups (n = 8) at 21 days of age. The control group of chickens was fed a basal diet, and the remaining two groups of chickens were fed a basal diet supplemented with DNE at a concentration of 0.5% or 2.0% until 35 days of age. Growth performance (body weight, weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio) and tissue weights did not differ among the three groups. The 2.0% DNE-supplemented diet decreased the muscle malondialdehyde content, a marker of lipid peroxidation, and drip loss compared to the control chickens. In addition, the expression of genes encoding mRNAs of antioxidant enzymes (i.e., Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase, Mn-superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase 7, and catalase) were higher in the pectoralis major muscle of chickens fed the 2.0% DNE-supplemented diet than in the control chickens. Therefore, DNE supplementation increased the expression of genes encoding mRNAs in antioxidant enzymes and reduced lipid peroxidation and drip loss in the pectoralis major muscle of broiler chickens.

  • Yoshimitsu Ouchi, Vishwajit S. Chowdhury, Takashi Bungo
    論文ID: 0210008
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/03/25
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of thermal conditioning and folic acid on the methylation levels of the avian brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promoter region at the M3 and M9 positions in the early life of broiler chicks. In Experiment 1, male broiler chicks (day 3 of life) were orally injected with methyl cellulose solution with or without folic acid (25 mg). The chicks in the heat-treatment groups were immediately exposed to a high ambient temperature (40 ± 0.5°C) for 12 h, while chicks in the non-heat treatment groups were left in the thermoneutral zone (30 ± 0.5°C). The groups were as follows: 1) no thermal conditioning group without folic acid (control), 2) thermal conditioning group without folic acid, 3) no thermal conditioning group with folic acid, and 4) thermal conditioning group with folic acid. In Experiment 2, treatments were similar to those in Experiment 1, except for the usage of female chicks. After the treatments, the methylation levels of the BDNF promoter in chicks were determined using semiquantitative PCR. There were no significant differences between groups in the levels of methylation at the M3 position in both males and females as a result of thermal conditioning and folic acid treatment. Interestingly, significant effects of thermal conditioning and folic acid treatment on methylation at the M9 position were found. BDNF methylation levels at M9 significantly decreased following thermal conditioning, while folic acid suppressed demethylation in both male and female chicks. These data suggest that folic acid and thermal conditioning affects DNA methylation patterns in the central nervous system of chicks, regardless of sex.

  • Md-Raihanul Hoque, Hong-Ik Jung, In-Ho Kim
    論文ID: 0190144
    発行日: 2020年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/02/25
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    The study was conducted to test the effects of using yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) as feed additive on the growth performance, noxious gas emission, utilization of nutrients, excreta microbial count, and meat quality of broilers. In total, 360 one-day-old Ross 308 broilers with average body weight (BW) of 42.90 ± 1.43 g were randomly selected and allotted to two groups; they were fed either a basal diet (control) or a basal diet supplemented with 1 % yeast culture (YC). Each treatment group had 10 replication pens and each replication contained 18 birds. The experiment was divided into 3 phases (1 to 7, 8 to 21, and 22 to 35 days) for growth performance observation. In the 1st phase (1 to 7 days), only the body weight gain (BWG) significantly increased (P<0.05) in birds with the YC diet compared to the control diet. Significant effects on BWG (P<0.05) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) (P<0.05) were seen in birds receiving the YC-supplemented diet in the 3rd phase (22 to 35 days) as compared to the control diet. In addition, during the overall period (1-35 d), BWG was significantly higher (P<0.05) and FCR was reduced (P<0.05). Throughout this experiment, the meat quality, nutrient utilization, noxious gas emission, and bacterial count in the excreta did not vary significantly between the groups. This study proved that a higher dose of YC (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) supplementation could maintain the consistent positive effect on broiler growth but eliminated the speculated outcomes on digestibility, bacterial count, or excreta gas emission.

  • Yifan Liu, Ming Zhang, Yunjie Tu, Jianmin Zou, Keyin Luo, Gaige Ji, Ya ...
    論文ID: 0200060
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/01/25
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開
    電子付録

    To investigate the population structure and genetic diversity of indigenous chicken breeds in Guizhou, a total of 150 individual samples were collected from 12 breeds, including seven local chicken breeds in Guizhou Province, three Chinese native breeds found in other provinces, and two commercial breeds. The genotype datasets were obtained using a 50K single nucleotide polymorphism array method, and then a series of population analyses were performed. The obtained population parameters and linkage disequilibrium decay indicated a higher degree of genetic diversity in Guizhou chickens than in commercial breeds. Two Guizhou local breeds, Wumeng black-bone and Weining, were clustered with a breed from a neighboring province, Xinwen black-bone, which exhibited similar ancestral composition patterns. A newly found breed, Wumeng crested, had high genetic diversity and displayed genetic differences from other Guizhou breeds. These findings provide insight into the establishment of efficient conservation and utilization programs for Guizhou chicken breeds.

  • Manisa Sangkaew, Mustanur Rahman, Katsuki Koh
    論文ID: 0200082
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/01/25
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    To determine whether persimmon peel (PP) showing high chitinase activity could alleviate the detrimental dietary effects of chitin-rich shrimp meal (SM), we assessed the laying performance, nitrogen (N) balance, and egg quality of laying hens provided with SM diets containing PP. We also examined the color and antioxidant properties of egg yolk, as we anticipated these would be improved by providing SM and PP. Seventy-two laying hens (45 weeks of age) were allotted to one of the nine dietary treatments (eight hens each), namely three levels of SM (0%, 10%, and 15%) × three levels of PP (0%, 6%, and 8%), and fed with the experimental diets over a period of 6 weeks. Hen-day egg production, feed intake, egg mass, feed conversion ratio, and N balance reduced with increasing levels of SM, whereas the reductions were recovered in a dose-dependent manner in response to increasing levels of PP; however, the SM0% treatment showed that PP exerted little effects. Notably, reductions in the Haugh unit and albumen height of eggs with increasing SM levels, and recovery by provision of increasing levels of dietary PP, were observed. Yolk color was improved by SM, although PP exerted little effect, whereas the antioxidant properties of yolk were enhanced by the inclusion of both SM and PP in diets. Furthermore, eggshell strength, weight, and thickness were enhanced with increasing levels of SM, whereas dietary PP had little effect on these parameters. Thus, we suggest that PP can alleviate the negative effects of dietary SM and improve egg quality, without causing a reduction in laying performance, provided that the level of supplementary PP in diets is less than 8%. These findings accordingly indicate that PP is a promising feed constituent for laying hens fed with SM diets.

  • Xue Fan, Ya Xing, Long Liu, Chao Zhao, Zhenzhen Chen, Mawahib K. Khoga ...
    論文ID: 0200097
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/01/25
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開
    電子付録

    Communication between tissues and organs plays an important role in the maintenance of normal physiological functions as well as the occurrence and development of diseases. Communication molecules act as a bridge for interactions between tissues and organs, playing not only a local role in the tissues and organs where they are secreted but also in exerting systemic effects on the whole body via circulation. In this study, blood microRNA-omics analysis of overfed vs. normally fed (control) Landes geese revealed that the content of each of the 21 microRNAs (miRNAs) in the blood of overfed geese was significantly higher than that in the blood of control geese. These miRNAs may have systematic effects in the development of goose fatty liver as well as being candidate markers for the diagnosis of goose fatty liver. We determined the expression of miR-143, miR-455-5p, miR-222a-5p, miR-184, miR-1662, and miR-129-5p using quantitative PCR in goose fatty liver vs. that in normal liver. The expression of these miRNAs, except miR-129-5p, in goose fatty liver was also significantly higher than that in normal liver (P < 0.05), suggesting that these blood miRNAs are released from goose fatty liver. In addition, we found that expression of IGFBP5, the predicted target gene of miR-143, was significantly decreased in goose fatty liver vs. the normal liver (P < 0.05), indicating that miR-143 may exert both local and systematic effects by inhibiting the expression of IGFBP5, thus promoting the development of goose fatty liver. In conclusion, we identified several miRNAs, including those we validated (i.e., miR-143, miR-455-5p, miR-222a-5p, miR-184, miR-1662, and miR-129-5p) that may serve as candidate markers in the diagnosis of goose fatty liver as well as local and global regulators contributing to the development of goose fatty liver.

  • Mei Matsuzaki, Tomohiro Sasanami
    論文ID: 0200105
    発行日: 2021年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/01/25
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Sperm drastically change their flagellar movement in response to the surrounding physical and chemical environment. Testicular sperm are immotile; however, they gain the competence to initiate motility during passage through the male reproductive tract. Once ejaculated, the sperm are activated and promptly initiate motility. Unlike mammals, ejaculated sperm in birds are stored in specialized tubular invaginations referred to as sperm storage tubules (SSTs), located between the vagina and uterus, before fertilization. The resident sperm in the SSTs are in a quiescent state and then re-activated after release from the SSTs. It is thought that avian sperm can undergo motility change from quiescent to active state twice; however, the molecular mechanism underlying sperm motility regulation is poorly understood. In this short review, we summarize the current understanding of sperm motility regulation in male and female bird reproductive tracts. We also describe signal transduction, which regulates sperm motility, mainly derived from in vitro studies.

  • Byeonghyeon Kim, Han Tae Bang, Jin Young Jeong, Minji Kim, Ki Hyun Kim ...
    論文ID: 0200070
    発行日: 2020年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Insects are a potential source of proteins and fats which can be incorporated into diets of broiler chickens. Accordingly, black soldier fly larvae oil (BSFLO) needs to be tested as an appropriate fat source to produce healthy chickens for consumers. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the replacement of soybean oil (SBO) with BSFLO in broiler diets on intestinal health and blood profiles. A total of 210 one-day-old male broilers were randomly allocated to three dietary treatments (10 replicates of seven birds per group): a control diet and two experimental diets in which SBO was replaced with 50% (50 BSFLO) or 100% (100 BSFLO) BSFLO. At the end of the study (35 days), 18 birds (six broilers per treatment) were slaughtered to determine the intestinal morphology, digestibility, and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profile. Blood samples were collected from 24 randomly selected birds (eight broilers per treatment) to determine the blood profiles. BSFLO supplementation positively affected villus height but did not affect digestibility. BSFLO showed no adverse effects on the VFA and blood profiles. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that SBO can be replaced by BSFLO without any adverse effects on broiler health.

  • Toki Nishiyama, Koichi Nakagawa, Tomokazu Imabayashi, Shun Iwatani, Na ...
    論文ID: 0200081
    発行日: 2020年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of probiotic Bacillus subtilis C-3102 feed additive on quality characteristics including strength, thickness, and weight of eggshells of Boris Brown laying hens. The control group (n = 64) was fed a basal diet comprised of maize and feed rice, whereas the experimental group (n = 64) was fed a basal diet supplemented with B. subtilis C-3102 (3 × 105 CFU/g) starting at 49 weeks of age. From 67 to 69 weeks, all hens were induced to molt using an anorexic program; then, the birds in both groups returned to their respective diets (from 69 to 82 weeks). Eggshell strength, measured six times with 60 eggs selected before the molting treatment, was significantly greater in the C-3102 group than in the control group at 51, 59, 63, and 66 weeks (3.45, 3.44, 3.28, and 3.13 kg/cm2; P < 0.05, 0.05, 0.01, and 0.01, respectively). Moreover, eggshell strength—measured three times after the molting treatment—was significantly greater in the C-3102 group than in the control group at 73 and 77 weeks (3.79 and 3.65 kg/cm2; P < 0.01 and 0.01, respectively). Eggshell thickness was also significantly greater in the C-3102 group than in the control group at 73 and 77 weeks (0.400 and 0.390 mm; P < 0.01 and 0.01, respectively). Fecal samples collected from eight hens of each group at 70 weeks of age after forced molting, showed a significantly higher proportion of Lactobacillus spp. in the C-3102 group (8.94 log CFU/g) (P < 0.05) than in the control group (8.63 log CFU/g). Clostridium spp. abundance was significantly lower in the C-3102 group (2.92 log CFU/g) than in the control group (4.3 log CFU/g). These results suggest that C-3102 supplementation improves eggshell quality in aged laying hens, particularly after forced molting.

  • Ryosuke Makino, Kayoko Abe, Kazumi Kita
    論文ID: 0200076
    発行日: 2020年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/11/25
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Glycation is a non-enzymatic reaction, and amino acids are glycated by glucose in vivo. Tryptophan is glycated with glucose to form two types of glycated compounds, tryptophan-Amadori product and (1R, 3S)-1-(D-gluco-1, 2, 3, 4, 5-pentahydroxypentyl)-1, 2, 3, 4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid (PHP-THβC). Although PHP-THβC can be incorporated into various chicken embryonic cells, the mechanism of its incorporation into intracellular fluids has not been clarified. In this study, we examined whether PHP-THβC once incorporated into various chicken embryonic cells can combine with proteins. Embryonic cells from the breast muscle, liver, spleen, kidney, proventriculus, gizzard, and skin were prepared and 3H-PHP-THβC was added to the culture medium at final concentrations of 0, 200, 400, 600, and 800 μM to examine the incorporation of PHP-THβC. After 18 h of incubation, radioactivity was measured in the whole-cell and protein fractions of the chicken embryonic cells. As PHP-THβC concentration increased from 0 to 600 μM, its accumulation in the whole-cell fractions of all types of chicken embryonic cells linearly increased and reached the maximum level. The saturated PHP-THβC accumulation in the whole-cell fractions suggests that PHP-THβC could be incorporated into intracellular fluids across cellular membranes by some transporter proteins. As PHP-THβC concentration increased from 0 to 800 μM, its accumulation in the protein fractions of all types of chicken embryonic cells increased in a linear manner and reached a maximum level in the 800-μM PHP-THβC treatment group. This is the first study to indicate that a part of PHP-THβC incorporated into the whole-cell fraction was detected in the protein fraction of various chicken embryonic cells.

  • Takeshi Ohkubo, Susumu Atomura, Hiromi Adachi, Daisuke Murase
    論文ID: 010111e
    発行日: 2013年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2013/02/22
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開
    The above article released online on February 25, 2011 as advanced publication has been withdrawn by authors.
  • Guang-Zhi He, Wei-Yi Tian, Shu-Xuan Deng
    論文ID: 010133e
    発行日: 2013年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2013/02/22
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開
    The above article released online on April 25, 2011 as advanced publication has been withdrawn by Editorial Office due to serious concerns on data.
  • Guang-Zhi He, Wei-Yi Tian, Shu-Xuan Deng
    論文ID: 010133
    発行日: 2011年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2011/04/25
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開
    The above article released online on April 25, 2011 as advanced publication has been withdrawn by Editorial Office due to serious concerns on data.
  • Takeshi Ohkubo, Susumu Atomura, Hiromi Adachi, Daisuke Murase
    論文ID: 010111
    発行日: 2011年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2011/02/25
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開
    The above article released online on February 25, 2011 as advanced publication has been withdrawn by authors.
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