JSME international journal. Ser. 3, Vibration, control engineering, engineering for industry
Print ISSN : 0914-8825
Volume 33 , Issue 4
Showing 1-29 articles out of 29 articles from the selected issue
  • Teruo MURAKAMI
    1990 Volume 33 Issue 4 Pages 465-474
    Published: December 15, 1990
    Released: February 18, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Natural joints exhibiting excellent performance under reciprocating slow speed and high loading conditions have a prominent lubrication mechanism as an adaptive multimode lubrieation, where elastohydrodynamic fluid film plays the main role supported by various supplimental lubrication mechanisms. In contrast, most of the existing joint prostheses operate not under fluid film but under mixed lubrication, which induces some tribological problems such as loosening and wear. Thus, recent investigations on the lubrication mechanisms in natural synovial joints and total replacement joints are reviewed, and then subjects on lubrication and wear in joint prostheses and optimum design of joint prostheses with artifieial cartilage are discussed.
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  • Kenzou NONAMI, Takashi YAMANAKA, Manabu TOMINAGA
    1990 Volume 33 Issue 4 Pages 475-482
    Published: December 15, 1990
    Released: February 18, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper is on the subject of active vibration control of flexible rotors supported by magnetic bearings. Using a finite element method for the mathematical model of flexible rotors, we have formulated the eigenvalue problem taking into account the interaction between the mechanical system of a flexible rotor and the electrical system of magnetic bearings and a controller. However, gyroscopic effects are disregarded in this paper for simplicity. We will be able to adapt this formulation to a general flexible rotor/magnetic bearing system. Controllability with and without collocation is discussed for the higher order flexible modes of the test rig. In conclusion, we have proposed that it is necessary to add new active control loops for the higher flexible modes even in the case of collocation. Then, it is possible to stabilize for the case of uncollocation by means of this method.
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  • Masaya FUNAKAWA, Takakazu ISHIMATSU, Keiji KUMON, Tsumoru OCHIAI
    1990 Volume 33 Issue 4 Pages 483-487
    Published: December 15, 1990
    Released: February 18, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Tube arrays in the gas and liquid two-phase normal flow have more vibration problems than those in the sungle phase flows. Until now, it was unclear whether the main feature of the vibration was random or self-excited. In this study, the following two kinds of experiments were performed. First, the induced vibration of three rows of flexible tube arrays in two-phase flow was examined experimentally. Second, tube arrays in two-phase flow were vibrated using a link mechanism, and the resultant periodic hydraulic force generated on the tube was measured. Examining these results, it became clear that the induced vibration was self-excited and that the unstable region was enlarged by increasing the void ratio.
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  • Shigeo YAMASHITA, Katsumi SAWATARI, Kazuto SETO
    1990 Volume 33 Issue 4 Pages 488-494
    Published: December 15, 1990
    Released: February 18, 2008
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    This paper shows the design method for constructing a piping system with well-suppressed resonance peaks through a wide range of frequencies. The piping system is strongly influenced by sources of excitation for blade vibrations since it is usually made flexible and has a low damping property. Thus, many problems, like fatigue damage or noise caused by vibration, occur frequently in the piping system. In order to suppress the resonance peaks and obtain high damping, dual dynamic absorbers proposed in the previous paper are applied. In this paper, it is confirmed theoretically by the transfer matrix method that the piping system with seven resonance peaks within l00 Hz is well suppressed by using five dynamic absorbers. The effectiveness of the five optimally designed dual dynamic absorbers is also demonstrated experimentally.
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  • Hisao KONDO
    1990 Volume 33 Issue 4 Pages 495-500
    Published: December 15, 1990
    Released: February 18, 2008
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    Coupled liquid-structure oscillations of a container of a pool-type LMFBR subject to horizontal excitations are studied for small motions. Ignoring pumps and IHX's, the container is treated as an axisymmetric structure. The liquid sodium is considered to be a Perfect fluid. Using structural data similar to that of the Super Phenix 1 LMFBR, several natural frequencies and modes are computed. A modal analysis method is applied to give a transient response of the coupled liquid-structure system subject to horizontal excitations resonant to the first bulging mode. Large deformations of the inner oblique wall (conical redan) are observed.
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  • Tsuneo TSUIJI, Teisuke SUEOKA
    1990 Volume 33 Issue 4 Pages 501-505
    Published: December 15, 1990
    Released: February 18, 2008
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    The present paper deals with the free vibration of cylindrical panels by using the Rayleigh-Ritz method. The method used is based on the general thin-shell theory, so it is applicable to investigate vibrations of the cylindrical panel having large pretwist and camber. The convergence of frequency parameters is studied with the increase of numbers of the strip and of terms in assumed solution functions. To demonstrate the usefulness of the method, the frequency parameters obtained are compared with available results in the literatufe. Finally, the frequency parameters and the modes of vibration are analyzed for typical twisted cylindrical panels and the effect of pretwist on them is investigated.
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  • Hideyuki TAMURA, Xiaomin LI
    1990 Volume 33 Issue 4 Pages 506-512
    Published: December 15, 1990
    Released: February 18, 2008
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    Using an elliptic function, an exact solution of the free vibration in an oscillatory system with one degree of freedom having a quadratic spring is determined. The system is presumed to be a typical model of the nonlinear system having an asymmetrical spring, in which chaotic phenomena may occur. Few discussions of the problem have been attempted, especially concerning its precise numerical computation, since Duffing presented a remarkable paper in which the symmetrical (cubic spring) case was fully analysed, but less so the quadratic one. For a given frequency, a transcendental equation must be solved to obtain a modulus parameter of the elliptic function. The parameter governs all coefticients of the Fourier expansion of the solution. Three algolithms of the trial method are developed which roughly correspond to the cases of the quasi-linear small vibration, strongly nonlinear slow vibration and the intermediate one. Some numerical results of the solution are presented.
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  • Hidekazu NISHIMURA, Kazuo YOSHIDA, Taro SHIMOGO
    1990 Volume 33 Issue 4 Pages 513-521
    Published: December 15, 1990
    Released: February 18, 2008
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    This study presents a method of feedforward control design of an active dynamic vibration absorber for multi-degree-of-freedom systems. The feedforward control, obtained by assuming that the shaping filter has the same natural frequency as a primary structure in the frequency range of input disturbance, is effective in the broad frequency range and is robust for input disturbance. Furthermore, to improve reliability, a digital control system consisting of reduced-order feedback control and feedforward control, using a Kalman filter, is synthesized. By carrying out numerical calculations and experiments, it is demonstrated that the active DVA, which is optimized by the present method, is useful for not only stationary random inputs but also for nonstationary random inputs.
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  • Iwao HAYASHI, Hiroki MAKI, Nobuyuki IWATSUKIH
    1990 Volume 33 Issue 4 Pages 522-527
    Published: December 15, 1990
    Released: February 18, 2008
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    The authors used Mindlin's equation, and calculated the natural mode of a circular plate with a solid shaft under the boundary condition of a fixed inner diameter. As the result, the calculated natural frequency of the low mode of the thick circular plate differed greatly from the one measured by modal analysis. The causes were analyzed on the (1, 0) mode of vibration, which had the biggest error, of 78 percent. It was revealed that the elastic deformation on the boundary between the circular plate and the solld shaft, and the bending deformation of the shaft had a strong influence on the natural frequency. By taking both influences into account, the natural frequency of the (1, 0) mode was corrected to within a 5 percent error.
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  • Weuibong JEONG, Kazuo YOSHIDA, Hiroki KOBAYASHI, Kazuya ODA
    1990 Volume 33 Issue 4 Pages 528-534
    Published: December 15, 1990
    Released: February 18, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this paper, an approach to estimating the state variables of a vehicle system and the absolute displacement of a road surface is presented. The Kalman filter theory is applied to an augmented system which consists of the vehicle system and the shaping filter. The shaping filter is taken so that the power spectral density of output is equal to that of the displacement of the road surface, while white noise is taken as input. The Pade approximation is used in the augmented system to take account of the time delay between the input values of the front and rear wheels. The results obtained using the Pade approximation are compared with the results obtained by assuming that the inputs of the four wheels are independen of each other. A method for identifying the shaping filter in the augmented system, which may be effective in constructing the augmented system adaptively in actual driving case, is also presented. Some simulation models are examined to validate the presented methods.
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  • Kimihiko YASUDA, Keisuke KIMIYA
    1990 Volume 33 Issue 4 Pages 535-540
    Published: December 15, 1990
    Released: February 18, 2008
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    As a basis for developing an identification technique of nonlinear distributed systems based on their dynamical responses, an identification technique which is applicable to a simple example of nonlinear distributed systems is proposed. The example taken up is a simply supported beam vibrating with large amplitudes. The basic procedures of the proposed technique are ( 1 ) measuring periodic responses of the beam to periodic external forces, ( 2 ) determining modal coordinates using the responses and based on the modal functions of the corresponding linear beam, and ( 3 ) determining the modal equations, including nonlinear terms, using the principle of harmonic balance. Some numerical examples are given, and the proposed technique is shown to be applicable.
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  • Tojiro AOYAMA, Naoki FUNAKOSHI, Ichiro INASAKI, Yuji MIWA
    1990 Volume 33 Issue 4 Pages 541-545
    Published: December 15, 1990
    Released: February 18, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Rolling guideways have been actively applied to machine tool tables because of their low friction and ease of maintenance. The weak point of the rolling guideways is, however, the low damping ability which causes chatter vibration during machining. In this study, a new type of table system is developed by combining the rolling guideway with the slideway. The motion of the table is guided by the rolling guideway while the damping forct is applied by the sliding elements. The contact force between the guideway and the sliding elements tan be varied by adjusting the charged voltage to the electric magnets installed in the sliding elements. The dynamic performance of the table system is evaluated by the impulse force response method. The results show that the damping ability in the direction of table feed is effectively increased.
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  • Hitoshi MAEKAWA, Makoto KANEKO, Kazuhito YOKOI, Kazuo TANIE, Nobuaki I ...
    1990 Volume 33 Issue 4 Pages 546-552
    Published: December 15, 1990
    Released: February 18, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper proposes stable grasp by a robot hand with articulated fingers, each of which has kinematic redundancy. To achieve a stable grasp by such a hand, the following two problems must be considered: ( 1 ) the stability of the grasped object and ( 2 ) the stability of the finger posture. We first formulate the stability of the grasped object by introducing virtual springs at each fingertip. Secondly, we use the direct compliance control (DCC) method to achieve the stability of the finger posture, in which the stiffness (or compliance) at each fingertip is controlled by adjusting the stiffness independently arranged at each joint with satisfaction of the stability condition for the finger posture. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is confirmed experimentally using a two-fingered plane hand with three-jointed fingers.
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  • Hisami OHISHI, Shinichi OHNO
    1990 Volume 33 Issue 4 Pages 553-558
    Published: December 15, 1990
    Released: February 18, 2008
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    A method of estimating the pressure of structureborne sound included in noise radiated by an enclosure housing a machine that produces both noise and vibration is proposed. In this method, estimation is carried out using accelerations measured when the machine is in operation and frequency-response functions determined when the machine ceases operation. Specifically, the accelerations are those measured at those points of the enclosure to which the machine is connected, and the frequency-response functions are those determined as complex ratios of the acceleration at the connection points and the sound pressure at the observation points to the exciting forces applied to the connection points from the outside of the enclosure. First the theory of the method is derived ; then its validity is examined through experiments.
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  • Hung-Yuan CHUNG, Wen-Jer CHANG, Mu-King TSAY
    1990 Volume 33 Issue 4 Pages 559-566
    Published: December 15, 1990
    Released: February 18, 2008
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    The performance requirements of many engineering control problems are naturally described in terms of Root-Mean-Squared (RMS) values of the system states or outputs. The primary purpose of this paper is twofold : the first is to find the set of state feedback gains such that the RMS value for each system state of the nominal bilinear stochastic systems is less than or equal to some prespecified values. And the second is to render the closed-loop system insensitlve to modeling errors in the plant parameters. Of much significance is that the RMS design specifications will still be satisfied for all perturbations of the model parameters withn a certain set.
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  • Chiang-Nan CHANG, Tzong-Ting LEE
    1990 Volume 33 Issue 4 Pages 567-574
    Published: December 15, 1990
    Released: February 18, 2008
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    Three wheel ground vehicle is not a traditional design primarily due to the stability consideration. However, after some detail analysis, it is shown that with careful design, three wheelers are not necessarily more unstable than four wheelers. Calculations in the current study are based on the Dugoff's tire deformation mechanism. Bicycle model is used. Vehicle motion is constrained on the ground. A critical speed is used as the quantitative index for stability. The current study reveals that for turning stability, with careful design, the 3W (2R) (2 rear wheels and 1 front whell) three wheeler is more stable than traditional four wheelers while 3W (2F) (2 front wheel and 1 rear wheel) possess least stability.
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  • Takehiro WATANABE, Yoshitaro YOSHIDA
    1990 Volume 33 Issue 4 Pages 575-582
    Published: December 15, 1990
    Released: February 18, 2008
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    Lapped spot welding of aluminum plates is examined using a normal pulsed YAG laser, and the influence of experimental conditions on the weldability is discussed. The weld strength is investigated in relation to the irradiating conditions of the pulsed YAG laser, and an empirical formula of weld strength is presented. Heat conduction is analyzed by a finite difference method in which the dependency of the thermal constants of a test piece on temperature and the characteristics of the used laser beams are considered. Molten configurations under various conditions of laser irradiation are obtained by the numerical analysis. The weld strength is determined by using the molten configuration and the empirical formula.
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  • Katsumi YAMAGUCHI, Eiji SHAMOTO, Masahide SATO
    1990 Volume 33 Issue 4 Pages 583-589
    Published: December 15, 1990
    Released: February 18, 2008
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    Previous papers dealt with punching a hole and blanking of sheet glass under extremely high pressure. In this research, the relationship between punching a hole and blanking is investigated under various conditions, and the processing conditions to simultaneously obtain a high-quality hole and blank are clarified. Besides sheet glass, sheets of alumina ceramics and other materials are successfully processed by these methods.
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  • Naohisa TSUKAMOTO, Hiroki MARUYAMA, Kenichi TERASHIMA
    1990 Volume 33 Issue 4 Pages 590-596
    Published: December 15, 1990
    Released: February 18, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study aimed to elucidate the fundamental characteristics of the composite plastics that adopt thermoplastic resin as the matrix (basic material), and in which various fibers are filled, when they are applied to gears. In this case, polyacetal was used as the matrix, and glass fibers, carbon fibers or potassium titanate whiskers were used to fill it in. Gears were made with these composite materials, and the wear of teeth, the change of the tooth profile, the temperature on tooth surfaces and other characteristics of the respective gears were examined. In this way, the features were elucidated by comparison with those in the case of polyacetal gears.
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  • Hisao TASHIRO, Fusahito YOSHIDA
    1990 Volume 33 Issue 4 Pages 597-602
    Published: December 15, 1990
    Released: February 18, 2008
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    An analytical approach to determine the axial and radial stress distribution in packing in stuffing-box seals is presented taking account of stress relaxation by means of a viscoelastic model. Radial-to-axial stress ratio and friction coefficient of the asbestos and graphite packing rings were experimentally determined, and they were found to be constant over time under the stress relaxation condition. Change of stress distribution with time in asbestos/graphite packing in stuffing-box seals is investigated by comparing the analytical results with the corresponding experimental results. The stress in packing decreases rapidly just after gland tightening and gradually decreases further with time, and it reaches an asymptotic value. The stress relaxation is reduced by repeated operation of gland tightening. This analytical model can simulate such behavior of packing as observed in actual packing installation.
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  • Sigeru INOUE, Taku UENO, Mitsuru YANO, Masahito GOKA
    1990 Volume 33 Issue 4 Pages 603-607
    Published: December 15, 1990
    Released: February 18, 2008
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    This paper discusses the hobbing of gears made of austempered spheroidal graphite cast iron, which has become an object of attention recently as a new material for gears. This iron has many advantages, such as the properties of a cast material and a high strength equivalent to that of steels, and is also an economical material. However, this cast iron is hobbed before heat treatment at present, for the hobbing of teeth of a hardened gear blank is considered to be very difficult. Yet, if the cutting of a hardened gear blank is possible, the cost will be lower because the gear can be used without performing a finishing operation on the tooth surface removing the distortion from heat treatment. In this study, a basic test was conducted using a TiN - coated fly-tool having the same form as one blade of a hob. Next, a hobbing test was conducted using a TiN-toated hob with a large clearance angle of 15°. As a result, the following conclusions were obtdined : ( 1 ) A groove length of only 3.75 meters can be achieved for the work by a (TiN- coated) fly-tool with a clearance angle of 12°. ( 2 )A (TiN- coated) hob with a clearance angle of 15°can apply to ADI. ( 3 ) The accuracy of the tooth profile and the tooth trace of a hobbed ADI gear correspond to the JIS 1 st and 4 th grades. respectively.
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  • Ichiro MORIWAKI, Takashi OKAMOTO, Masakatsu FUJITA, Tsutomu YANAGIMOTO
    1990 Volume 33 Issue 4 Pages 608-613
    Published: December 15, 1990
    Released: February 18, 2008
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    A computer simulation program for gear shaving is developed. For this purpose, a simple model for a cutting mechanism in gear shaving is proposed. In this model, a cutting action of a shaving cutter is considered as a penetration of lands of the cutter tooth. In order to calculate shaving stock on the basis of the model, the empirical equation which represents a relationship between the depth of the land penetration and the distributed load on the tooth flank is obtained by carrying out indentation tests of a block by a roller with serrations. In the computer simulation program based on the model, a theoretical calculation method of load distribution on tooth flanks of a skew gear is applied. The reliability of this simulation program is confirmed by a good qualitative agreement of the calculated tooth forms after gear shaving with the measured ones.
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  • Nobutoshi OHASHI, Masaya HAGIWARA, Isamu YOSHIMOTO
    1990 Volume 33 Issue 4 Pages 614-619
    Published: December 15, 1990
    Released: February 18, 2008
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    The standardization of a fatigue testing method is very important for collecting fatigue strength data for threaded fasteners. The Japanese Industrial Standard on this testing method was published by taking account of the IS0 Standard and the JSME Standard. In the procedure of drafting the above JIS, experimental researches and statistical discussions were conducted and the main conclusions are as follows : ( 1 ) Three companies in the first-step experiment and six companies in the second-step experiment performed the fatigue tests, and no confusion resulted in the application of the 14 S-N testing method according to the JSME Standard. ( 2 ) Based on the 14 S-N testing method, the experiments of the one-way classification model and the two-way classification model were performed, and the method of analysis of variance for such experimental results is shown.
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  • Kazuki TAKAFUJI, Katuhiro NAKASHIMA
    1990 Volume 33 Issue 4 Pages 620-626
    Published: December 15, 1990
    Released: February 18, 2008
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    The stiffness in the axial direction of preloaded ball screws constructed from double nuts is calculated considering the elastic deformation of the screw shaft, the nut body, and the screw threads, in addition to the deformation due to Hertzian contact. The basic equations derived here could be applied in many cases of preloading schemes and the various states of an extemally applied load. Moreover, the calculation can be carried out both for single- and double-circuit nuts. The calculated stiffness is low compared with that obtained when only the Hertzian contact effect is considered. The difference between the two calculated values becomes large as the spacing disc rigidity increases. At high rigidity of spacing disc, the externally applied load which releases the preload also becomes lower than that obtained with Hertzian contact deformation model. The calculated values of both the stiffness and the releasing load approximately agree with the experimental results.
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  • Atsushi YAMAGUCHI
    1990 Volume 33 Issue 4 Pages 627-633
    Published: December 15, 1990
    Released: February 18, 2008
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    The equations of motion of a conventional piston in axial piston pumps and motors with metallic contacts are derived. For swash plate types, the fluid film shape between the piston and the cylinder wall, contact forces and loss of power are numerically obtained in relation to both the operating conditions and piston dimensions. The length of the sealing part composed of the piston and cylinder wall is, in particular, shown to considerably affect the loss of power. Finally, the validity of the analysis is discussed by comparison with the results of a performance test of a pump for high water content fluids.
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  • Yoshitaka MORIMOTO, Toyoshiro INAMURA, Ryutaro MAKITA
    1990 Volume 33 Issue 4 Pages 634-640
    Published: December 15, 1990
    Released: February 18, 2008
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    A new control method for a flexible robot arm has been developed by using the experimental modal analysis technique. This method is based on the idea that a position-dependent input-output relation between a control command and the resulting end effector motion can be described in a piecewise linearized form constructed by combining transfer functions measured at representative robot positions. Two methods developed previously by the authors using this approach are reviewed first, and their shortcomings are described. Then a new method which overcomes these shortcomings is proposed to obtain good experimental results with regard to the predicted motion of the robot. Finally, this method is used to compute a control command which realizes the desired smooth motion of the end effector and considerable supression of the vibratory motion of the robot is observed.
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  • Takayoshi MUTO, Hironao YAMADA, Yoshikazu SUEMATSU
    1990 Volume 33 Issue 4 Pages 641-648
    Published: December 15, 1990
    Released: February 18, 2008
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    This study deals with an electrohydraulic servo system which is operated by two 3-way high-speed solenoid valves in the PWM digital mode. It has often been pointed out that there are practical problems to be solved in the conventional PWM systems, such as serious nonlinearities in the valve characteristics. In order to overcome such problems, a new concept of PWM control, that is, a differential PWM method, is proposed in this study. The strategy of this method is to eliminate/minimize significant nonlinearities, such as the dead zone, which regularly appear with conventional methods. In the new method, the pressure difference for driving the actuator is given by pulse trains, their widths modulated by duty input to the valves. The dynamic characteristics of the system driven by the propoded method are investigated by experiment and digital simulation. Consequently, the availability of the proposed method is confirmed well.
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  • Tetsu YAMAMOTO, Takaharu UEDA, Hiroo SHIMEGI, Toshiharu SUGIE, Shozo T ...
    1990 Volume 33 Issue 4 Pages 649-654
    Published: December 15, 1990
    Released: February 18, 2008
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    A practical and systematic method of designing precision positioning servos is proposed in this paper. The method is based on robust control theory and takes the order of the controller, robust stability, and pole assignment into consideration. In the beginning, the design algorithm is generally described and a concrete design procedure is demonstrated by applying the method to the design of a precision positioning servo using a voice coil motor. Furthermore, this procedure is studied in various kinds of simulations, and the design guidelines concerning selection of order of the controller, modeling accuracy, and limit of bandwidth are made clear. Finally, the validity of this method is proven by experiment.
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  • Kazuo SAKAI, Takao TERAYAMA, Juichi MORIKAWA, Nobuyoshi OHWADA
    1990 Volume 33 Issue 4 Pages 655-662
    Published: December 15, 1990
    Released: February 18, 2008
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    The mutual interference between heads and tapes in VCR's is studied when plural heads afe disposed in adjacent positions. The study is performed for four cases : there are one, two, three and four heads. The influences of tape tension and gaps between multiple heads are analyzed. According to the analyses, it is clarified that the contact area on each of the multiple heads is significantly decreased in comparison with the contact area on a single head. Furthermore, the influence of the protrusion amount differences between the heads is studied. The tape deflection is measured by the optical measurement system using the shadow edge of a straight line. Experimental and analytical results tend to be in close accord with each other. The mutual interference between multiple heads and tapes is clarified and guide data for the head shape design are obtained.
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