A movement and oxidation behaviors of ash during partial oxidation of particulate matters (PMs) was investigated through time-lapse visualization utilizing a field-emission scanning electron microscope and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The fine primary ash particles consisted of elements such as zinc and phosphorus. The components of calcium, zinc, phosphorus, and sulfur were included in the large-scale ash particles. These ash particles were gradually moved as the PMs Cake layer shrunk during the regeneration of diesel particulate filters. In addition, ash particles distributed in PMs cake layer have contributed to an enhancement of oxidation rate of the PMs.
In order to effectively improve the vehicle safety, this paper proposed an electronic brake force distribution scheme and an anti-lock brake scheme for passenger car based on a novel brake-by-wire system. The brake-by-wire system was introduced at first, then the electronic brake force distribution scheme and anti-lock brake scheme are designed after analyzing of brake system and vehicle model. At last, the experiment is accomplished to prove the feasibility of the novel brake-by-wire actuator, and the co-simulations of vehicle based on Matlab/Simulink and AMESim are accomplished for typical braking process to prove the superiority of proposed brake-by-wire system and brake scheme. On the one hand, the experiment and simulation results show that the proposed electronic brake force distribution scheme is able to distribute the braking force according to braking intensity and conditions. So the β curve can as close as possible to the I curve. On the other hand, the anti-lock brake scheme is able to accurately regulate the wheel slip rate and adapt to different brake intensity. So the anti-lock brake scheme processes strong robust performance.
The main objective of this study is to evaluate the characteristics of combustion that combine premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI)–based combustion with conventional mixing controlled combustion. In this type of combustion, it is supposed that the combustion duration is shortened due to the synchronization of the timing of two types of combustions. In addition, the cooling loss caused by spray impingement is expected to decrease by the reduction of the proportion of mixing controlled combustion. In this study, the effect of injection pressure, injection timing, and split injection on thermal efficiency and emissions were investigated in order to determine the appropriate injection parameters for PCCI-based combustion to realize the proposed combustion concept.
This study aims to confirm the usefulness of adaptation of proactive braking intervention systems to the risk level of the driving environment for improving the reactive factors of acceptability. First, we develop prototypes of adaptive proactive braking intervention systems around non-signalized intersections on community roads. Then, to confirm the effectiveness of adaptation, we conduct user tests, in which 45 elderly drivers participate, on public roads. From comparisons between constant setting and adaptive setting, we confirm that the adaptive setting improves the reactive factors of acceptability, such as reduction in the feeling of impatience and strangeness.
Quantifying the whole body response of ATD (anthropomorphic testing device) is important to study the behavior of belted occupant. In a previous study we studied the forward excursion of ATD, PMHS (Post Mortality Human Subject = Cadaver) with standard 3-point belt and Human Volunteer with energy absorbing shoulder belt, and concluded that the excursion of a human volunteer with tensed muscles in high speed frontal impact is less than the forward excursion of PMHS. In this work, we examined the behavior of a relaxed Human Volunteer with Inflataband (an airbag equipped seat belt) in a high speed impact test which conducted in 1970`s and PMHS and ATD with Air Belt. We compared the result with previous study and also study the response of THOR dummy. Result demonstrated the forward excursion of relaxed human volunteer is smaller than PMHS, echoing the results from the previous research.
Scale-like dirt (ion deposit) occurs on glass surfaces of buses and trains after rain or vehicle washing, as various ionic substances are in the rain and tap water. Ion deposits blur the glass, leading to degraded passenger service. Removal of ion deposits is not possible with a general cleaner. The formation behaviour of ion deposits was examined in order to develop a quick cleaning method of glass surfaces of vehicles. Ion deposits form due to silicon ions in the water. Ion deposits and glass surfaces have strong adhesion. Analysis of laser Raman spectroscopy revealed that ion deposits are mainly composed of silicon and are almost the same compound as glass. Ion deposits could be removed with a low concentration of hydrofluoric acid, and it was possible to remove about 1 mg of ion deposit by using 1 mL of 0.5% hydrofluoric acid.
This experimental study aimed to assess the friction performance of nonasbestos organic (NAO) brake pad based on ternary combinations of rockwool, PAN, and cellulose fibers under fade-recovery conditions. Four compositions with varying volume fractions of rockwool, PAN, and cellulose fibers were fabricated. The tribological properties of the sample were tested using JF160 Chase tester based on SAE J661. Optimally, the sample with a synergistic combination of rockwool, PAN, and cellulose fibers in proportion of 10:4:4 vol.% exhibited the best overall friction performances. This combination could be used as NAO brake pad material for reliable, efficient, safe, and comfortable braking operations.