The purpose of this study was to clarify the significance and roles of environmental education by reintroducing the oriental white stork, hereinafter referred to as stork education. First, the study focused on how stork education corresponds with the curriculum in school education and needs of learning in the area where the reintroduction of storks is addressed. Second, the focus was on significance and content of stork education in a local government basic educational promotion plan. Furthermore, attempts were made to identify the future in which stork education is taught in Japan and the Republic of Korea. The results revealed the true state of stork education, the role of teacher training courses that employ storks and textbooks, and the development of educational programs in Japan and Korea that have stork education as their theme. The analysis of the application of this educational program and its effects thereof were beyond the range of this study. In conclusion, the results of this study may also beneficial to Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) programs. Consequently, the researchers recommend conducting a further study on ESD programs to assess how they are contributing toward the achievement of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in not only elementary schools but also middle and high schools.
The purpose of this study is to propose the characteristics of environmental education in national parks in East Asia by clarifying commonalities and differences in environmental education in the national parks of Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. We compared these characteristics from the perspective of nature administration within the national parks and collaborative management with residents, which is a requirement of the parks in East Asia.
First, we confirmed that national park administrations in the three countries are engaged in activities geared toward collaborative management that harmonizes environmental conservation and the local economies. Second, we examined the promotion of environmental education and confirmed that the roles of the national park administrations in the three countries differ in matters concerning environmental education. Third, we examined the structure of environmental education and confirmed that in all three countries, the residents of the national parks are essential stakeholders in the management of park areas for which environmental education had been developed.
In summary, we found that although the roles of the national park administrations differ in the three countries, they share the common goal of promoting collaborative national park management and are developing a collaborative environmental education approach.
In this paper we review the forest kindergartens and Skogsmulle programs (Swedish outdoor programs) as well as the formally registered early childhood services in Japan. All of these different service types are known to include nature-based activities for young children. The formally registered early childhood services are subject to national guidelines (CAO et al. 2017, MEXT 2017, MHLW 2017) that require nature-based activities to promote children’s development. However, these guidelines fall short on matters of global sustainability, environmental issues, environmental education (EE), or education for sustainability (EfS), thus we argue a comprehensive approach is lacking and a gap in practices evident. We suggest that the two alternative service types, forest kindergartens and Skogsmulle programs, offer more potential to promote EE/EfS than the formally registered early childhood services. We also briefly review Australian early childhood policies and settings and identify a similar situation, where nature-based activities appear to deflect from a comprehensive approach to EE/EfS. We argue that a critical analysis of policies and improvement of pre-service and in-service teacher programs to build sustainability knowledge and pedagogical skills is required. Also the establishment of collective professional networks across the varied nature-based activity programs and service types is necessary across each nation to transform existing nature-based activities into effective EE/EfS approaches and practices for global sustainability. We also identify this review paper as a precursor to further research in this topical area.
To clarify the value and challenges of resilience education, we discuss these based on the results of studies in flood-affected areas in Japan and the USA. We conducted qualitative research in Joso City, Japan after the 2015 flood including a review of a disaster prevention education program organized by the City Board of Education. In the USA we focused on the Texas coast and reviewed research literature, governmental and educational institution webpages and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) data on public educational events, all having a focus on rain-related disasters.
We conclude that resilience education could be enacted using knowledge and cognition gained through direct disaster experiences to make adaptations in preparation for future disasters. However, people tend to rely on the hope that they will not experience a disaster, and they tend to forget about disaster impacts with time. Therefore, it is necessary to provide opportunities to learn about the tenets of disaster prevention through the development of legal methods that continue to clarify the personal responsibilities of local residents. With legal clarification, resilience education that is specific to the city or region could be developed and implemented more effectively than the current approach to disaster resiliency.
This paper provides an overview of the development and status of environmental education (EE) at higher education institutes (HEIs) in three Asian countries: South Korea, Malaysia, and Japan. EE is one of the major educational fields oriented toward sustainability, and a mutual understanding of EE in HEIs among different Asian countries is considered to be crucial for successful international collaboration toward sustainability. The paper, based on a review of existing documents and data, presents an overview of EE at HEIs in these countries, particularly at universities and teacher-training institutes, according to a four-category framework, and recommends topics that should be further explored in the interest of successful international collaboration toward a sustainable future.
There are eight countries in the world that have enacted the Environmental Education Acts (hereinafter referred to as “EEAs”) as of 2019. Of these, three countries in East Asia―Japan, Taiwan, and Korea―established the EEAs and they conduct pioneering efforts around the world. In Japan, the EEAs was enacted in 2003 and revised in 2011. In Korea, it was enacted in 2008 and revised in 2015. In Taiwan, it was promulgated in 2010 and put into effect in 2011.
When we look at trends in previous studies in Japan, international comparative studies of the management of environmental administrations and the EEAs are not really investigated in the previous studies. We think this is because the contents and characteristics of specific systems indicated in the individual articles of the EEAs are not provided in these international comparative studies.
The purpose of this study is to compare the EEAs in Japan, Taiwan, and Korea, to clarify the institutional issues of the EEAs in the three countries. In this paper, as a first step, we would like to clarify the similarities and differences in the management of the systems for the promotion, support, and provision of participation opportunities in environmental education in each country.
We organized the similarities and differences of the EEAs in the three countries. We found that the similarities included the fact that participation and collaboration by various actors were emphasized in the purpose,the definition of environmental education, and the basic policies and plans of nations and municipalities. On the other hand, differences could be found in the legally binding nature of the EEAs. We therefore propose a hypothesis that there are differences among the three countries in the roles of administrations in promoting environmental education. Based on this, we offer further areas of study to clarify the comparative studies.
The purpose of this study is to compare some details of environmental education (EE) implemented in schools and identify the differences between such programs in Japan and Korea. In particular, the study examines the difference brought about by the presence or absence of an independent subject. This is because previous studies reveal that Korean schools have an independent subject named Environment, however, its adoption rate is low. The study examines the following aspects to clarify the status of EE in Japanese and Korean schools: first, classes related to the environment that are offered in the two countries; second, specific details of the national curriculum for EE as an independent subject taught in Korea; and, third, the diffusion system surrounding schools in Japan and Korea. Consequently, it is suggested that having an independent subject makes it clear that even if its adoption rate is low, it contributes to clarifying the identity of EE (concept, learning, etc.).
Japan and Korea have been highly dependent on nuclear energy for their electricity supplies, considering nuclear energy as a significant way to overcome energy shortage. However, the disaster that struck the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan in 2011 has significantly changed public attitudes toward nuclear energy and reignited domestic policy debates on the future of nuclear energy. In this study, focusing on how the societal changes in energy/environmental policies are reflected in national curricula, the authors from Japan and Korea reviewed the ways of including nuclear issues in K-12 national curricula and recent changes found in Japan and Korea. The appearance of nuclear-related keywords in national curricula as well as the characteristics of coverage was investigated. Based upon the results, characteristics of and implications for nuclear education in Japan and Korea are discussed. To foster citizens who make decisions for their energy future through environmental education or energy education, it is required to consider how the public discourses on nuclear energy are incorporated into the national curricula.
Taking into account of the both significant growth of higher education in Asia and the infiltration of cosmopolitan viewpoints in environmental education research, our team designed and conducted pilot survey amongst EE researchers of Japan, Korea and Taiwan (n=51) concerning: self-evaluation; methodology; training; themes; education sector levels and interests in and barriers against international collaboration. This paper shares notable trends revealed through the pilot survey and discuss the significance of these in relation to our future, full-scale survey. Toward conducting a larger-scale survey, two aspects should be stressed. First, use of native language is essential to securing greater participants. This would improve the accuracy of meaning sometimes lost through translation and increase the efficiency of completion. More survey participants would enable us to conduct cross-national comparisons, which this study could not. Second, the support from the participating academic societies is crucial not only for executing a full-scale survey but also facilitating opportunities for increasing research skills and capacities international collaboration.