カリキュラム研究
Online ISSN : 2189-7794
Print ISSN : 0918-354X
ISSN-L : 0918-354X
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選択された号の論文の13件中1~13を表示しています
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研究論文
  • ―教科観に着目して―
    望月 ユリオ
    2021 年 30 巻 p. 1-13
    発行日: 2021年
    公開日: 2022/07/15
    ジャーナル フリー

    This paper aims to explore the development process of life unit curriculum by Hyoichi Yamaji, who worked in the Elementary School Attached to Nara Women’s Higher Normal School.

    For that purpose, I investigated the three points as follows. First, we focus on how Yamaji rethought the idea of school subjects before and after leaving for the Elementary School Attached to Nara Women’s Higher Normal School. The second thing is about, his recognition of integrated study and department study as a lower grade teacher. Third, we discuss the underlying principles of Yamaji’s curriculum development by analyzing his experiments in the middle and upper grades.

    The findings are as follows. The first point is about Yamaji’s deep understanding of school subjects. Before working in the Elementary School Attached to Nara Women’s Higher Normal School, Yamaji comprehended school subjects as the national curriculum based on traditional academic discipline and recognized teachers as providers of fixed subject matters. Just after leaving for the Elementary School Attached to Nara Women’s Higher Normal School, however, he rethought the meaning of school subjects by reference to Ellen Key’s The Century of the Child. As a result, he formed the concept of life and realized that school subjects were to support children. Also, he thought that the discipline of school subjects was created by the activities of the child.

    Secondly, in the process of working on the practice of integrated study, he thought that integrated study and department study are materials of study. And those shared the meaning of school subjects in the word “school subjects should be a tool for children.”. Also, with the development from “life of play” in the lower grades to “life of work” after that, both of them are subdivided from integrated to the department.

    Lastly, based on this idea of school subjects, Yamaji set up integrated study and department study in upper grades for the development of the children. Children studied problems related to real-life in integrated study. In department study, children integrated a school subjects with others according to the needs of their activities. Therefore, even in the upper grades, the unit was composed based on children’s life.

    He considers school subjects as a framework for making a new curriculum based on children’s conditions rather than just a machine to transmit knowledge.

    In previous studies, his idea of school subjects has not been examined, and we have commonly understood that he could not overcome an antinomy between department study and integrated study, in the strict sense, “school subjects” and “child life”. As has been discussed, however, he sublated an antinomy of those things in practical situations. The concept of life unit is identified as the underlying principle of both integrated study and department study. The idea of school subjects is supported to develop the curriculum of the life unit by Yamaji.

  • ―ロイス・サドラーの所論に焦点を合わせて―
    石田 智敬
    2021 年 30 巻 p. 15-28
    発行日: 2021年
    公開日: 2022/07/15
    ジャーナル フリー

    The emphasis in education has shifted from promoting the memorization of factual knowledge to developing cognitively complex competence. In general, higher-order cognitive capabilities are assessed through complex and divergent assessment tasks which require extended performance (works), actively integrating and synthesizing knowledge and skills. Such students’ works have traditionally been evaluated by the absolute judgement of authoritative assessors. In recent years, however, in response to doubts for in-transparency and subjectivity in authoritative judgments, an approach to use a matrix of standards and criteria as a grading scheme (well known as a rubric) in teachers’ qualitative judgments, has emerged and strongly endorsed. The use of an explicit grading scheme, such as a rubric, is considered to significantly increase the transparency, objectivity, validity and reliability of teachers’ qualitative judgements; make grading process fairer. One of the theoretical foundations of this idea can be traced back to the idea of ‘standards-referenced assessment’ proposed by the assessment scholar D. Royce Sadler in 1987. Recently, however, Sadler has begun to develop radical criticism of the use of rubrics for teachers’ qualitative judgements. To elucidate why this paradoxical situation has arisen, this article critically reviews the earlier (about 1980s) and later (about 2010s) works of Sadler regarding standards-referenced assessment and identifies the key essences of his proposals.

    In the first chapter, it traced the historical development of the ROSBA reform in Queensland, which is the context wherein “standards-referenced assessment” was proposed and, in so doing, clarifies key ideas of Sadler’s earlier works. In removing norm-referenced assessment, but without falling into criterion-referenced testing (elementalism measurement), Sadler envisaged standards-referenced assessment that emphasizes the calibrated qualitative judgements on the holistic quality of student works. To make teachers’ qualitative judgements intersubjective (achieve inter-rater reliability), he proposed a common assessment framework of verbal descriptions of standards, supplemented by exemplars of students’ works, as a way to calibrate teachers’ qualitative judgements. His propositions contributed significantly to the subsequent theorization and worldwide dissemination of a standards-criteria matrix assessment framework in teachers’ qualitative judgements.

    (View PDF for the rest of the abstract.)

  • ―研究開発学校における実践研究からの示唆―
    西野 真由美
    2021 年 30 巻 p. 29-42
    発行日: 2021年
    公開日: 2022/07/15
    ジャーナル フリー

    In 21st century educational reform, the correlative relationship between the cognitive and affective domains has been drawing increasing attention. The Courses of Study revised in 2017 also organizes the competencies to be developed into the three interrelated pillars of “basic and fundamental knowledge and skills”, “the ability to think, make judgments, and express” and “an attitude of proactive learning and rich humanity. In order for schools to work on the cultivation of humanity under this new framework, it is necessary to review the position of the areas that have been mainly responsible for cultivating humanity (morality, special activities, and the period for integrated studies) in the curriculum and to organize their inter-relationships as well as relationships with other subjects.

    The purpose of this paper is to conduct a fundamental study on a framework for the cultivation of humanity in the future curriculum by first analyzing the actual state of curriculum development for cultivation of humanity at the MEXT-designated pilot schools for research and development (hereafter R&D schools) and at the same time, for each school to obtain practical suggestions for curriculum formation to enhance education for humanity under the current Courses of Study.

    The R&D school system has a rich history of school-based curriculum development for cultivating humanity. We classified curriculum development into three types based on the “practical reports” prepared by the schools and examined the significance and issues of various options raised in those studies. Specifically, the three types are: A. a curriculum that reorganizes the curriculum as a whole, B. the creation of new subjects (reorganization / integration of existing areas), and C. the creation of new subjects (distribution of a number of hours from existing subjects).

    There are two directions in the A-type curriculum. One is a curriculum that creates learning areas based on life experience and consists of two major areas: the subjects and life experiences. In this curriculum, the process from experience to reflection can be developed along the child’s natural stream of consciousness, but the issue of how to connect experience-centered learning with learning in other subjects remains. The other is a curriculum in which each area is structured based on the target competencies that are to be developed. This direction offers the prospect of expanding the possibility of cross-curricular organization.

    Schools classified as B have developed various subjects and areas focusing on cultivating humanity. What is common to these developments is that the target competencies to be developed are determined by the school based on the actual conditions of the child and the community, and that a learning process that integrates experience-centered activities and their reflections has been established.

    (View PDF for the rest of the abstract.)

  • ―カリキュラム・リーダーシップ論を分析の視点として―
    島田 希, 木原 俊行
    2021 年 30 巻 p. 43-55
    発行日: 2021年
    公開日: 2022/07/15
    ジャーナル フリー

    The purpose of this study is to model the role of the principal in School-Based Curriculum Development (SBCD). Previous research in the area of educational administration and management has identified that the principal’s leadership is one of the most important factors in SBCD. However, these studies were focused on the overall role of principals in schools, and did not examine principals’ leadership with a focus on SBCD.

    In addition, curriculum leadership theory can be cited as a previous study that focuses on leadership to enhance SBCD. For example, Kihara (2009), based on previous research on curriculum leadership theory, identified the following roles that curriculum leaders play in SBCD: (1) collaborative class development , (2) securing and utilizing resources, (3) creating a culture of teachers learning from each other, and (4) acquiring theories and models. He also modeled the relationship between these roles. However, the practical leader is placed at the center of the model, and the role of the principal in SBCD is only partially clarified. In other words, the overall picture and details of the role of the principal in SBCD are not yet clarified, which means that there are still issues that need to be resolved.

    In order to clarify the role of the principal in SBCD based on these previous studies, the authors conducted semi-structured interviews with the principals of five schools (X Junior High School, Y Elementary School, Z Elementary School, P Elementary School, and Q Junior High School) that have developed distinctive curriculums. As a result of analyzing the data obtained from the interviews, it was revealed that the principal plays the following eight roles in SBCD. In addition, the relationship between the eight roles were examined and modeled the role of the principal in SBCD.

    1) Examination and advice on the systematicity and development of the curriculum

    2) Securing and utilizing resources

    3) Strategically appointing practical leaders

    4) Creating a system to promote information sharing and understanding among teachers

    5) Acquiring theories and models

    6) Challenging and utilizing research designations, etc.

    7) Building relationships with educational administration

    8) Promoting the publication of results

    The following three points became clear through the modeling process by the authors. First, the unique characteristics of the principal’s role in SBCD. For example, the strategic appointment of practical leaders is a role characteristic of principals, who are capable of managing personnel and the division of roles within the school. The second point is the relevance of the multiple roles played by principals in SBCD. In other words, the basic framework of the roles played by principals in SBCD has been clarified. The third point is that principals also play a role outside of the school, which has continuity with their role within the school. This point highlights the difference between the role of the principal and that of the other teachers. In future research, tools and training should be developed to enable principals to smoothly fulfill the roles identified through this research.

海外カリキュラム研究情報(第16回)
秋のセミナー2020
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