The Journal of Poultry Science
Online ISSN : 1349-0486
Print ISSN : 1346-7395
ISSN-L : 1346-7395
  • Min Liu, Victoria Anthony Uyanga, Xikang Cao, Xinyu Liu, Hai Lin
    2023 年 60 巻 2 号 論文ID: 2023011
    発行日: 2023年
    公開日: 2023/05/03
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス

    Clostridium butyricum is an important probiotic for chickens and exerts various biological activities, including altering the composition of the intestinal microbiota, competing with other microorganisms for nutrients, improving the integrity of the intestinal mucosal system, changing the intestinal barrier, and improving overall host health. Intestinal microbes also play vital roles in maintaining the intestinal barrier, regulating intestinal health, and promoting chicken growth. During chicken production, chickens are vulnerable to various stressors that have detrimental effects on the intestinal barrier with significant economic consequences. C. butyricum is a known probiotic that promotes intestinal health and produces the short-chain fatty acid butyric acid, which is beneficial for the growth performance of chickens. This review elucidates the development and utilization of C. butyricum to improve intestinal barrier function and growth performance in chickens through its probiotic properties and interactions with intestinal microbes.

  • Tetsuya Tachibana, Mark A. Cline
    2023 年 60 巻 2 号 論文ID: 2023009
    発行日: 2023年
    公開日: 2023/03/01
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス

    Food intake is regulated by several complicated synergistic mechanisms that are affected by a variety of internal and external influences. Some of these factors include those that are released from pathogens such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses, and most of these factors are associated with suppression of the chick’s food intake. Although chicks are well-known to decrease their food intake when they experience a pathogenic challenge, the mechanisms that mediate this type of satiety are poorly understood. One of the goals of our research group has been to better understand these mechanisms in chicks. We recently provided evidence that pathogen-associated molecular patterns, which are recognized by pattern-recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors, likely contribute to satiety in chicks that are experiencing a pathogenic challenge. Additionally, we identified several inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-like cytokine 1A, prostaglandins, and nitric oxide, that likely contribute to satiety during a pathogenic challenge. This review summarizes the current knowledge on pathogen-induced satiety in chicks mainly accumulated through our recent research. The research will give good information to improve the loss of production during infection in poultry production in the future.

Full Papers
  • Tingting Lu, Lihong Li, Yuwei Li, Xianghui Li
    2023 年 60 巻 2 号 論文ID: 2023012
    発行日: 2023年
    公開日: 2023/05/19
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス

    Egg production, an important economic trait in the poultry industry, is sensitive to heat stress. The hypothalamus is a crucial center for thermoregulation by detecting temperature changes and regulating the autonomic nervous system in poultry. Baihu decoction (BH), which contains four ingredients (Rhizoma Anemarrhenae, Gypsum Fibrosum, Radix Glycyrrhizae, and Semen Oryzae Nonglutinosae), is a traditional Chinese medicinal formula for clearing heat. Our study aimed to investigate the changes in gene transcription levels in the hypothalamus of laying hens treated with heat stress with and without BH using RNA sequencing. A total of 223 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the heat-treated group compared with the control group and 613 DEGs were identified in the BH group compared with the heat-treated group. Heat shock led to significant changes in the expression of multiple genes involved in the “neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction” pathway. Moreover, feeding BH led to significant upregulation in the expression of eight genes encoding heat shock proteins (HSPs), which were highlighted as candidates to control the “protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)” pathway. These results provide the novel insight that BH responds to heat stress by participating in regulation of the ER signaling pathway and HSPs expression.

  • Xinxin Qiu, Yanqing Jia, Zhencang Zhang, Xianglin Fo, Wenhui Wang
    2023 年 60 巻 2 号 論文ID: 2023010
    発行日: 2023年
    公開日: 2023/04/28
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) threatens global poultry production, with genotype VII the most prevalent strain in China. However, little information is available regarding viral multiplication and pathogenicity based inoculation route. The objectives of this study were to sequence NDV VII isolates and to analyze their biological characteristics in detail. A total of 86 oral and cloacal swabs were collected from Shaanxi and Gansu provinces in northwest China. Identification of genotype VII NDV based on the M gene was performed by qPCR. Viral multiplication and pathogenicity were assessed as a function of route of infection. We observed increased morbidity and mortality using intravenous injection, whereas intranasal, intraocular, and cloacal infections resulted in slower progression and milder clinical disease, with viral proliferation obvious in different tissues. These results provide an important basis for the clinical control and prevention of NDV epidemics in poultry.

  • Yang Fu, Bo Liu, Hui Lei, Zhenping Lin, JunPeng Chen, Yongwen Zhu, Hui ...
    原稿種別: Full Papers
    2023 年 60 巻 2 号 論文ID: 2023008
    発行日: 2023年
    公開日: 2023/02/09
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス

    Abstract: Although the nutrient requirements of geese during the growing stage are known, the dietary requirement of amino acids during the starting period remains unclear. Optimum nutrient supplementation during the starting period is crucial for improved survival rates, body-weight gain, and marketing weight in geese. Our study focused on the effect of dietary tryptophan (Trp) supplementation on the growth performance, plasma parameters, and internal-organ relative weights in 1–28-day-old Sichuan white geese. A total of 1080 1-day-old geese were divided randomly into six Trp-supplemented (0.145%, 0.190%, 0.235%, 0.280%, 0.325%, and 0.370%) groups. Average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), and duodenal relative weight were highest in the 0.190% group, brisket protein level and jejunal relative weight in the 0.235% group, and plasma total protein and albumin levels in the 0.325% group (P < 0.05). Dietary Trp supplementation did not significantly affect the relative weights of the spleen, thymus, liver, bursa of Fabricius, kidneys, and pancreas. Moreover, the 0.145% – 0.235% groups showed significantly decreased liver fat (P < 0.05). Based on the non-linear regression analysis of ADG and ADFI, the dietary Trp levels between 0.183% and 0.190% were estimated to be optimal for 1–28-day-old Sichuan white geese. In conclusion, optimal dietary Trp supplementation in 1–28-day-old Sichuan white geese resulted in increased growth performance (0.180% – 0.190%) along with improved proximal intestinal development and brisket protein deposition (0.235%). Our findings provide basic evidence and guidance for optimal levels of Trp supplementation in geese.

Reseacrh Note
  • Xiaohui Zhang, Yanxia Qi, Youzhi Pang, Bingjie Yuan, Xiaolong Li
    2023 年 60 巻 2 号 論文ID: 2023013
    発行日: 2023年
    公開日: 2023/05/25
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス

    Mutations in the HERC2 and OCA2 genes have the potential to affect pigment deposition and alter feather color in birds. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated HERC2-OCA2 gene locus polymorphisms in Korean and Beijing white quails using RNA-Seq and KASP technology. The expression levels of HERC2 and OCA2 mRNA in skin tissues were analyzed using RT-qPCR. Ten single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified by RNA-Seq, of which three (n.117627564T>A, n.117674275T>G, n.117686226A>C) exhibited significant association with feather color in quail. The expression of OCA2 mRNA was significantly lower in the skin of Beijing white quails than that in the skin of Korean quails. These results suggested that variants in HERC2-OCA2 intergenic region could influence the expression of OCA2, which may underlie diluted feather color in the Beijing white quail.