関節リウマチ（RA）において，炎症性サイトカインであるTNFα，IL-6の重要性は明らかである．RAにおける単球・マクロファージの役割は，これらサイトカイン産生や，破骨細胞への分化細胞の意義が強いと考えられている．本稿では，関節炎抑制分子TNFα-induced adipose related protein（TIARP）の現状までの解析も踏まえて，関節リウマチにおける単球・マクロファージの意義について述べる．
Objective: Th17 cells, which mainly produce interleukin (IL)-17, have been suggested to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. The plasticity of Th17 cells, in which these cells shift to a Th1 phenotype in the presence of IL-12, has recently been reported. However, the role of IL-17 in Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and Mikulicz's disease (MD) currently remains unknown. Patients and Methods: The submandibular salivary gland and lymph node of a MD patient and the salivary glands of 15 SS patients were collected. IFN-γ+ cells, IL-17+ cells, and IFN-γ+IL-17+ cells were detected by immunohistochemical staining. Results: IFN-γ+ cells, IL-17+ cells, and IFN-γ+IL-17+ cells were detected in the submandibular salivary gland and lymph node of the MD patient and salivary glands of the 15 SS patients. Discussion: IFN-γ+IL-17+cells in the salivary glands of patients were speculated to be Th1/Th17 cells in the present study. Th1/Th17 cells are known to be derived from Th17 cells and differentiate into Th1 cells, and IL-17-derived Th1 cells have been suggested to induce the deterioration of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Thus, Th1/Th17 cells may play an important role in the pathogenesis of SS and MD. Conclusion: IFN-γ+, IFN-γ+IL-17+, and IL-17+ cells were detected in the submandibular salivary gland and lymph node of a MD patient and the salivary glands of 15 SS patients.